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Basics Of Biology Drawings - Education - Nairaland

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Basics Of Biology Drawings by MIMOSAXY(m): 6:05pm On Apr 23, 2016
Welcome to the thread created mainly to assist
and prepare the students of BIOLOGY O'LEVEL & A'LEVEL.

DRAWINGS : These are pictorial representation of an
object or a projection of the mind on paper in such a way
that the essential details and composition are made known.
General drawing will include different kinds of pencil work
like shading and painting, used to drive home point, This
kind of drawing is fine Art Drawing.

However, biological drawings are more or less diagrams
(plans) meant to show all the features of the object but still
carefully and selectively avoiding tautology of parts.
Therefore details of shading are not strictly adhered to but
rather discourage.

A good biology student must be able to

- Make simple and neat diagrams,
- Ability to draw fast enough with minimal error,
- Ability to make complete diagram i.e. with, titles or heading, labels, magnification using a good lines etc.
- Ability to draw base on observation and nit from what you think should be there.

Types of biological drawing
Basic diagram
Annotated diagram

Basic diagram: Are the commonly referred biology drawing. It involves making normal representation with the exact and correct labeling of the parts without any notes or references from the diagram.

Annotated diagram: These are the kind of diagram made to reflect and include some notes of references on the parts labeled.
These include stating very precisely the uses of any special features or alternative names or the involvements of the parts labeled in some physiological phenomena.

Materials For Biological Diagram
1. Pencil : The pencil is the most important tool in drawing. Hence the need to use the right pencil, and the techniques involved must strictly be adhered to. Therefore students must;

*~Use the HB pencil and 2B pencil to make diagram. HB is used to make drawing while 2B for labeling. However, where there is an obvious change in line thickness, 2B pencil work is added.
*~The pencil should not be less than 12cm long, with a very sharp point.
*~Sharpening of pencil must be done from time to enable smooth and easy drawing without piercing your paper.
*~Always have at least two HB pencil for drawing and one 2B pencil for labeling.
*~The pencil pencil should be held at 6cm away from the drawing sheet in order to ensure free movements of hands.

2 PAPER: All drawing should be done on unlined paper
(blank paper, A4 papers), and should also be neatly labelled. Besides, the paper must have margin of at least 1cm on all sides.

3 Blade: For sharpening of pencil which must be done
from time to enable smooth and easy drawing without piercing your paper.

4 Eraser : this is use for correction of errors. However, certain precautions must be taken when using an eraser;
*~ Do very little erasing, though no erasing is
better. So avoid mistakes/errors.
*~Use very soft erasers only e.g “TYKO”.
*Clean eraser with a duster, handkerchief or lab coat to wipe out peels and dirt on the eraser regularly
*~Use the face of the eraser (with care) and not the edge for better result.

5 RULER : Use only transparent ruler (30cm). Ruler must
be applied for labelling in biological diagram.

Basic Principles and Techniques of Biology Diagram
1. The Lines : impression and justification of a diagram
is largely due to appearance of the line. When lines are
badly drawn, different diagram may ensure. Hence,

*~ Lines should be very thin not faint but clearly
*~Lines must be straight {not ruler straight} as
*~Avoid wooly or wavy lines, thus students
should not always make a wavy lines with
intention of coming back to trace them.
*~Lines should be continuous, hence avoid broken lines.

2 Shading rule : shading especially painting is not encouraged in biology diagrams. Where or indication warrants the likes of shading, a few dots may be made. However, students are allowed to use dots, crosses or dash to show contrast stipple.

3 Labeling : This is the identification of various parts
or part of a diagram. It is an integral part of the diagram,
without it, the diagram is incomplete. Therefore students
*~Make use of ruler to make label lines.
*~Never use an arrow end to point a part as guidelines.
*~All guidelines should be horizontal as much as possible.
*~Endeavor to make the guideline parallel to each other
(this may not be strictly ached to if obviously going to bring
more hard ship to the exercise).
*~Radial labeling not usually encourage because students
usually mismanage it.
*~Guidelines [label lines] must never cross each other.
*~The labels can be placed on one or both sides of the
diagram especially when too many lines on one side may
cause confusion.

4 Flag labeling: is the act of labeling usually a
dissected specimen in a tray, by writing the label (names and/
or notes) on a very small piece of paper or card and this is
pinned right beside or on the part referred to this is usually
done in practical laboratory class for inspection.

5. Heading: All diagrams must have a suitable heading or title. The heading must be informative but precise, and not as long as to from a complete sentence but rather a short phrase example
[ a] Diagram illustrating external feature of a leaf
[b] Diagram showing internal feature of kidney
[c] Drawing of longitudmal section of an orange fruit.

*~ Headings must be written at the centralised above and not below the diagram
* All heading must begin with either Drawing or diagram for instance if f your draw a leaf and u titled it A LEAF (WRONG: The diagram is not a leaf rather an image of a leaf ). Thus, DRAWING OF A LEAF (CORRECT)
*~Any diagram without heading is like a handsome man without a name.
*~If you use scientific name write it under the picture i.e image (image drawn)
*~If a drawing is made from prepared slides the heading or title may be precisely the title on the slide.


PRESENTATION : All diagrams must contain name,
date and period number in the upper right.

SIZE OF DIAGRAM: Always make large diagram, under no circumstance should a diagram be less than 10cm
(long).except when obviously constrained. Where necessary,
double lines should not be less than 2.5mm across. Besides,
drawing must be made to show all parts without crowding The higher the number of parts to be included the larger the diagram. Hence, drawing must be about half a page in size.

PAINTING OR COLOUR : This is not allow in biological drawing; though in textbooks this may be necessary to
illustrate some point like red blood vessels (usually in red Ink).

ORIENTATION : The exact position or orientation when
drawing is made must be indicated e.g.
Dorsal view (top or back view)
Ventral view (Bottom or belly view)
Lateral view (side view)
Anterior view (front view)
Posterior view (hind view)


SECTIONING : The direction of cutting or sectioning, where done must be indicated. There are various kind of
sectioning and this are;

Longitudinal sectioning : it is drawing cutting from north to south (vertical section) (e.g the way you cut water melon )
Transverse sectioning: it is a drawing cutting from east to west (cross section : I.e the way cut orange)

MAGNIFICATION: This involve giving a comparative size of your drawing to that of the original specimen. This may
be achieved, either by direct measurement where the specimen is handy and on the table or calculate mathematically when microscope observation is involved.

For direct measurement e.g. a provided tilapia fish or a
leaf. A graduate scale (a ruler) is used to determine the
length and breadth (size) and this is compared with the
measure size of drawn specimen.
Magnification for scale =
image on paper(cm) e.g. 10cm/5cm = 2cm
Object on table (cm)
Thus we can have
X ⅛, X¼, X⅓, X½, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5.......
For microscopic magnification=
eye piece x objective lens x image`.

Usually, the eye piece power is fixed at X 10, X15 Or X7
for must microscope while the objective lens varies as X 4,
X 10, X20, X40, X100 ( oil immersion ).
Hence drawing made at low power X 4 (objective) or X10
(objective) will have the magnifications of X40 x image
length (10x4 x image) if the eye piece is 4. or X100 i.e.
(10x10 x image) if the eye piece is 10. Magnification is written as Xn (where n is th value of magnification)


By the students :
a. Pencil
b. erasers.
c. scalpels
d. blade
e. plane sheet
f. pins
g. ruler
h. dissecting kit
i. dissecting tray
j. practical notes
k. practical files.
l. practical manual
m. lab coat.

In The Laboratory:
a. dissecting board
b. dissecting
c. microscopes
d. dissecting dishes
e. hand lens
f. stains and reagents,
g. slide
h. cover slip
i. preserved specimen
j. ecological tools.


2 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by ImYourJude(m): 10:51pm On Jun 10, 2017
one year after, and I find this helpful, thanks bro

1 Like

Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by inumidun2010(m): 7:45am On Feb 27, 2021
5 years after, I found this information... Quite amazing... I think you should make a handbook with this piece... I'm definitely going to make a Reference to this... We don't steal intellectual Property... RESPECT...

1 Like

Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by MIMOSAXY(m): 9:46am On Mar 27, 2021
5 years after, I found this information... Quite amazing... I think you should make a handbook with this piece... I'm definitely going to make a Reference to this... We don't steal intellectual Property... RESPECT...

Thanks a lot, I made a handbook for my students.

drop your mail here if you need the PDF format.
Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by inumidun2010(m): 10:26am On Mar 27, 2021

Thanks a lot, I made a handbook for my students.

drop your mail here if you need the PDF format.

Inumidun2010@gmail.com.. Thanks a lot.. Respect
Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by Saviourk: 11:13am On Mar 29, 2021
Nice article.. really helpful
Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by EmmyterryOK: 12:07pm On Dec 13, 2021
Please sir in biology when asked to draw a diagram 4-6 cm how are u going to draw it should it be 4-6 cm long or 4-6cm wide?
Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by EmmyterryOK: 12:10pm On Dec 13, 2021

Thanks a lot, I made a handbook for my students.

drop your mail here if you need the PDF format.

please sir how can I draw a diagram when am asked draw a 4-6 cm diagram of paramecium, should I make it 4-6cm long or 4-6cm wide and when measuring should I make it 4cm or 5cm?
Re: Basics Of Biology Drawings by Deegee7788: 9:36pm On Nov 15, 2022
Pls can you help me send too
I love it
U did a good job
Thanks in advance

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