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Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 1:23am On Jan 25, 2020
ALPHABET
While there are many different alphabetic scripts in the world, each and everyone clearly derived from an original alphabetic script. It is said that the history of the alphabet began in ancient Egypt. They had a set of about twenty-two hieroglyphic symbols. These symbols represented syllables that began with a single consonant of their language. These ‘alphabetic’ symbols helped in the pronunciation of hieroglyphic pictures.
Heavily influenced by the Egyptian alphabet was that of the Phoenicians. In this alphabet, there were twenty-two symbols. Phoenician was written from left to right. Vowels were often left out of their alphabetic system. By the 9th century BC, the Aramaeans had adopted the Phoenician alphabet.

Eventually, the Greeks, like many cultures, had also adopted the Phoenician alphabet. The Greeks had modified the alphabet, adding vowels. The Greek alphabet was the first to include the use of vowels. Once the Greeks had an alphabet, they began to write down their myths and fables. The Greeks are to thank for giving us vowels in the present alphabetic system. The Greeks also made way for other alphabetic systems.

The Latin alphabetic system began in 700 BCE. The Latin alphabet is very similar to what we see today. However, originally, Latin script was different. They had an alphabetic system closely related to the Estruscan alphabet. Almost all letters had the same phonetic values and the same shapes. The Latin alphabet was written from left to right. The alphabet brought the letter “O,” “D,” and “Q” back into their alphabet; for the Estruscans did not use these letters in their alphabet. Soon after, the Latin alphabet became standardized, and reads much like the English alphabet.

CUNEIFORM
The word cuneiform comes from the Latin word ceneus, which meant ‘wedge.’ Cuneiform was invented by the Sumerians around 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia. This Ancient civilization encouraged this writing form. Many of the great ancient civilizations used this form such as the Babylonians, Akkadians, the Hittites, and the Assyrians.

This writing form was the first one that did not use pictures. Cuneiform didn’t represent objects by pictures, for it represented objects phonetically and semantically. However, the earliest forms of cuneiform were pictoral. This was when subjects were more visible. The writing style became more complex, though, as communication and storytelling became more complex. While useful, this system was problematic or conveying things other than simple nouns.

Cuneiform was created to keep records of goods and activity. Early on, cuneiform was logographic, which means that it used a sign or symbol to convey a noun or action. Cuneiform writing was composed of wedge-like symbols put together at different angles. Some symbols were very simple while others were very intricate. The more intricate symbols were made up of two simple symbols. Later on, the number of symbols used in cuneiform was lowered to make things simpler.


HIEROGLYPHICS
Hieroglyphics, a system of writing in Ancient Egypt, was invented around the same time the Sumerians invented cuneiform. This was around 3500 BCE Some historians believe that the Egyptians were influenced by cuneiform, but some evidence suggests that the hieroglyphics writing was developed earlier than cuneiform. Egyptians believe that this writing form was given to them by the Egyptian god, Thoth. They called this form ‘mdju netjer’which means ‘words of the gods.’


Hieroglyphics uses more than 2,000 characters. Each symbol, called a hieroglyph, represents a common object. To represent an owl, an owl would be drawn. The hieroglyphs are both phonetic and semantic. The Egyptians did use an alphabet. When speaking, they did use vowels, but they rarely wrote them down on papyrus. When the Egyptians would describe, for example, a crocodile, they would put a hieroglyph of a crocodile. This, combined with some letters put together to make a crocodile’s sound, indicated a crocodile. The hieroglyphic writing system was used mainly for inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs.

The first discovery of this writing form was discovered on bone and ivory tags, and clay pots. They were found in the ancient tomb in Abydos. In the later periods of the Egyptian Empire, the Egyptians developed a writing form called hieratic, which replaced hieroglyphics for record keeping and religious texts. However, hieroglyphs were still used in religious buildings and monuments.


PICTOGRAPHS
The oldest types of writing systems often involved using pictures to communicate. This was the pictographic writing style. The writing style was in Mesopotamia used by the Sumerians in 3,000 BCE. Pictographs eventually developed into such writing forms as cuneiform, where the Sumerians of used wedge shapes to communicate.

This writing style used simple pictures as ways to communicate. The drawings were usually very literal, but they became more complicated as time went on. They used a stylus to draw pictures into clay and dirt surfaces. This style is similar to the writing form of hieroglyphics, but it is easier to read and understand. In fact, it was the basis for cuneiform and hieroglyphics. Some cultures drew on the walls of caves. They would use pictographs to tell stories and communicate with each other. This writing style was, and is still, very universal. Everyone understands literal symbols such as pictures.

The pictographic writing style is still used today. People who live in non-literate countries still use it as their means of communication. In literate countries, however, pictographs are used only to represent simple ideas or objects.


QUIPU
The Incas never developed a form of writing but they did, however, develop a calculation system. Quipu is an accounting device based on ropes and knots. An individual quipu is many ropes tied together. The original or simplest form is a main cord, about one yard long, tying many cords to one unit; this can repeat up to four levels. The chords have knots or just one knot at different levels and positions. With color and knots, they could keep record and store data. Different colors were used to identify different things. If the Incas wanted to count gold or silver, they would use gold and silver strings. Quipu enabled the government to collect important data. Different sequences of knots represented digits that make up numbers bigger than ten.

Young boys would spend a whole year in school just learning quipu. It took a long time to master but the boys who did it well would become quipu interpreters. Quipu interpreters could count and tell data very easily. Very efficient quipu interpreters went on to master records of the entire kingdom. Accountants also used quipu and were called uipucamoyacs. The accountants could create quipu knots and decipher them easily. They were also able to perform simple math equations using quipu knots. Quipus were the main sources of records in the Incan government. The Incas passed history and information down to the next generation using quipu.

Culled from sapwhdotweeblydotcom

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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 1:26am On Jan 25, 2020
Quipu

Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Nobody: 1:30am On Jan 25, 2020
Great piece.
Thanks
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 1:31am On Jan 25, 2020
correctguy0900:
Great piece.
Thanks
Available to serve Sir

1 Like

Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by budaatum: 2:03am On Jan 25, 2020
Viktoreze:
It is said that the history of the alphabet began in ancient Egypt.
Many don't know this, but this is what is meant where it says "Out of Egypt I called my Son", and "In the beginning was the Word through which all things were created". And when it is said "Accept Jesus into your life", we simply mean "Go and learn to read"!

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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by calberian: 7:29am On Jan 25, 2020
The one that I don’t understand is the one that has to do with folks who don’t understand any of these that are heads of government and organizations while those who understand perfectly well are writing application letters up and down looking for jobs, contracts or anything to just eat. Of course in Africa, nay, Nigeria!
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 2:20am On Jan 28, 2020
Land monopoly is not only monopoly, but it is by far the greatest of monopolies; it is a perpetual monopoly, and it is the mother of all other forms of monopoly.”
-Winston Churchill

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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 7:06pm On Feb 04, 2020
“Every person who invests in well-selected real estate in a growing section of a prosperous community adopts the surest and safest method of becoming independent, for real estate is the basis of wealth.”
-Theodore Roosevelt
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 7:49am On May 03, 2020
May your path be lined with beauty, may your days be filled with favour. May every of your efforts yield positive result. Happy new month.

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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by budaatum: 2:39pm On May 03, 2020
HIEROGLYPHICS
Hieroglyphics, a system of writing in Ancient Egypt, was invented around the same time the Sumerians invented cuneiform. This was around 3500 BCE Some historians believe that the Egyptians were influenced by cuneiform, but some evidence suggests that the hieroglyphics writing was developed earlier than cuneiform. Egyptians believe that this writing form was given to them by the Egyptian god, Thoth. They called this form ‘mdju netjer’which means ‘words of the gods.’
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 9:27pm On May 15, 2020
Real estate investing, even on a very small scale, remains a tried and true means of building an individual's cash flow and wealth"
~Robert Kiyosaki
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 1:23am On May 19, 2020
“It’s tangible, it’s solid, it’s beautiful. It’s artistic, from my standpoint, and I just love real estate.” ~Donald Trump
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 12:28am On Jun 05, 2020
In this New Month, your pains will be in the past, and your gains will be exalted because you shall have dominion over every challenge. Happy new month, I wish you a very blessed month ahead.
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by OkCornel(m): 4:12pm On Jun 05, 2020
Viktoreze:
Quipu

Good stuff there. I thought the Quipus could not be decoded.

1 Like

Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by googi: 12:39am On Jun 06, 2020
Op good job.

I do wish though that you had included some early writings from Senegal all across to Somali/Ethiopia.

Looking forward to that.
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by budaatum: 11:28am On Jun 06, 2020
zpakln:
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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by zpakln(f): 2:42pm On Jun 06, 2020
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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 5:57am On Oct 27, 2020
“Every person who invests in well-selected real estate in a growing section of a prosperous community adopts the surest and safest method of becoming independent, for real estate is the basis of wealth.”
-Theodore Roosevelt
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 10:13am On Mar 17
“Owning a home is a keystone of wealth… both financial affluence and emotional security”.
Suze Orman
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 3:58pm On Apr 24
“Every person who invests in well-selected real estate in a growing section of a prosperous community adopts the surest and safest method of becoming independent, for real estate is the basis of wealth.”
-Theodore Roosevelt
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 3:51pm On May 04
“If you don’t own a home, buy one. If you own a home, buy another one. If you own two homes, buy a third. And, lend your relatives the money to buy a home.”
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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 12:08am On May 09
“Every person who invests in well-selected real estate in a growing section of a prosperous community adopts the surest and safest method of becoming independent, for real estate is the basis of wealth.”
-Theodore Roosevelt
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 6:49pm On May 18
“Every person who invests in well-selected real estate in a growing section of a prosperous community adopts the surest and safest method of becoming independent, for real estate is the basis of wealth.” - Theodore Roosevelt, U.S. president
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by MYZOLE: 7:00pm On May 19
Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 5:57pm On Jun 10
I have always liked real estate; farm land, pasture land, timber land and city property. I have had experience with all of them. I guess I just naturally like ‘the good Earth,’ the foundation of all our wealth.”
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Re: Systems Of Record Keeping In Ancient Civilizations by Viktoreze(m): 11:29pm On Jun 18
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