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Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:23am On Nov 25, 2016
Owa Obokun of Ijeshaland Aromolaran I

Ijesha Royal Family
Circa 1890 - 1920

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:26am On Nov 25, 2016
Omo'ba Christopher Adeneye Lufadeju - Oloja of Ibala Ijeshaland

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:28am On Nov 25, 2016
Widow Zuma's love adventures

Whilst we remained in the city of Wow Wow, we were visited almost every day by a widow lady, of Arab extraction, named Zuma (Honey in English), between thirty and forty years of age, who, if one might be allowed to judge from the remaining charms which were still visible in her countenance, had been really beautiful in her younger years.

This individual was vastly rich, being the acknowledged mistress of a thousand slaves ; and from her excessive plumpness, and extraordinary size was the exact counterpart of our bulky friend Ebo, the fat eunuch of Katunga. Zuma's affection for my master and myself was unbounded, and as it led to an adventure perhaps never equalled in novelty by any incident that has occurred to Europeans in the bosom of Africa.

I hope I may be forgiven in attempting to trace its causes and effects, without which my narrative would be incomplete ; for they are so intimately connected with each other, that it would be impossible to disunite them. In order to give a clearer idea of the story, it will be necessary to remark, that Zuma was married in early life to one of the principal inhabitants of Wow Wow ; but her spouse dying shortly after she had given birth to a son, she was left immensely rich, and lived in almost regal splendour in the native town of her deceased husband.

Nature had endowed Zuma with an active, restless, and ambitious mind; insomuch that not long after she had become a widow, and before the regular term of mourning had expired, her weeds were thrown aside, and she aspired to the government of Wow-Wow, by attempting to depose her sovereign.

* photo of Bornu Chiefs from National Archives UK

Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa
by Richard Lander

Published 1830

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:29am On Nov 25, 2016
Peopling of Lagos.

The story of the peopling of Lagos is too singular and interesting to be passed over unnoticed.

The earliest accounts state that the channel or lagoon of Lagos was the course by which the English and the Portuguese entered into Benin River for the purpose of trade.

Commerce appears to have attracted some adventurous Yoruba emigrants to the Island of Ido or AEdo, opposite to Lagos. Here they settled down and engaged in agricultural industry, the produce of which they bartered with slavers.

Some time in 1790, when the slave trade began to be carried on largely on the Island of Lagos, these Ido settlers found it rather inconvenient to cross the lagoon over and again to barter their wares, and so they crossed over and settled in Lagos, the slave market itself.

Later on their number was increased by new arrivals from Benin.

Independence of Lagos - Lagos soon grew in importance from the wealth derived from the slave trade, and Ido declined; but Lagos still owed allegiance to Benin, and her King, although of Yoruba descent, did homage to the King of Benin.

In 1830, however, the King of Lagos "grew fat and kicked." He refused to pay the usual tribute to the King of Benin.

Such was the state of affairs down to 1851.

The rise of British West Africa; comprising the early history
by George, Claude

Published 1904

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:30am On Nov 25, 2016
residence of the Chief Justice in Asaba

circa 1870-1900

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:31am On Nov 25, 2016
The Hausa Language

It is somewhat remarkable that in the course of a journey of 700 miles, we come in contact with no less than thirteen different languages.

Ten of them are apparently of the same family, and bespeak aboriginal tribes. One, the Mitshi, is apparently aboriginal, but the language is entirely peculiar; while two, the Fulah and Haussa, are languages whose original homes are remote, they have reached the Niger and Binue, the one accompanying Mohammedan conquest, the other in the path of trade.

With regard to the Haussa language, from the prefatory remarks to Schön's Haussa vocabulary, we learn that the territory in which the Haussa is the vernacular language may with some limitation be said to be the Soudan.

Sierra Leone contains many of every province of Haussa. Near Cape Coast a little village was pointed out to me to be inhabited by Haussas, and I have met some at the island of Fernando Po; and there is every reason to conclude that the Haussa language has been the only medium of communication and intercourse with people, chiefs and kings, from Badagry to Borgou, Rabba, Boosa, Yaouri, Egga, and down the Niger to the Ibo country.

I can corroborate the above statement from my own experience and observation on the River Niger as far as Eggan.

Leaving the west, and passing to the north, it has there also spread far and wide, and obtained the same notoriety as in the west, every traveller bearing testimony to this fact.

* Rural Hausa family compound Gungu village, near Jebba © Elisofon, Eliot - Smithsonian Institution

Notes on the River Niger by the Right Rev. Bishop Crowther

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.

June 11, 1877

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:32am On Nov 25, 2016
Ascent of the Old Calabar River

The following facts may be noticed: several men from the Boson country came onboard, and I was struck with the fetish worn round the head and arms being made of leather, and precisely the same as worn by the natives on the banks of the Quorra.

One person had a fetish encircling his head exactly in the same manner as Abboka, the good king of Adamúgo (on the banks of the Quorra) usually wore ; the houses at Ecricok and Calabar are built in the same style ; the inside walls are also painted in the same manner, with red, blue, and yellow circles.

The question naturally suggests itself — Is the Cross or Calabar river a branch of the Quorra or Shary ?

From what has now been stated, and other circumstances, which I regret want of time will not allow me to enter into, as the vessel is on the point of sailing, both myself and colleague, Mr. Becroft, are of opinion that it is a branch of the Quorra, running out of this river between the confluence of the Shary and Ibú.

We are also of opinion that a considerable trade is carried on between the natives higher up and the Ibú country ; and it must be observed that the majority of the slaves sold by the Calabar chiefs are natives of Ibú and Nufi on the banks of the Quorra.

* Captain Kidd carousing on the Old Calabar River from The book of buried treasure

A Brief Account of an Ascent of the Old Calabar River in 1836 by Oldfield, R. K.

June 12, 1837

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:34am On Nov 25, 2016
Geography of Yoruba

The boundaries of Yoruba are not accurately known. The southern limit lies between Ijaye and Abbeokuta, about eighty miles by the road from the sea.

On the north it is bounded by Nufe (called also Nupe, Nyffe and Tapa) which extends to a distance of thirty or forty miles this side of the Niger. On the east of Yoruba we hear of Effong (Kakanda) Tgbona, Ijesha and Ifeh. On the east are Barba (Borgu) Mahee and Dahomy.

The country between Yoruba and the sea is occupied by the tribes of Iketu, Egba, Egbado, Otta and Ijebu. All of these tribes, as also the people of Ifeh, Ijesha. Igbona and Effong are branches of the Yoruba family, and speak varieties of the same language.

An English writer supposes that the people who speak Yoruba amount to three millions. This estimate is not too high, if we include the surrounding tribes of the same family. We have been informed that the Yoruba language is much spoken in Nufe, along the Niger, and in Barba, north of Mahee. Scarcely any other tongue is spoken at Badagry and Lagos and other places on the coast between Whydah and the Delta.

Re-captured Yorubas are numerous in Sierra Leone, and are found at Fernando Po, on the Gambia, and in other places along the coast.

Many native Yorubas are in slavery in Brazil and Cuba. I have seen a Yoruba woman, the wife of a Bedouin, who affirmed that she had been to Stamboul or Constantinople.

According to her and others, there are Yoruba slaves in Tripoli, and Fezzan, and all over Central Africa.

Central Africa : Adventures and missionary labors in several countries in the interior of Africa, from 1849 to 1856
by Bowen, Thomas Jefferson

Published 1857

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Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:35am On Nov 25, 2016
Garage next to John Holt Company store, Afikpo Number Two 1959

© Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of African Art, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:36am On Nov 25, 2016
Akanda or Kakanda

The Kakanda are located along the River Niger, from Bassa Province (where they are sometimes called Akanda, the initial " K " being dropped), as far north as Budon in the Agbaja Division of Kabba Province, where they number some 1,793, and across the river in the Lapai Emirate, Niger Province, where they number some 4,500. There are also a few (about 41) in Nassarawa.

It has been claimed that they are of Nupe stock and speak a dialect of Nupe, but other authorities state that they are totally distinct and speak a different language. The Nupe say, however, that they have always lived together.

The Kakanda of Kabba state that they broke off from the main body of their tribe owing to a dispute as to succession, very early in the nineteenth century, that under the leadership of Iskapa and his brothers they left their tribal lands in the neighbourhood of Abinsi, then under the Jukon of Wukari, and travelled down the River Benue, and up the Niger to the neighbourhood of Budon, which town was founded by Iskapa after he had first paid a visit of ceremony to his relative, the Ata of Ida, under whose suzerainty he settled.

The Chiefs of Budon [all Kakanda wwere originally under Budon] continued to pay tribute to Ida until the country was conquered by Masaba of Nupe, about which time the Kakanda of Gori and Karege, and probably of Lapai, broke off from Budon, each paying independent tribute to Bida.

The Kakanda tribal marks are identical with those of the Afo, consisting originally of two deep cuts on each side of the face from the temples to the corners of the mouth, and more recently of two cuts from the bridge of the nose to the cheeks, the side marks having been abandoned.

The Kakanda in Lapai are, and have always been, a trading people and no fighters, but elsewhere they are a riverain people, whose speciality is fishing and canoeing.
They are administered by a Kanawa Sarki, who was introduced by the British Government.

* map extract from 'Report of Mr. Kennedy of Maryland from The Committee o Commerce of The House of Representatives of The United States, on the Memorial of the Friends of AFRICAN COLONIZATION, Assembled in Convention in the City of Washington, May, 1842.'

Notes on the tribes, provinces, emirates and states of the northern provinces of Nigeria by Temple, O.

Published 1919

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:37am On Nov 25, 2016
The Chief of Gbebe

Nov. 8th. — A few days after the destruction of Shintakun by the Basas, as had been already noticed, Akaia returned to Gbebe, from the lower parts of the river, wherein he had stationed himself for self-defence against the attack of his opponent elder brother Abaje, both of whom, however, it has been reported, have been reconciled to each other by the newly crowned Atta.

Akaia appeared to have put the Basas on their guard against the young traitor, who was crossing Masaba's troops over to subdue them, to check his progress in time before they became too strong to be removed; by promptly acting up to this instruction, the Basas were successful in destroying Shintakun in time, before the main body of the troops arrived from the inland camp.

Today, under a pretence of friendship to Lokoja, and of being a dependent of King Masaba, Akaia came off the settlement with fourteen armed canoes, and halted on a sand-bank opposite the town, to demand the refugees from Shintakun to be delivered to him.

He also pretended tha the had been instructed by King Masaba to receive a certain amount of goods from the merchants at Lokoja, and had come to receive these two demands.

But he was told by the sub-manager that none of these demands could be executed unless by direct positive instructions from the King. These messages were delivered by special messengers, going to and fro in a canoe between the town and sand-bank.

When he failed in carrying out his deceit, he left and promised to return the next day.

Report of the Overland Journey from Lokoja to Bida on the Niger, and thence to Lagos on the Sea Coast, from November 10th, 1871, to February 8th, 1872
by Bishop Crowther

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:38am On Nov 25, 2016
The Chief of Gbebe contd.

Nov. 9th. — Accordingly, before noon Akaia returned with his fleet of fourteen canoes with a declared hostile intention, and openly demanded the refugees to be delivered, which of course was refused.

Instead, however, of going away, his people were observed making preparations to encamp on the sand-bank, to collect as many as sympathized with him, to steal away the canoes from the water-side, and annoy the settlement: but Seriki, Masaba's chief messenger, being aware of Akaia's intention, — his plans having been reported from the opposite side of the river, with the advice from Chief Majiko, not to allow him to encamp there that day, lest he should prove troublesome, — he and the sub-manager soon gave orders to drive him away from the sand-bank, which was done with a few shots from shore, chiefly from the refugees from Shintakun, who were the chief object aimed at to be taken prisoners.

Akaia seeing his position untenable, very soon cleared off with his fleet. This was the Chief who applied to me in 1870, when he was harassed by his opponent brother Abaje, to beg the favour of the commanding officer to support him as the Chief of Gbebe, by doing him honours, but which request was not complied with.

Akaia's situation is now very precarious ; he is loyal to the Atta (of Idda), who is unable to support him; he has proved faithless to Masaba, who had been his supporter and defender; and it is to be feared, the destruction of Shintakun and slaughter of so many of Masaba's war men will involve Akaia in greater troubles than he had had with his brother Abaje.

This conflicting state of things will influence the Lokoja station in a great measure, either to improve the progress of the work or to retard it.
Re: Naija History by naijalander: 11:39am On Nov 25, 2016
Notes on a Journey to Pali and Mamaidi in the Kingdom of Bauchi

On July 11, 1898, I arrived at Ibi, the headquarters of the Royal Niger Company on the river Benue.
At Ibi, with the help of the obliging officials of the Niger Company, I supplied myself with carriers and trade goods, and continued my journey for another 70 miles to Amarr by steamer, the scenery being as flat and uninteresting as before.

My party consisted of myself and two black servants, two horses with their attendant horseboys, 40 soldiers, and 36 carriers,! one of whom was also interpreter.

From Amarr, for three days' march the country is flat and in places swampy, though the path itself is generally hard and sound going.
On the fourth day the scenery changes considerably.

The Zanue hills are crossed by a pass 370 feet high, the hills on either side being perhaps double that height. More hills are seen in front and to the right after crossing the pass. The road, however, bears to the left along a flat country to Jebjeb.

This town is beautifully situated on a low hill rising out of the plain, with distant hills visible on all sides. It contains about a thousand inhabitants, though there is room within the walls for double that number, and is very much subject to the King of Pali.

That monarch was there at the time of my visit with some two hundred followers, who had evidently been enjoying free board and lodging for some time, as they had eaten up nearly all the food in the place.

They had reserved, however, a considerable herd of cattle, which, with some ponies and donkeys, they told me were for the King of Bauchi, a still higher suzerain lord, as part of their annual tribute.

The King of Bauchi, in his turn, owes allegiance to the Sultan of Sokoto.

Percy Archer Clive DSO, DL

The Geographical Journal

August 1898

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:51am On Nov 30, 2016
Captive Benin Chiefs

Possibly, Chiefs Obayuwana, Obakhavbaye, Obadesagbon AND Uso at the burnt down Oba's palace, Benin City 1897. Chief Obayuwana later committed suicide in prison. Sir Moor, ordered Obayuwana's body hung up in the front of the ruined Oba's palace. Chiefs Uso, Obadesagbon and Obakhavbaye were condemned to death by Moor's kangaroo court. They were hanged on 4 September 1897. Photographer: Reginald Kerr Granville: Date of Photo: 1897

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:52am On Nov 30, 2016
Oba Sir Adesoji Tadeniawo Aderemi, Oni of Ife in 1959

- reigned September 1930 - July 1980

© Elisofon, Eliot - Smithsonian Institution

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:53am On Nov 30, 2016

In 1900, Onitsha had not aspired to anything approaching its present importance, and it retained much of its primitive simplicity.

The commercial centre of the district was at Abutshi, two or three miles down-stream, and the administrative quarters, first of the Royal Niger Co., and later of the Government, were at Asaba, on the western side of the river.

To the north of the town, following the left bank of the Nkissi stream, on the site now covered with Government buildings, a large coffee plantation was laid out. Of the surrounding country, even of that comparatively near the settlement, but little was known.

The existing maps were useless as none contained reliable data, the names inserted being based upon reports and conjectures.

Some names were curious e.g. " Akpam " and " Nri." The latter certainly is a name well known over a considerable portion of the Ibo country.

It is the name of a small town which is the headquarters of a priestly cult whose special functions are connected with the coronation of Kings, hence "nri" men (priests) being travellers, were met with frequently.

When asked whence they came the answer was a wave of the hand towards the east, and thus the name was given, in mistake, to the whole country lying east of Onitsha

* illustration from Mungo Park and the Niger by Thomson, Joseph (1890)

Among the Ibos of Nigeria, an account of the curious & interesting habits, customs, & beliefs of a little known African people by one who has for many years lived amongst them on close & intimate terms
by Basden, George Thomas

Published 1921

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:54am On Nov 30, 2016
Prince Samuel Adeiran Aromolaran

Omo Oba Samuel Adeniran Aromolaran popularly known as Awe Owa, meaning the Crown Prince. Though he never became an Owa but the Ijesha revered him like as Owa (King) and refered to the King proper (his father) as Orisa (A god). Hence the saying that Owa lo wa ni Ishokun, Orisa lo wa ni Afin (Palace).
Prince Adeniran played important role in the socio-economic life in Ijeshaland during his life time though short (died at age 65years in 1955). The book written by the University of London, Emeritus Professor J. Y. D. Peel in his book THE IJESHAS AND THE NIGERIANS documents the role of Adeniran in Ilesha during the reign of his father. He was seen as being born before his time. He contributed to the establishment of Ilesha Grammar School and he was one of the pioneers of Methodist Church in Ilesha. Contrary to the custom of not sending females to school in those days, he not only sent his daughters to the famous U.M.C (United Missionary College, Ibadan), but also sent them to Sagamu Girls' School, the then famous finishing school in Sagamu.
Date: Unknown
source: personal collection of S @Maryam Ajanaku

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:55am On Nov 30, 2016
Palace of Oba Sir Adesoji Tadeniawo Aderemi, Oni of Ife 1951

© Lorenzo Dow Turner, Smithsonian Institution

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:57am On Nov 30, 2016
Trenchard Hall, University College Ibadan 1959

"Scene outside Trenchard Hall at University College, Ibadan, part of the Foundation Day celebrations on November 17, 1959. We would call it a graduation ceremony.

This was the Eleventh Foundation Day anniversary, and 136 students graduated. In the pictures, before the academic procession goes into Trenchard Hall for the graduation ceremony at University College, Ibadan.

First group to file is made up of assistant lecturers; second column is headed by the registrar and bursar followed by members of the Senate; then the council members go in; then the mace, then the Governor General and the principal walking together."

© Elisofon, Eliot - Smithsonian Institution

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:58am On Nov 30, 2016
Principal towns and trading posts on the Niger above the Delta

Atane. —Between Abo and Atane, a distance of about 30 miles, the river rolling down from the north in one vast expanse presents a noble appearance; the banks are flat and covered with tall guinea grass, among which may be seen the low mud Ibo dwellings, surrounded by little plantations of yams, bananas, and sugar cane, while immense cotton trees rise up at intervals among the grass, and luxuriant creepers and orchids hang over the banks.

About 12 miles above Abo, on the same bank, is Opai, the company's trading station, and nearly midway between Abo and Atane are the trading stations named Utshi and Munakor, the former on the right and the latter on the left bank. All these are trading ports where wood for steaming purposes may be procured.

Atane, also a station of the Niger company, is an important oil market, being the center of a large palm-oil producing district. The trading is chiefly carried on by women.

Abutshi.—From Atane to Abutshi the distance is about 8 miles, and between is the trading station of Odekwe, all situated on the left bank.

The trading and wooding station of Abutshi is picturesquely situated on an overhanging cliff, festooned with dark-green creepers, and the iron store sheds line the river bank, the agent's house standing back with an avenue of palms leading to it. Here is a well-kept garden containing fruit and flowers, and in the vicinity cocoa, coffee, and pineapples are grown, and there are a few cattle and horses.

Abutshi is one of the largest stations of the Niger company and the commercial headquarters of the Igara district.

The native town of Abutshi, a few miles inland, is inhabited by a wild and lawless people.

* Munakor village circa 1870-1900 © Trustees of the British Museum

West coast of Africa. Cape Palmas to the Cape of Good Hope and the adjacent islands.

Published 1908

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Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:59am On Nov 30, 2016
Up the Niger to the Central Sudan

“Meantime we sat down on our campstools, and while Viera, on our part, and the Sultan exchanged the customary interminable salutations, and inquiries about every person and thing down to our respective horses and asses, we had time to look around. There, on the right of the Sultan, sat doubled up the withered and wizard form of the Wazir, watching with an observant, lawyer-like face our every movement.

Supporting the flat roof were several massive pillars, round the base of which sat or reclined the various chief courtiers and state functionaries.

“These latter, I need hardly tell you, looked most picturesque supports to the' pillars, though the interest lay more in form than colour.

The Fillani are not given to gorgeous colours except for the trappings of their horses. White is the favourite colour, and next to it the different shades of blue, which dye the people of the whole of this region are experts in manipulating.

“ By the time our survey was over, I found the Sultan and Viera had finished giving thanks to Allah, that everything was respectively so well as each one had described , and as they both had lost breath in the interesting competition of friendliness, I took the opportunity to make a speech (very eloquent, of course), in which I explained that I had been specially sent all the way from England to convey the salutations and compliments of certain English people, to thank him for the goodwill he had shown to their traders on the river, and to convey a small token of their satisfaction.

They also desired to make a treaty with him for the benefit of both parties, so that all might know exactly in what relation they stood to each other, and thus avoid quarrels. By this means trade would be vastly extended.

And this (I pointed out) would be as much for his benefit as that of the English.

I concluded by instancing how rapidly some of the river Kings, such as Maliké of Nupé, had risen into power and wealth by their connection with our traders.

Joseph Thomson

Good words and Sunday magazine.

Published 1886

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 10:00am On Nov 30, 2016
Up the Niger to the Central Sudan contd.

“During my harangue, or rather during the translation, the Sultan continually expressed his assent and satisfaction by a curious sound made by withdrawing the tongue from the palate.

When all had been translated to I him, he said he was delighted at the opportunity of thus coming into communication with Englishmen, and was especially pleased to think that I had come all the way from England to salute him in the name of my countrymen.

“ Not thinking it judicious to unfold the nature of the desired treaty before his heart had been softened by a present, I now retired, hinting further on another occasion.

“It had been my intention not to take the present till next day, but evidently the royal curiosity had been excited by the news of what the Wazir had got.

Hence we were apprised that his Majesty would graciously that I would open my mind to him be at leisure to receive us and our presents that evening. We accordingly got the necessary articles together and set out again,
taking the Wazir with us on the way.

We were ushered still farther into the inner sanctum and were received by the Sultan in what seemed to be his treasury, to judge from the cowries being counted and the strength and solidity of the room. We were this time received with less ceremony, there being no one present but the Wazir.

He seized our hand cordially and placed us at once at our ease. The place where we were being too small to exhibit the articles, a large mat was spread in the court on which to lay them.

As this was being done, he tried to put on an appearance of indifference, becoming a great Sultan and one ‘accustomed to that sort of thing ; ’ but now and then, as he got a glimpse of some magnificent object or other, he became fidgety and showed signs of allowing the royal dignity to give way.
Re: Naija History by naijalander: 10:00am On Nov 30, 2016
Up the Niger to the Central Sudan contd.

Finally he succumbed to the fascinations of the various objects and proposed to go out.

There, exposed in the yard, lay a collection such as had never greeted the eyes of any Sudan Sultan before.

There were gorgeous silks, satins, and velvets, beautiful embroideries, rugs, silver vessels, revolvers, everything of the most handsome and expensive character.

If the Fillani were a people given to dancing, doubtless his Majesty would have executed a pas seul. As it was he had to express his delight less demonstratively.

We had special pleasure in showing off a magnificent silk umbrella of large dimensions and loaded with gold fringes. It had been intended by a French company for a king on the Niger, and —need I say?— it was composed of red, white, and blue, with a charming bow of the same colours on the handle ; all no doubt intended to express in the most insidious manner not only how pleasing to the eye, but how refreshing to the body, it is to rest under the shade of a tri-coloured umbrella.

But the irony of fate has willed that once more ‘ perfidious Albion ’ will reap where the French wished to sow, and long before you get this letter Umuru, on some hot journey, will be gratefully blessing the British, unwitting that he is indebted to the ingenuity and the prudential efforts of their great rivals.

It showed altogether a great advance on De Brazza’s plan of distributing French flags for loin cloths on the Congo, to send in this way tri-colour umbrellas to the Niger.

“ We had every reason to feel encouraged by the effect of our display. The Sultan was evidently overwhelmed with surprise at the unexpected magnificence of the present.

We, of course, improved the occasion, and hinted that these were but samples of the thousands of articles which the English made, and which could be got through intercourse with them.”
Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:07am On Dec 03, 2016
Colonization - a tale of Two Farmers

The British in dealing with the poverty syndrome that initially attended the initialization of capitalism in their country decided in about 1902, to ship out to Kenya a large number their poor whites.

On getting them to Kenya, they carved out for them a large area on the Kenyan highlands with a relatively equable climate which they designated the White Highlands.

This was land appropriated from the Kikuyu owners, many of whom were left to fend for themselves as best as they could outside of the designated area.

The process of wealth creation and poverty intensification can be illustrated to two families, one white and one Kikuyu.

Within the White Highlands, the land was subdivided, surveyed and offered to individual white farmers for a small fee. These individual land parcels were then granted freehold titles and registered.

Imagine one of the such families taking his land title document to one of the newly established banks seeking credit to be able to purchase all that was needed to turn the land into the basis of a propsperous farming enterprise.

The bank manager agrees to provide the credit for him to be able to acquire the tractor, the improved seedlings, fertilizer and herbicide, as well as some extra to pay for local labour, all this on the basis of the legal mortgage of his bank to the land. ...He [worked hard]... by the end of ten years, he was able to pay back the loan.
Suppose a friend [later] turns up to uge him to buy shares in the new diamond mine being developed at Kimberley in South Africa... the farmer turns up to see his bank manager who is willing to lend the amount required....With continued good harvests from the farm and the dividend from the mining company, he had no difficulty meeting with the obligation to the bank within the time agreed.
[Now].another friend turns up to invest in a real estate development company in the emerging new town of Eldoret.
Clearly just giving him a title to his land had set him on the path of wealth creation.

[And]..as an aside,..had only three children. As their material situation improved, they had no problem giving these three children the best education, sending them back to Britain for higher studies and establishing them such that they too would never again know poverty.

* photo of the Author and Friends in 1953 from "A Measure of Grace"The autobiography of Akinlawon Oladipo Mabogunje

A hypothetical tale of Kenya between the white settlers and their Kukyu hosts as told in

"A Measure of Grace"The autobiography of Akinlawon Oladipo Mabogunje

© Akinlawon Mabogunje, 2011

cc Reggie, Femi

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:08am On Dec 03, 2016

[The Kikuyu farmer,] like most Africans lived by farming.

But he farmed on family land to which he had a right of use but not ownership.

Even if he could claim ownership, the land had not been surveyed nor titled nor registered in his name. So, as far as a credit providing institution like a bank was concerned, he had nothing.

But he too like his white farmer colleague woke up early in the morning to farm the land. All he had for this purpose were his hoe, cutlass and axe.

For planting, he had crops saved from the last harvest but certainly not improved seedlings. For fertilizer, he practiced some form of bush fallow although as the number of his family members increased he could not afford to leave the land fallow for as many years as he used to

On top of these various limitations to his productive capacity due to his inability to have a collaterizable asset for accessing credit, the Kikuyu farmer on most days as soon as it got dark found that the only game in town was his wife.

Between them therefore, children started to come in increasing numbers. Between eight and thirteen children was common during the child bearing age of his wife.

While the adults amongst these children might provide additional labour on the farm, it is clear that the unregenerated farming system and the fact that when he dies the land would have to be shared among such a large number of children ensured that the vortex of pervasive poverty developed very firmly in the Kikuyu society.

The End.
Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:12am On Dec 03, 2016
This photograph shows Ovonramwen, the Oba of Benin, with guards on board the Niger Coast Protectorate yacht, SY Ivy, on his way into exile in Calabar 13 September 1897.Photograph taken by Nigeria photographer JA Green.

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:13am On Dec 03, 2016
Wase Rock 1908

The Wide World Magazine

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:15am On Dec 03, 2016
Benin History Chronology:

Benin adopted the Portuguese language as the language of commerce in transaction with other Europeans. A number of Edo words such as Ekuye (spoon), Ekalaka (drinking glass) and Alimo (orange) are derived from Portuguese words Colher, Caneca and Limo. Some Benin palace guilds and titles such as Iwebo, Ewua, Aragua and Ohioba were created as result of this relationship. Idunwun Ebo (European quarters) was created for Portuguese missionaries and traders in Benin City in 1486. In the 17th century the Dutch Embarked on the seizure of all trading ports on the West African coastline. It was a remarkable feat, which they could not achieve in Benin Kingdom trading ports of Gwatto (Ughoton) and Eko (Lagos).

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 8:20am On Dec 03, 2016
The Wizard of the Yergum

"In the afternoon Gosling and I climbed the hill to visit the Ju-ju place of all the Yergum, the dwelling-place of the greatest magician for many miles around, who pretended to foretell the future to those aspirants who brought goats to be sacrificed, and who also constituted in himself the Court of Appeal, where all disputes and difficulties were finally referred.

The skins of all leopards and lions killed in his territory had to be brought to him, though he gave back
many of them. We did not return very impressed by what we had seen, except, perhaps, by the number of human skulls in and round his hut."

Across Africa by Boat by Alexander Boyd

The Wide World Magazine

April to September, 1908

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:18am On Dec 03, 2016
Chief Nana Olomu of Itshekiri (seated left) going into exile.

Date - 1894.

Source -
"Curse of the black gold: 50 years of Oil in the Niger Delta".

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:19am On Dec 03, 2016

Re: Naija History by naijalander: 9:20am On Dec 03, 2016
A Central Soudan Town - Wurnu

Huts and houses in great numbers are observed peeping from amongst the trees, looking cool and cozy or hot and repellent, according as they lie in shade or sunshine, and at last the fact dawns upon us that here exists a town of several thousand inhabitants, and that we have almost unawares reached our goal, for the town is Wurnu, residence of Umuru, King of the Mussulmans of the Soudan, and Sultan of Sokoto.

The whole of the town is protected, as can be easily seen, by a massive wall of sun-dried bricks externally plastered with mud.

The western front, being more liable to attack than the hill and cliff defended aspects of the other sides, is further strengthened by a deep dry ditch or fosse running along the outside of the wall.

In all Soudan towns the great aim is to prevent a sudden surprise from cavalry, the chief strength of the Soudanese armies, and with such precautions as we have here it has often happened that towns have stood months and even years of regular siege before being reduced.

The entrances or gateways to the towns are conspicuous enough by the forts which guard them, not less than by the sight of people passing in and out.

One of these, the Kofa-n-Rima, from which starts the road to Kano, the great commercial emporium of those regions, appears prominently right below us.

Protected by a massive square-built and flat-roofed tower, and with a door formed of thick roughly cut planks, and covered with iron plates, it can bid defiance to any destructive weapon which an enemy can bring to bear upon it.

Joseph Thomson - Harper's New Monthly Magazine Volume

June - November 1887

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