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Car Talk / How A Vehicle’s Engine Functions by AutoHubNG(m): 1:05pm On Feb 16
A vehicle’s engine is a complex piece of machinery designed to convert fuel into mechanical energy to propel the vehicle. The most common type of automotive engine is the internal combustion engine. Here’s an overview of how it works:

The 3 Main Parts:

In broad terms, the engine can be segregated into three key parts, the head, the block, and the oil sump.

1. The cylinder head is the channel through which the fuel enters the engine chamber and exhaust gases exit. Its key components are the camshafts, valves, and spark plugs.

2. The cylinder block is where all the combustion action takes place. The key components here are the combustion chamber, piston, and the crankshaft.

3. The oil sump constitutes the lowermost part of the engine. Its key components are the oil pan and the oil filter.

How a Car Engine Works: The Fundamental Workflow

The modern-day car engine is a 4-stroke engine which means it creates usable power in 4 strokes. Each stroke is defined as the movement of the piston from the bottom most position (Bottom Dead Centre) to the topmost position (Top Dead Centre) and vice-versa. The 4-strokes are as follows: Intake Stroke, Compression Stroke, Power Stroke, and Exhaust Stroke.

How a Car Engine Works

The Processes Inside The Engine Head:

The combustion process begins at the engine head, precisely at the intake manifold. The intake manifold is the channel through which the air-fuel mixture flows into the combustion chamber. The air is directly sucked into the manifold from the throttle body. The fuel, on the other hand, is injected into the end of the manifold through a nozzle called the fuel injector.

Next, we move on to the tap controlling the fuel release, the valve. The valve in simple terms is the device that seals the chamber shut during combustion and opens the gate when fuel has to enter the chamber or gases have to exit. The valves open and close based on which stroke is taking place. The opening and closing of the valves are done by an actuator rod known as the camshaft. The camshaft is a cylindrical rod with drop shaped protrusions known as cams. When the sharp end of the cam is rotating against the valve, it pushes the valve downwards and opens up the port. Once the sharp end transitions back to the round end, the valve springs push back the valve to its original position and shut the port. The rotation of the camshaft is connected to the rotation of the crankshaft via belts and pulleys. The rotation is timed with a very delicate and precise timing mechanism that can be adjusted.

Processes Inside The Engine Block:

Now let’s get started with the serious business, i.e. the combustion process. The combustion process takes place inside the combustion chamber present in the head. Here the most important part is the piston. The rotational force that is generated on the wheels starts with the movement of the piston. The piston generates usable power through a total of 4 strokes or 4 movements of the piston from end to end. Let’s have a look at these 4 strokes in detail.

The 4 Strokes of the Engine

1. Intake Stroke: The combustion starts with the piston at the Top Dead Centre or TDC position. The piston now starts to move down. Just before the piston begins its downward motion, the intake valve opens up. As the piston moves down, it sucks in the fresh air-fuel mixture from the manifold. As the piston reaches Bottom Dead Centre or BDC, the chamber fills up with air-fuel mixture.

2. Compression Stroke: Once the piston has reached BDC, the compression stroke begins. Just before the piston reaches the lowermost position, the intake valve closes. Now the piston moves upwards. As it moves up, it compresses the air-fuel mixture as it has no place to escape with the closed valves.

3. Power Stroke: Just before the piston reaches the topmost position in the compression stroke, the spark plug mounted on the cylinder head lets off a very tiny spark. When this spark comes into contact with the compressed air-fuel mixture, it ignites the mixture. Once ignited, the flame rapidly expands. Since the valves are still closed, the flame has no place to escape and pushes the piston downwards. This is the power stroke; where usable – power is generated by the motion of the piston.

Please Note – Diesel Engines don’t have spark plugs. Instead, the fuel injector sits in that position. On diesel engines, the combustion mechanism is slightly different. Only hot air is sent to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. This air is then compressed which causes it to heat up even more. During the power stroke, the injector sprays the diesel-fuel which on coming into contact with the hot air – catches fire and starts the combustion. The remaining cycle is the same as a petrol engine.

4. Exhaust Stroke: Last comes the exhaust stroke. The piston with the momentum gained from the previous stroke starts to move back upwards. As it begins to move, the exhaust valve opens up. The leftover gases from the combustion process are pushed out and the 4-stroke cycle is completed. After this, the piston again moves from TDC to BDC and the cycle restarts.

You may be wondering what happens when you start the car from an off position, how does the piston get the force to move downward. This is taken care of by the starter motor. When you turn the car on with your key, the starter motor provides the initial force to move the piston downwards which commences the combustion cycle. After that, the momentum created in each power cycle provides the necessary force to move the piston.

The piston is connected to a rotating shaft called the crankshaft through a connecting rod. The piston is connected on offset projections on the rod called crankpins. So, it effectively converts the up and down motion of the piston into rotational motion. The crankshaft’s rotation is what reaches the wheel passing through various parts and components on the way.

Importance of The Oil Sump

The Oil Sump is the lowermost part of the engine yet extremely crucial to the entire process of how an engine operates, efficiently. The function of the oil sump is to store and circulate the lubricant oil to the different moving parts of the engine. Two primary parts are located in the oil sump, the oil pan, and the oil pump. The oil pan is the reservoir where all the lubricant is stored. Submerged in this oil pan is the oil pump which sucks in oil and transfers it to the lubricant channel. The oil pump has a small strainer at its opening which is used to filter out large debris. Once the oil is sucked in by the pump, it passes the oil to a primary oil filter which removes all the smaller debris and metal bits as well. This oil is then passed into the lubricant channel and sprayed around the various engine parts. This oil falls back through a separate channel and is sent back to the sump where the process restarts. Oil is sprayed directly on the combustion chamber to allow smooth up-and-down motion of the piston. This process is set-up to be highly effectual as incorrect mixture of oil and fuel will lead to improper combustion.

So how is the piston sleeve lubricated? The piston has a set of rings that runs around its circumference. Every time the piston reaches BDC during the 4-stroke cycle, the oil sprayed on the walls of the combustion chamber. As the piston starts to move down, the oil spray is stopped and the rings scrape down the excess oil from the walls. Thus, the oil and fuel are never allowed to mix.

So that sums up our explanation of how a car engine works. As you can see, an engine has a number of systems that help it do its job of converting fuel into motion proficiently. Now you have a basic understanding of how an engine works. Thanks for reading as always.


Car Talk / How Vehicle Transmission Systems Work by AutoHubNG(m): 1:07pm On Feb 09
There are two basic types of vehicle transmissions namely; manual, and automatic transmission. However, the year 2003 via a PS2 video game – Need For Speed (Hot Pursuit II), was my first rendezvous with vehicle transmission other than the conventional “manual”, and “automatic” transmission – to which the latter was really starting to catch on back then as more and more vehicles being brought down to Naija were mostly Japanese models – from America and were almost exclusively automatic transmissions. This clip at 1:10 from xTimelessGaming:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2f2aJFJLck fully illustrates what I’m going on about. Coincidentally this version of NFS didn’t only pique my curiosity towards automobiles but also really compelled my first true foray into rock music as the soundtrack to this game is surely a classic and upon listening to any of them or watching throwback in-play clips (still had the poster from the PS2 pack “plastered” on a wall in my childhood bedroom until it was removed just recently) such as the one posted; immense nostalgia hits, like an avalanche…

Well, that’s that – let’s get back to the topic at hand, shall we – transmission. If you didn’t already know, vehicle transmission systems play a crucial role in ensuring not only smooth but efficient power delivery from the engine, to the wheels. Whether you drive a manual or automatic transmission vehicle, understanding the basics of how these systems work can help you appreciate the intricate mechanics behind your car’s performance.

Manual Transmission

Manual transmission, also known as “stick shift” by those across the Atlantic, requires the driver to manually engage and disengage gears by stepping on the clutch and adjusting the gear lever to different positions depending on the driving conditions as much – if more, or less speed is required. The key components include:

Clutch: Located between the engine and the transmission, the clutch allows the driver to disconnect the engine from the transmission temporarily. Pressing the clutch pedal disengages the engine, enabling gear changes.

Gears: Manual transmissions have multiple gears, typically arranged in an H-pattern albeit some racing cars have theirs arranged in a dissimilar pattern called “Sequential Manual” – where you have go through one gear to get to the next by pushing the gear lever upwards to drop a gear e.g. from 3 to 2, and move up a gear e.g. from 3 to 4, by pulling the lever backwards – with the movements repeated to get to the desired gear of choice which makes for a faster shifting time evidently required in tumultuous racing environments. Each gear provides a different speed and torque ratio, allowing the driver to adapt to varying driving conditions.

Transmission Input Shaft: Connected to the engine, the input shaft receives power and transfers it to the gears, determining the vehicle’s speed.

Output Shaft: Connected to the wheels, the output shaft transmits power from the gears to drive the vehicle.

Shifter: The driver uses the shifter to select the desired gear, determining the speed and efficiency of the vehicle.

All these culminate to one of the most entertaining experiences ever as “true gear-heads” will tell you! Pressing on the clutch and going through the gears makes for a more engaging drive. However, due the “labourious” nature of it all – manual transmission is becoming extinct, unfortunately. The good people at Engineering Explained already did a wonderful job “explaining” the basic process here:

Automatic Transmission

Automatic transmissions greatly simplify the driving experience by automatically changing gears without any driver input or intervention. Key components include:

Torque Converter: Replacing the manual clutch, the torque converter is a type of fluid coupling which is used to transfer rotating power from the engine to the transmission, allowing for smooth gear changes.

Planetary Gear Set: Instead of a manual gearbox, automatic transmissions use planetary gear sets to achieve various gear ratios. These gear sets automatically adjust to provide the optimal combination of speed and torque.

Hydraulic System: Automatic transmissions rely on a hydraulic system to control gear changes. Transmission fluid is pressurised and directed to engage or disengage clutches and bands, facilitating smooth transitions between gears.

Transmission Control Unit (TCU): The TCU monitors various factors such as vehicle speed, engine load, and throttle position to determine when to shift gears. It uses this information to control the hydraulic system and ensure optimal performance.

Shift Lever: While automatic transmissions don’t have a clutch pedal, they have a shift lever that allows the driver to select between Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive, and other gear options.

I’d like to believe most of us are quite familiar with this process already as it is quite common. You press down on the accelerator pedal to move, the brake to stop or slow down, and simply steer. There isn’t that much to it.

Please note: As mentioned in the beginning of this article the two basic types of transmissions are Manual and Automatic, anything in-between such as iMT (Intelligent Manual Transmission), CVT (Continuous Variable Transmission), DSG (Direct Shift Gear-Box) or DCT (Dual-Clutch Transmission) can still be classified under either one of them. For me personally, the presence of a clutch pedal denotes the answer as to whether it is a manual, or an automatic transmission.

Understanding the intricacies of manual and automatic transmission systems however, provides insight into the coordination required to optimise a vehicle’s performance. Whether you prefer the hands-on engagement of a manual transmission or the convenience of an automatic, both systems are designed to enhance the driving experience and maximise efficiency. Thanks once again for reading.


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Car Talk / Vehicle Tracking: A Basic Guide by AutoHubNG(m): 9:36am On Feb 02
In today’s current climate, “Tracking cum Monitoring” is definitely one of the industries gaining significant prominence as the years roll on by and technology inevitably advances greatly. And due to its numerous applications which we’ll get into, it is highly sort after by governments, corporations (big and small), and private entities.

Vehicle Tracking simply involves monitoring the location, activities, and behaviour of vehicles using technology such as GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), and other communication tools. As mentioned it has various applications which include; fleet management, logistics, security, and personal tracking.

Hopefully, this basic guide to understanding Vehicle Tracking will serve its double-edged purpose of enlightening as well as entertaining you (yes you are, without any doubt – an esteemed reader *winks); “edutainment” at its finest… And with that said, let’s jump right into it!

Components of Vehicle Tracking System

As with other integrated systems as regards technological doodads – nothing is really “standalone”; therefore, in order to track effectively, there would always be the need for these components. They are:

GPS Receiver: The GPS receiver is the core component that receives signals from satellites to determine the vehicle’s precise location.

Telematics Unit: This unit collects and processes data from various sensors and the GPS receiver. It is responsible for transmitting this information to a central server.

Communication Module: This module enables communication between the Vehicle Tracking System and the central server. Common communication methods include cellular networks, satellite communication, or a combination of both.

Server and Software: The server stores and processes the data received from vehicles whilst the software provides a user interface for real-time tracking, historical data analysis, and reporting.

User Interface (Web or Mobile App): Users can access the tracking system through a web-based platform or mobile application. It allows them to easily and effectively monitor vehicle locations, receive alerts, and generate concise or comprehensive reports if and whenever needed.

Types of Vehicle Tracking

There are basically two types or tracking levels, they include:

Passive Tracking: This is the recording and storage of data for retrieval later. Data is downloaded when the vehicle returns to a home base.

Active/Real-Time Tracking: This is the provision of instant live data, allowing continuous monitoring and quick response to changes or emergencies.

Installation and Activation

Professional Installation or DIY: Vehicle tracking systems often require professional installation. Technicians install GPS devices and ensure proper integration with the vehicle’s systems. You could also research, follow instructions and be able to install yourself as well. After all, almost everyone seem to be “tech savvy” these days.

Activation and Configuration: After installation, the system needs activation and configuration, including setting up geofences, defining alert parameters, and establishing reporting intervals.

Uses and Applications of Vehicle Tracking

The uses and applications of Vehicle Tracking are aplenty, they include but not limited to:

History and Reports: This aids users to review historical routes, stops, and events. Reporting features help in analysing vehicle usage patterns.

Geofencing: Geofencing enables the creation of virtual boundaries – defining specific areas for vehicles. Alerts are triggered whenever a vehicle enters or exits a predefined area. It is commonly used for monitoring unauthorised vehicle usage, ensuring vehicles stay within designated regions, or optimising delivery routes.

Speed Monitoring: Vehicle(s) speed can be monitored and alerts sent out, if a predefined speed limit is exceeded.

Fuel Monitoring: Fuel usage can be properly monitored to enable optimal fuel consumption and efficiency.

Maintenance Alerts: Notifications can be sent out for scheduled maintenance based on mileage or engine hours logged.

Driver Behaviour Monitoring: Driver behaviour, including harsh acceleration, braking, and cornering – can all be monitored in fantastically pedantic detail in real time or like we usually say in our local parlance – as e dey hot!

Security and Anti-Theft Features: Security features such as ignition status, remote immobilisation, and theft alerts can be integrated into the system.

Fleet, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management: Most of the uses listed already point towards effective management of assets, both human and vehicular – so it is unsurprising that optimisation of fleet operations is made possible by the astute tracking of vehicles coupled with proper management of routes – which in turn enables efficient management of shipments, reducing delays, and improving overall logistics experience.

Personal Vehicle Tracking: Tracking of personal vehicles for security, location sharing, and monitoring family members can be achieved efficiently.

Emergency Response: Vehicle Tracking greatly aids in emergency situations by providing accurate and timely information on vehicle positions within or heading into distressed locations.

As stated in the beginning of this article, Vehicle Tracking Systems play a crucial role in enhancing efficiency, safety, and security across various industries especially in this current clime of “instant information”. Choosing the right system for your specific needs however – is essential for harnessing and reaping its maximum benefits.


Car Talk / Driving With A Baby On-board: Basic Safety Tips by AutoHubNG(m): 10:42am On Jan 26
When you have precious cargo in your vehicle, you want to make sure you’re taking steps to keep everyone as safe as possible. Unfortunately, that’s not always as easy as it sounds. As a new parent, you may feel overwhelmed with all the information that comes your way. To stay safer in the car with your baby – please follow these safety tips:

Check the baby’s car seat to be sure it works in your car

Not all car seats are compatible with all vehicles. Well before the time comes for the baby to arrive, you need to test the car seat in your vehicle – including whether it will fit with any seats you may already have in the vehicle. If you can’t get a snug fit in your seat that puts your baby at the right angle, you may need to use a different seat. Avoid using aftermarket parts to “make the seat work,” since they may compress unexpectedly in an accident and lead to serious injury. And speaking of aftermarket parts…

Avoid adding “extras” to your car seat

While toys attached to the car seat are fine (and actually offer a great way to prevent dropped toys, crying babies and an increased accident risk when you reach back to grab the dropped toy), other extras can pose serious risks to your baby. Those cute strap covers, for example, may look much cozier, but they can also prevent the straps from holding your baby securely in an accident. If it doesn’t come directly from the manufacturer, never put an item between your baby and the car seat or straps.

Never put baby in puffy sleepers or coats in the car seat

Puffy coats are often a point of contention for parents in colder climates – or on those cold mornings when you have to get up and move earlier than you’d like. While you want your child to be warm, those puffy coats can compress considerably in an accident and prevent the straps of the car seat from holding your little one in place properly. Instead, try putting your little one in the car seat, then putting the coat on backwards over the car seat straps. You could also use a car seat blanket to help keep the baby warm and cozy, just make sure it goes over and not under the car seat straps.

Do your best to make your baby happy before you get behind the wheel

Take care of feeding, changing and other necessary tasks before you start driving. An unhappy baby can mean a distracted parent – and that can portend disaster behind the wheel.

Do not try to feed the baby, reach back to grab toys, or engage in other tasks while driving

Distracted driving can result in accidents with serious injuries, and infants can pose a potent distraction for many parents, especially if they get fussy. However, when driving, you need to focus all your attention on driving. If you need to care for your baby, move off the road and safely park the car first – then go ahead to do whatever needs to be done.

Avoid driving when you’re excessively tired

Sleep can be hard to come by in those infant days, when your little one often needs you in the middle of the night. It’s all too easy to jump behind the wheel regardless of whether or not you’re too tired to take on this task safely. Drowsy driving however, can have many of the same symptoms as driving while intoxicated, including weaving on the road, failure to see other vehicles around you, and even increased risk-taking of all sorts. You don’t want to take that risk with a baby in the car. Instead, postpone the trip entirely or call a friend or family member to help out if you really need to embark on said trip.

Drive defensively

Pay attention to everyone around you. Allow other drivers to have right of way, even if it’s not necessarily their turn. Work on accident avoidance. While liability may matter in an accident, the last thing you want is for your baby to suffer a serious injury because another driver made an error. Consider learning defensive driving techniques while you’re expecting so that you can be better prepared to keep the baby safe when he or she arrives.

Avoid unnecessary distractions behind the wheel

Having your baby in your vehicle can pose a potent enough distraction all on its own. Any additional distractions could prevent you from focusing adequately while you’re driving. Silence your cell phone before you get in the car, avoid eating and drinking while on the road and simply focus on driving. Keeping your attention on driving alone can be the critical difference between having an accident and arriving safely at your destination.

Please avoid driving with a baby on your lap

Please invest in a car seat and avoid driving with a baby on your lap. It is ill-advised to do so and it can go wrong in more ways than one. Once again, please do the needful – invest in a car seat for your baby.

Keeping a baby safe in the car is a big job and sometimes, other drivers may not exercise the same caution around you and your unbridled bundle of joy – so it’s up to you to do your possible best to ensure the safety of your child.


Car Talk / Sign Languages And Signals For Road Users by AutoHubNG(m): 10:03am On Jan 24
Driving in any part of the world is often a unique experience and Nigeria is no different. From the “unwritten” laws of navigating city traffic (Lagos especially) to the dos and don’ts of highway driving (especially inter-state), there are certain scenarios where you should not only for follow set-rules but also apply your own discretion as well.

Below, we look at some of what those signs and signals may mean:

Flashing your headlights/headlamps

Flashing headlights/headlamps without a doubt is global signal, but it is also one driving practice that most drivers are always doing wrongly. Let’s break it down further:

Using headlights/headlamps to ask or give way

When you need another driver to give you way on the road, all you have to do is flash your headlights at him/her multiple times then wait for a feedback signal from the driver. The driver must switch on his/her lights at you to signal that you have been given the way to pass. If the driver flashes back at you, it means you should pass but if the driver doesn’t respond with headlights, it means your signal was missed.

Using headlights/headlamps to warn others

When you are driving on a dual carriageway and you notice that cars passing on the other lane are flashing at you three times, it means there’s a danger lying ahead on the road, and you are just being warned about this. At this point, you have to reduce your speed and proceed with optimal caution. It might be that there’s an accident ahead or a really bad spot that would ruin your car if you don’t slow down.

Using headlights/headlamps to flag drivers down

If you are driving on the highway and there’s a car behind you flashing at you multiple times, it means you are driving too slow and you need to give way for him/her to pass. This is common in emergencies. Some drivers for whatever reason might be driving very slowly on the highway while others urgently need to get somewhere. A simple flash means “please give me way”.

Also, when you are driving in a convoy with other cars, a car flashing you behind might just be to call your attention to new development. Many drivers move along in convoys and don’t communicate at all with other drivers. Flashing headlights is a simple way to organise passing information within a convoy of cars.

Hand signals

There are various hand signals that could be used to convey different messages whilst on the road. We’ll take a look at some of them:

Hand signal urging others to reduce their speed

A lot of times, drivers tend to be speeding past their proposed diversions off major roads and only an emergency braking would be the saviour from this. The need to brake urgently can easily be accompanied by a “hand out of the car facing down repeatedly” signal to let the oncoming driver know that there would be an abrupt change in speed. In most cases, it is safer to miss this turning and just re-route especially when you are driving on a fast lane but that doesn’t mean people won’t still use this signal for you on the road.

Sometimes, you could even use this to signal that you want to allow a group of people cross the express-way (unfortunately this is a common practice over here) and those behind you have to wary of you being static or moving slowly in an otherwise fast-driving-environment.

Hand signal asking other drivers to give way

It’s almost unmissable to witness this in traffic – most especially commercial drivers when they try to switch lanes. It could be the “closed hand begging”, a hand out waving or just a simple thumbs-up but as long as in the end the messaged is passed, then all is right.

Lemon grass, leaves or sticks placed one the road

Oftentimes, you could witness grass, leaves or wood on the highway. The next step you should take is to slow down immediately. Reasons for this could range from a broken-down trailer to an extremely bad road or a military check-point. So, observe and adjust.

Though this article serves as a guide, you don’t necessarily need to wait until you are prompted by any one of these signs or others not listed even; always be on high alert when driving and constantly monitor how fast or slow the cars around you are moving, and then adjust your speed and or driving style accordingly. Do have a safe drive out there.


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Car Talk / Vehicle Importation: Major Countries Nigerians Patronise by AutoHubNG(m): 1:34pm On Jan 19
Nigeria imports cars from a variety of countries all around the world. Some of the major countries from which we import include:

1. United States of America

Nigeria imports a significant number of used cars annually from the United States of America. The U.S. provides a diverse range of vehicles, including popular Japanese, German, and South Korean brands and models that are ultimately sought after by Nigerian consumers in droves.

This market offers just about everything, and it is reasonably easy to acquire used but good vehicles from just about any brand of your choosing!

2. Japan

Japanese cars, known for their reliability, fuel efficiency, advanced technology, and exceptional resale value (even as third- and fourth-hand sales), are highly popular in Nigeria. The go-to Brands Toyota, Honda, and Nissan are readily available and are commonly imported from Japan. Albeit one draw-back is that you’ll mostly have to convert from RHD (Right Hand Drive) to LHD (Left Hand Drive), however, that’s only a small price to pay considering JDM (Japanese Domestic Market) vehicles usually come with higher specifications than those designated for the export market. Well, this is in the event that you’re lucky to lay your hands upon one.

3. Germany

Germany is a source of high-quality luxury cars, particularly from manufacturers like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Audi, and Porsche. Although these vehicles cater to a niche market in Nigeria, it’s extremely rare to see anyone even from a regular background – who doesn’t aspire to own a “German Machine” over here, right?

4. United Kingdom

The UK is another source of used cars for the Nigerian market. British brands and models, as well as cars from other European manufacturers often find their way into the country. Especially the Peugeot 207 which is quite popular in the Northern part of the country.

Again, same draw-back as with Japan – the need to convert from RHD to LHD.

5. China

With the growth of the Chinese automotive industry in general, Nigeria has started importing cars especially large trucks and trailers from China. Without a doubt, Chinese brands are becoming more competitive in terms of cost and are widely gaining acceptance in the Nigerian market.

Brands such as Geely, Changan, GAC, and JAC have become a common sight on our roadways. For the heavy-duty trucks, the Sinotruk HOWO series has been a smashing hit whilst it isn’t uncommon to come across either Foton, FAW, or Dongfeng these days.

6. South Korea

Cars from South Korean manufacturers Hyundai and Kia have gained tremendous popularity in recent years in Nigeria due to their affordability, fuel efficiency, and other user-friendly features. Although these companies have a sizeable presence here even with their recognisable partners and affiliates (only a little percentage of our car-buying-market actually purchase “brand new”), lots of dealers still go ahead to import used versions from the US and of course – South Korea as there is a huge market back here for them.

7. United Arab Emirates

The UAE, particularly Dubai, serves as a hub for the export of used cars to various countries, including Nigeria. Nigerian buyers often purchase cars from dealers and auctions in Dubai. Especially with the growing trend of the ultra-rich people over there leaving their expensive luxury cars abandoned after a minor crash or any other issue – to which our savvy dealers go there, pick these vehicles up for next to nothing, fix them then sell for a decent amount over here. Fortune really does favour the brave as they say…

8. Canada

Nigerians also import used cars from Canada, taking advantage of the availability of well-maintained vehicles that are often cheaper to purchase and bring home than from the US (mostly due to the difference in the exchange rate). And just like with the US, most of the vehicles imported are the Japanese, German, and South Korean brands.

It is important to note that the specific countries from which Nigeria imports cars can vary over time based on market trends, regulatory changes, and economic factors. After all, there was a time when one of the main routes to obtaining used vehicles was to head over to Cotonou-Benin Republic or other adjoining West-African countries and BOOM – moto don land! Additionally, the types of cars imported range from budget-friendly used vehicles to high-end luxury cars, reflecting the diverse preferences or financial disparity so to speak of Nigerian consumers. Thanks again for reading as always.


Car Talk / Smart Cars; Reality Or Fiction? by AutoHubNG(m): 9:59am On Jan 12
So what is a Smart Car?

Also known as intelligent cars, smart cars are vehicles that are equipped with system-driven forms of artificial intelligence. The underlying concept of the smart car is to free the driver from many of the mundane tasks associated with driving, making the act of driving more pleasant (well, for those who do not like driving, some of us aren’t in this category *winks).

Proponents of this type of technological innovation have often noted that by relieving the driver of at least part of the decision-making process, there is the possibility that the widespread use of intelligent cars would help to make our roadways much safer than they are today.

The idea of a smart car has been around for a number of decades. Motion pictures and television shows have sometimes featured cars with highly developed artificial intelligence, and some that were even capable of independent thought and action but they’ve long since moved from being fictitious to actual workable concepts as there are vehicles today that are equipped with semi/fully-autonomous-driving-capabilities.

While the reality of the smart car is not quite as advanced as those theatrical portrayals, continuing efforts to make the most of existing technology has led to a number of automotive innovations that are currently being tested.

Smart car development has already led to some innovations that are commonplace on many makes and models today. One example is the modern automatic emergency notification system, in which sensors on the vehicle connect with a central support organisation and relay distress signals when there is a collision or some sort of mechanical failure. These same systems also allow for voice interaction between the driver and a remote personnel who can alert authorities and thus, provide assistance to an injured or incapacitated driver. Airbags that deploy externally to brace the impact of a pedestrian or by-stander(s), and a couple of others.

Many of the features envisioned for smart car production have to do with protecting the driver as well as other people and vehicles on the road. An autonomous cruise control feature activates automatically when road conditions are favourable for maintaining a consistent speed, thus minimising the chances for traveling above the posted speed limit.

Headlamps that automatically turn on when light conditions darken to a specific point are another example of smart innovation. A lane departure warning system and lane departure “correction” (where the steering wheel is automatically adjusted to fit a car in-between driving lanes) that activates when a vehicle veers off its designated lane, is another example of a feature that would help drivers avoid accidents and remain safe.

Efforts to create a smart car for mass production is ongoing, with some of the efforts spearheaded by government-approved organisations and commissions. Some private concerns are also involved in the continuing efforts to develop the ultimate smart car. Among the other features currently under development include the ability of the car to drive safely without the input of a human driver, there have been long distance tests carried out thus far but not without a few incidences. We’re well on our way to perfecting these technologies. A monitoring system that would detect when a driver was intoxicated, in some sort of medical distress, or any other situation that have rendered them incapable of driving safely.

There are also efforts to develop traffic sign recognition systems that would allow vehicles to detect and interpret traffic signals and signs posted along the side of the road. And also, the ability of such vehicles to communicate with each other thereby making our roads even safer to traverse accross.

Another step in the evolution of these more-advanced transportation systems would be autonomous pods that can fit-in multiple passengers and probably equipped with the ability to levitate. Hopefully, “we’ll cross that bridge” and navigate our way safely through this ever-expanding/ever-evolving world of technological advancements – when, or if we ever get there…

Do tell us, are you excited for when this becomes a reality and autonomous vehicles entirely fill up our roads?


Car Talk / RPM: Meaning And Its Importance In Automobiles by AutoHubNG(m): 9:47am On Jan 10
What is the meaning of “RPM”?

The acronym “RPM” stands for “Revolutions Per Minute” and it is a measurement of a machine’s operational speed at any given point in time. The vehicle’s engine rotates when the speed changes, which is also based on the extent at which the car is working. The transmission gears usually change when the car’s engine works too hard. Therefore, RPM simply measures the workability level of the engine in a car.

The RPM in vehicles also acts as a gauge used for the measurement of the number of one full rotation per minute of the crankshaft. It is also responsible for counting the number of times every piston found in the cylinder goes up and down. RPM literally is the rotational speed or frequency unit around a fixed axis. It helps to specify the number of turns every minute in a car. RPM helps in measuring how hard the engine in a vehicle works on the road.

Whenever you decide to press the accelerator, the RPM and power of the engine in the car get increased to a specific point. It is very possible to read the RPM on the dashboard if you have a tachometer in your vehicle. These readings could be labelled or described as RPM or r/min just next to the speedometer, which indicates the gauge of the speed of the vehicle when it accelerates or decelerates.

Every number on the gauge is equal to almost 1,000 RPM per minute. When you notice that the gauge indicator is pointed at 4, it means the engine is rotating at an estimated 4,000 RPM.

Your vehicle will get damaged if you rev the engine beyond the redline on the instrument cluster. It is incorrect to think car’s engine works at highest power when the RPM is at its peak. The RPM indicates the highest horsepower generated at those revolutions per minute. On the other hand, torque is calculated at lower rpm. For example, a 270 lb-ft (pound-feet) of torque can be generated by the engine at 1,500 – 4,500 rpm.

Importance of RPM in automobiles

RPM indicates the best possible moment for gear shifting into higher or lower gear in a manual transmission. There is usually a redline zone at the top of the tachometer displaying the RPM, with redline highlighted on it and when you rev the engine beyond this particular redline, it could cause damage to your engine.

Also, it assists the driver in knowing the best time to shift up to higher gear, or down to a lower gear. Before the RPM gets too low, it will be required of you to shift to a lower gear – which would prevent the car from getting stuck or hesitating deceleration. When the RPM is almost crossing redline, it is recommended you shift to higher gear.

However, for an automatic transmission vehicle, this isn’t much of a problem since the gear will be shifted automatically by the transmission when the engine is approaching said risky speed limit. When that doesn’t happen, it means your transmission is faulty, so you’ll have to take it to a specialist to rectify.

Hopefully, you’re now better informed about what RPM is and its application in automobiles. Thanks again for reading.


Car Talk / Common Causes Of Hard-starting In A Car by AutoHubNG(m): 10:23am On Jan 05
Most people who own a car or drive one regularly must have at some point experienced difficulty starting the vehicle. Fortunately, you can get an idea as to why starting up a vehicle is “hard” and or not starting at all simply based off how the car reacts when you turn the key – you can generally tell what is wrong with it.

If your vehicle is hard to start or won’t start at all, and you’ve tried all you can to resolve the issue – please be sure to call your mechanic or a reliable auto-technician who will run an expert diagnostics on it.

Discussed below are possible reasons why your vehicle isn’t starting or is having difficulties starting:

Fuel Delivery Issue

Your vehicle requires air and fuel in order to fire up. If the combustion chamber is denied fuel the engine will crank over and over without firing. The most common fuel issues are failed fuel pump, clogged air filter, or clogged fuel injection system. Whatever the trouble is, an expert mechanic should get it fired up in short while or in no time at all.

Dead Battery

Perhaps the most common problem that prevents a vehicle from starting is a dead battery. In most cases a simple jump start will get the vehicle up and running if the battery died due to leaving the lights on or using the radio when the car is off.

However, batteries have limited cycles and they do die (technical term is end-of-life), so they’ll need to be replaced eventually after several years of use.

Failed Alternator

The alternator is responsible for powering electronics as the car’s engine is on. Excess electrical power is then stored in the battery to start the car. Common signs of alternator trouble include trouble operating power windows or seats, a radio that won’t work properly, and dim or flickering headlights. If the alternator fails completely the battery will be drained of its power, resulting in a car that won’t start.

Malfunctioning Starter

When the key is turned, power is sent to the starter motor. When charged, the starter actuates and engages with the flywheel. It then spins the flywheel to get the engine motion started, which allows it to run on its own. If the starter fails, you will often hear a loud click or a series of clicking noises when you turn the key.

Damaged Ignition Switch

A damaged or faulty ignition switch might not be as common as the other causes of difficulties starting a car but make no mistake, it’s something that can happen! It’s no news that most of us drive older cars in Naija, and after a multitude of times turning the ignition on and off over the long years; the ignition switch will undergo the inevitable “wear and tear” – which could make starting the car a bit tricky.

Also, faulty wiring or extreme temperatures (heat or cold) can affect the switch – preventing it from functioning optimally. Another thing to be wary of is those of us who like to load our key-rings with all the keys we own, please be aware that that can also wear out the ignition switch as well.

Nothing is more painful than decking out nicely in the morning or any other time of day, feeling on top of the world, walking over to where you parked your vehicle, only to get in and it refuses to start. Feel free to share your own experiences.


Car Talk / Technologies That Help Prevent Car Accidents by AutoHubNG(m): 10:56am On Dec 29, 2023
Advancements in technology around automobiles and vehicle safety over time have allowed us to move beyond passive safety and focus more on active safety. Research shows that over half of annual vehicle crashes could be potentially prevented using modern technology like radar-based safety devices.

High-end cars these days are already equipped with features like blind-spot warning, lane-assist/lane departure warning, heads-up display, amongst others – which helps in averting a collision. However, these features will soon make their way to an average new car. These safety features have proven to be highly effective to avoid crashes and with more production cars getting new technologies as standard every year, this will hopefully help reduce the overall road fatalities.

Below we’ll discuss some safety features aimed at preventing crashes and making vehicles well equipped for active safety:

1. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

In future, self-driving cars will communicate with each other for a smooth operation. Understanding the GPS coordinates and the speed will play a major role in facilitating this. There would also be a lot of dependence on new age sensor technology which will focus on the cars to communicate. The sensor will also detect pedestrians, bicycles, and other objects within its proximity and adjust the car’s speed accordingly.

This will also help to create a network-based traffic management system. The cars will coordinate with traffic signals directly and get rid of any human error.

2. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)

ABS or Anti-lock Braking System is a quite a fantastic addition to active safety especially when it comes down to emergency braking situations where you need to stop the vehicle in a short distance, or slow down effectively – whilst still having the ability to manoeuvre without the wheels locking up.

You can find out more details about ABS here: https://www.nairaland.com/7946599/anti-lock-braking-system-abs-basic

3. Traction Control System (TCS)

The traction control system prevents wheel spin when starting off or accelerating, particularly on a slippery or wet road surface. While the antilock braking system (ABS) prevents the wheels from locking during braking by reducing the braking pressures. TCS ensures that the wheels do not spin when driving off or accelerating.

To do this, the drive torque at each driven wheel is reduced correspondingly. TCS improves the traction of the vehicle and increases vehicle safety by avoiding unstable driving situations within the limits of physics.

4. Active Kinematics Control

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) like ZF and Bosch are also working on Active Kinematics Control (AKC) for passenger cars. If the rear wheels actively assist the front steering angle, a passenger car enjoys enhanced agility, stability, and comfort when changing direction. The steering movements of the rear trigger electronically controlled active track actuators – either one central actuator in the middle of the rear axle or two smaller actuators in the suspension of each rear wheel, depending on the specific vehicle requirement.

This paves the way for new chassis technology options across virtually all passenger car segments and for disparate models. Current models showcasing this technology include various Porsche and Mercedes sports cars, for instance.

At speeds below approximately 60 km/h, the AKC system turns the rear wheels in the opposite direction to the front steering, which in turn, enhances agility and maneuverability. From around 60 km/h, the system steers the rear wheels in the same direction as the front wheels, thus improving directional stability and driving dynamics. Honestly it’s fun to watch as I’ve seen this in person and it looks like an optical illusion as the vehicle’s turning circle is drastically reduced.

5. Integrated Brake Control

This system supports both conventional braking features as well as semi-automated driving functions.

IBC effectively replaces the electronic stability control (ESC) system and vacuum boosting system formerly used to exploit the negative pressure in the engine’s air-intake system to boost braking power. Thus, it works across virtually all powertrain configurations. In the IBC system, a high-precision actuator is driven by an extremely fast electric motor. This motor is what enables IBC’s excellent braking performance and ESC functionality.

6. Pedal-Travel Sensor

The pedal-travel sensor is Bosch’s sensor series for contactless pedal-travel measurement. Travel sensors are a core component of electric brake pedals, which are required for regenerative braking systems in hybrid and electric vehicles. These pedals record the driver’s desired level of braking, which the systems then implement electrically, hydraulically, or using a combination of the two.

A feature of the new sensor is contactless thereby entirely wear-free travel measurement using a magnetic field sensor, as well as redundant signal recording. The compact design of the two sensor components (magnetic field sensor and magnetic circuit) means the sensor can be integrated cost-effectively into existing vehicle environments.

Apart from the aforementioned features like automatic braking, GPS data is another that has already gained traction when it comes to vehicle safety.

Volvo became the first automaker to debut radar-based safety systems in automobiles with the launch of the XC90 hybrid in India a couple of years ago.

Without a doubt, we can expect more of these features to become standard in all production cars in the not-so-distant future especially when you consider that the world is rapidly moving towards automation and away from ICEs. Thanks again for reading and do have a good one out there.


Car Talk / Anti-lock Braking System (ABS): A Basic Guide by AutoHubNG(m): 12:19pm On Dec 22, 2023
If you’ve voraciously gobbled up more than enough auto blogs and vlogs, you’ll know how almost everyone in the industry stresses on the importance of having an Anti-Lock Braking System, or ABS for short – in place.

So what is ABS? ABS stands for Anti-Lock Braking System, and is one of the most complicated yet useful safety innovations ever made in the history of vehicle engineering.

ABS helps maneuverability while braking hard. ABS essentially prevents the wheels to lock up and skid when brakes are slammed. Why is wheels-lockup bad? There are mainly three reasons for that:

Increases braking distance: Braking force is maximum just before the wheels are about to lockup, but as soon as the lockup of the wheels occurs, the braking distance increases considerably as the vehicle skids. The ABS system keeps the tyres in a good zone while braking thereby making the process more effective that way.
Reduces maneuverability: Imagine you are cruising on a highway in a rural area and a wild animal runs across in front of you. You’ll most likely slam on the brakes instinctively. You’ll also want to steer the car away to avoid hitting the animal. Well, if your car doesn’t have ABS, it’ll be very difficult to accomplish that feat. Once your wheel lockup and the car is skidding away, you can keep turning the steering but the car will not change its course. With ABS, the wheels still keep on rotating while hard braking, and you have a better chance of steering clear of danger.
Causes flat spots on tyres: Panic braking on vehicle without ABS often causes flat spots on tyre. These can cause annoying sound while cruising. Also, the car might feel less stable on high-speed corners as the wheels are not round like they should be.
An ABS system releases the pressure from the brakes as soon as the wheel locks up. This happens in multiple successions during hard braking and can be felt as a pulsating sensation on the brake pedal. By balancing brake pressure on each wheel, the vehicle remains quite stable even under panic braking situations.

This prevents skidding and stops the vehicle before it can do damage to anyone in and around it. Simply put, the ABS makes your braking more efficient and less dangerous. This video from the good people at OverDrive -
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlLYJW-yIIg perfectly illustrates everything we’ve talked about in real time. Do give it a watch.

History of anti-lock braking system

By now, you should have a general idea of what the ABS does – it stops a vehicle from having its wheels locked and flipping out on the road. The system was initially only meant to be used in jets, since their landing speeds are way higher, and stopping them in a single instant is simply unimaginable.

However, with increase in passenger vehicle capability and the power it can hold, it made sense to also have the system incorporated into them. So, in 1971 – Chrysler came up with its “Sure Brake” and it was marvelous. Over time, this system was bestowed with various names – SureTrack, TrackMaster, AntiSkid – but the term “ABS” stuck to tongues more than any other and is still what we widely refer this braking system to today, and will probably be for a very long time.

These days, most countries require that your vehicle be equipped with an ABS system and manufacturers are constantly working on improving this feature of the vehicle. To improve a feature that is updated almost every single year is no small task. The ABS is built in such a simple way that tweaking one component can either boost or degrade the quality of the ride drastically. Hence, each component has to be tuned perfectly. To understand this better, let’s find out what makes an ABS what it is:

Components Of ABS System

Components of ABS in its simplest form would consist of five components:

1. Wheel Speed Sensors

These are sensors that will measure the revolutions per minute(rpm) of the wheel and notify the on-board computers when the wheels are about to lock themselves. We’ll come back to this part in a later section of this article.

2. Brake Control Unit

This system gets information from the wheel sensor and comes into action as soon as your feet hits the brake pedal. They inform the ABS Control Module (described below) that you’re trying to stop the vehicle.

3. Valves

The valves are basically the limbs of the whole ABS system. They move around to put pressure and release pressure from the brakes. Brake calipers to be specific.

4. Pumps

The valves cannot move on their own, they need an external force pushing them (Newton’s first law of motion), and this force is provided with the help of the hydraulic or air pumps (depending on the kind of vehicle you use) that are a part of the ABS.

5. ABS Control Module

Essentially the brain of the whole system. The Control module will gather data and instruct the physical components, i.e., the valves and pumps – when and how to do their jobs.

These five components come together to function as one single unit, and tweaking them in one way or another helps tune the system to perfection. As with any technology, the ABS also comes with its own classifications. Let’s take a quick look at each of them before we move on to explaining how they work.

Types of ABS System

Depending on the vehicle, manufacturer, as well as the kind of power it produces, ABS can be classified into five different types:

1. One-Channel, One-Sensor ABS

Usually found in rear-wheel drive vans, SUVs and pickup trucks. This system has a single sensor at the rear axle to measure the speed of the rear-driving wheels. A single valve regulates both rear wheels. The valve will operate as soon as the sensor predicts that the wheels are going to lock (more on this in a bit). Since it only contains a single valve to do all the work, it can’t distribute brake force effectively and reliably.

2. Two-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

Although not as common today, this system was popular back in the ’80s. The working is simple – there are four sensors, one for each wheel. If any of the sensors realises an incoming lock, the two valves act to stop all four wheels equally. Again, proper brake force distribution between the wheels is not that accurate in this system.

3. Three-Channel, Three-Sensor ABS

This system is still prevalent today in most four-wheel drive pickup trucks. The front wheels each have a valve and a sensor to attached to them, while the rear wheels share a common valve and sensor. This makes sense because during braking – most of the force would act on the front end of the vehicle, so you need to predict accurately if the front wheels can take the strain without locking.

4. Three-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

The above issue was solved to a great extent owing to an additional sensor to the rear wheels. This system allowed for more accurate predictions on wheel locking and at the same time, ensuring the front wheels receive a lot more braking torque.

The only disadvantage is that we would be leaving the rear wheels to share a single valve. So, if one of the rear wheel locks, the valve will reduce brake pressure even on the wheel that is still not locked.

5. Four-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

Why shouldn’t you have separate, compact sensors on each wheel and four separate valves to apply equal pressure to all wheels? This is what most modern cars on the roads today use. Totally independent valve and a sensor for each wheel. Maximum braking force and accurate reading ensures you don’t ever fall prey to a slip ever again.

Now that almost everything is in place, and you have a clear idea of what the ABS is. Let’s check out how the system actually works in real life.

Workings of ABS

Let’s say you’re going down a slippery road. As you’re cruising through at around 80km/hr fearing you’re going to be late for work again, out of the blue a dog jumps in front of your car. It’s about 75 metres from you. You spot the dog fast enough to slam on the brake pedal and the car stops just about 10 metres from the terrified dog. You thought for sure you would have run over the dog, but your car stopped in the nick of time. How did that happen? One word – ABS!

As soon as you pressed the pedal, the brake control unit got its green light and signaled the ABS control unit to work its magic. The ABS control unit simply took in data from each of the wheel speed sensors, predicted how much pressure was needed to be applied before the wheels locked and the vehicle spun out of control, and then – it did some quick maths!

Once the theoretical data is available, the control unit sends the data to the pumps and instructs that the valves be pushed at this exact pressure. The result – a shocked-to-death dog and a pale-as-a-ghost driver, but both are safe and sound, with the vehicle in nigh perfect condition. Everything goes back to normal when the vehicle picks up again. Job well done.

Advantages of ABS

One of the most important features of the ABS is that it allows for complete control of the vehicle, and does not give you the doubt of ever feeling like you’ve lost control.

It also reduces braking distance considerably and at times – by as much as 10%! This is just as true with wet surfaces too, as we saw in our example with the dog.

Disadvantages of ABS

ABS is heavily positive for most driving conditions. However, experts advise to turn it off while driving on slush and snow. In this condition, the ABS will in fact increase the braking distance but thankfully, we do not have to deal with that in this part of the world(*winks).

That’s because when the wheel lockup on snow, the snow keeps piling up in-front of the tyre and that helps stop the car as it’s dragged along under the tyre.

Closing Thoughts

ABS is probably one of the best innovations with respect to vehicle and passenger safety. Yes, it needs to be treated with caution because machines can always make errors. That being said, the chances of that happening are very small and it would be unwise not to consider going for an ABS just because of this one reason.

Being an almost regularly developed piece of technology, we have high hopes for this engineering marvel and can’t wait to see what it’ll turn out to be in the near future as it is refined further. Thanks for reading once again, and do have yourself a safe drive out there.


Car Talk / Important Documents You Should Always Request When Buying Nigerian Used Vehicle by AutoHubNG(m): 11:49am On Dec 22, 2023
As stated a couple of times in other articles; the state of the economy, rapid inflation, and morbidly exorbitant exchange rate has led to the buying of Nigerian used vehicles becoming more common nowadays than in previous years and this unfortunately comes with a higher risk of something going wrong (mechanical or otherwise) than in the case of importing the vehicle yourself or buying foreign used from a dealer.

However, the onus is still on you to properly verify all the documents before processing payment. With that said, here are the documents you should always request for (in no particular order):

1. Custom documents.

Vehicle licence.

3. Insurance certificate.

4. CMR (Computerised Motor Registration).

5. Road worthiness certificate.

6. Plate number allocation.

7. Proof of ownership.

Upon receiving these documents, please endeavour to verify independently and make sure everything corresponds with one another. A set of numbers on a registration document being different from what’s on the actual vehicle might be difficult to explain if and when one is stopped by the authorities during a routine stop and check, or when trying to resell said vehicle.

As always, best wishes and thanks for reading.


Car Talk / Classified Sites For Automobiles In Nigeria by AutoHubNG(m): 12:28pm On Dec 15, 2023
1. www. jiji .ng

Since its establishment in 2014, Jiji Nigeria has go on to become the foremost and extremely revered automobile classified website, connecting sellers and buyers alike from all walks of life; garnering both national and international acclaim. But it’s almost ironic that Jiji was intended to be a market-place for anything from houses to toys, however; it has become the go-to for anyone serious about purchasing any type of vehicle.

Also, Jiji didn’t stop at trying to serve the Nigerian market alone, they’ve set-up shop in other African countries as well namely, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

2. www.autochek.africa

Formerly Cheki Nigeria, is another website where you can get vehicles from. They also have presence in other African countries namely, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya and Uganda.

3. www.autohub.ng

Not to toot our own horn but despite relatively being “the new kid on the block”, we’ve got quite a wide variety of tasty offerings from cars to SUVs. Do check us out, make you sef confam.

Also, our OAS (Online Automobile Service) still in development – will be a one-of-a-kind one-stop shop for all, and I repeat ALL types of service technicians! You’ll be able to head on over to Autohub.ng/OAS and be granted access to a huge repository containing the contact information of repair cum service experts, ranging from electricians to gear-mechanics, and no matter where you’re located on the map in Naija; we go send you pin, no shakin.

4. www.olist.ng

Olist Nigeria like Jiji is a market-place for all products but has got quite the catalogue for cars which is why Nigerians also visit this website when searching for a vehicle.

5. www.Cars45.ng

When Cars45 became established in 2017, it was disruptive! They carried out an actively aggressive online and traditional media campaign with the simple message – “Sell your car in 45 minutes or less!”. Those were the good old days.

They were acquired by Jiji in 2021, albeit – they still control a decent share of the Nigerian Automobile Market as they have brick and mortal offices across Nigeria where they also serve as appraisal outlets for ride sharing services.

6. www.nairaland.com/autos

As a country where we respect our elders, we had to save this particular one for last. Nairaland, is the grand-daddy of them all when it comes to the forum space in Naija. Since its establishment in 2005, it has strongly held its own and is the 6th most visited generally, and the 2nd most visited indigenous website in Nigeria on the Alexa Page Ranking List. This is mostly due to a teeming youthful population (who remain extremely active online) and an ever-growing diaspora community who long for a bit of home to which Nairaland is easily the most accessible in that regard. Millions visit this website daily!

As mentioned, Nairaland is a forum for virtually any topic but it seems the “Political Section” gets quite heated up constantly; we shall however focus on its Auto section. Like we already stated, millions of unique visitors open this website on a daily basis, with that being said; some of them do hit up the Auto Section regularly and there’s a community of people who come together to share experiences and advise potential buyers on what vehicle(s) to purchase. Naturally, a few also post and buy from the site.

These are just a few Automobile Classified Websites that we’ve decided to touch on in this article. Do tell us, are there any we missed deserving an honourable mention?


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Car Talk / 4 Platforms For A Free VIN Check by AutoHubNG(m): 1:13pm On Dec 13, 2023
It’s no news that most of our vehicles are imported from North America. In this article, you’ll be briefed on 4 websites where you can conduct an
instant yet free VIN check.

Oh, and in case you didn’t know, VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) is unique set of alpha-numeric characters used in the identification of vehicles. You’ll get all sorts of information history about the vehicle once you look it up such as: production date, the plant where it was manufactured, sales, accident and flood history, etc. It is usually located on the lower left portion of the windshield, in front of the dashboard. It can also be found when you open the front door of the driver’s side.

Without further ado, let’s jump right in:

1. NICB (National Insurance Crime Bureau)

The NICB (National Insurance Crime Bureau) is one of the best places to obtain a free VIN check. This platform can help you check a vehicle history and is very easy to use.

This record will detail the theft and total loss records for the vehicle. This will show if the car has been stolen at some point in its history or if there has been damage from an accident, flood or fire in the past.

You can visit the website here http://www.nicb.org/vincheck

2. Vindecoderz

This website offers a simple layout and returns basic search results when you input a VIN into its search bar. Albeit information like theft, flood, or fire won’t be available as it usually is when you search on NICB. However, you’ll still get all the basic info such as brand, year, trim, factory paint colour, engine type and the manufacturing plant.

You can visit the here website https://www.vindecoderz.com/

3. Vincheck

Another website to get basic search results; a minor difference being the display of the price listing. It is not a detailed sales record but with that information, you’ll have an idea of the vehicle’s True Market Value (TMV) at the very least.

You can visit the website here http://vincheck.info/

4. Epicvin

Saved the best for last! Epicvin is the place to go when it comes to a free VIN check. Not only do you get all the basic information, but you get mileage and the price listing as well. Its interface also seems to be head and shoulders above the other websites.

Fun fact: if you click the “Next” bar on Vindecoderz, it’ll take you to a landing page of the same vehicle on Epicvin.

You can visit the website here https://epicvin.com/

As mentioned a couple of times, you only get the basic information when you search a VIN through these websites but if you are looking for a more detailed report, you can select the option to pay for one on Epicvin or you can explore the services of other websites.


Car Talk / Causes And Prevention Of Engine Overheating by AutoHubNG(m): 1:02pm On Dec 08, 2023
Engine overheating can and does happen; if proper precautions aren’t taken, the damage may be irreversible. An overheated engine can cause serious damage and ruin your ride. If you are in a vehicle that overheats, you need to stop driving and turn off the vehicle immediately.

Today’s engines are generally designed to last, but if a vehicle’s engine generates heat well above normal operating temperatures, the equipment used to cool the heat distribution can begin to fail, potentially causing permanent engine damage. There are steps that can be taken to evaluate the problem, but before you understand why your engine is overheating, it’s best to understand the role of the engine’s cooling system as the entire cooling system maintains the engine at standard operating temperature by circulating coolant through the engine to the radiator, thus removing heat from the engine.

There are many reasons why a vehicle’s engine can overheat, such as a leaking cooling system, clogged hoses due to corrosion and mineral deposits, radiator problems, or a faulty water pump. Regular checks can help avoid overheating problems in the future. Now you may ask what are the most common causes of engine overheating? There are many reasons why a vehicle’s engine can overheat, and in some instances it may be resolved via a quicker solution, such as topping up the coolant, but other times – the problem can be more complicated and will need to be properly addressed by a professional.

Below are common factors that can cause a car to overheat:

1. Too little or no coolant

Driving without properly gauging the levels of coolant may cause a coolant system failure. If coolant levels are lower than the manufacturer’s recommendation, refill or top it off to the levels required with new coolant. When adding new coolant to an empty reservoir use only a 50/50 mix of coolant and water. If you are unsure where the coolant reservoir tank is located or the proper method for refilling it, refer to your vehicle owner’s manual.

2. Cooling system leaks

An empty coolant reservoir tank could be caused by a potential leak. Leaks in the coolant can often be identified by spots or puddles on the ground.

Be aware that coolant will have a sweet smell and may be green, blue or orange in colour depending on the type of coolant being used.

3. A broken water pump

The water pump’s job is to circulate the coolant throughout the engine. If the coolant is dirty or has too much buildup, it can stop the coolant from moving through the pump, which can eventually lead to an overheating situation.

4. Radiator issues

Radiators and their fans help to reduce heat from the engine by decreasing coolant temperatures. Issues with the fans may reduce the capability of the radiator to remove heat, which in turn – will cause unnatural temperature increases. Pretty certain a few of us must have had the glorious opportunity to experience this first hand.

5. Oil too low

Outside of lubricating the engine’s parts, a vehicle’s motor oil helps control overall temperatures. Low oil levels may increase engine temperatures.

6. Thermostat failure

The thermostat in a vehicle is needed to regulate engine temperatures. A thermostat failure may cause harm to the engine by not allowing the coolant to flow as intended by the vehicle’s manufacturer.

7. Issues with the belts and hoses

If coolant hoses are leaking, blocked, ruptured or if the belts are worn out or frayed, their purpose of maintaining air and coolant flow to and from the engine and its related systems – will be drastically limited and may lead to unexpected engine damage.

8. Heater core is clogged up

Coolant flow may be compromised if the engine’s heat exchanger unit is clogged or blocked, which can cause overheating in a vehicle’s engine.

Signs and symptoms of overheating

Knowing the common causes of engine overheating will help you learn about the symptoms to enable you to take quick actions.

In most cases, the pressure caused by the excess heat can cause some incidents if the bonnet gets opened too quickly like smoke coming out or hot vapour that can scald one’s skin. It is better to let the engine cool for a while before opening up the bonnet. Some common symptoms of an overheating engine include:

1. Notice from the Temperature Light/Gauge

You would often notice the warning light or temperature gauge due to temperature changes. Whenever your vehicle starts exceeding the optimum temperature required for a smooth operation. You will see the temperature light coming on.

The red on the temperature gauge can also be visible If you don’t see the red indication, you may see the gauge towards the top. However, this sign may seem tricky to read, especially when there is a coolant leak.

2. “Tick” noise from the engine

Without the “thick” engine oil working through the car’s moving parts, it becomes pretty challenging for parts to move with less friction.

The oil is a good enough lubricant, but it loses its ability when the engine becomes super-heated. The heat makes the weight of the oil reduce drastically, making it appear too thin like water. Thus, all the lubricating capabilities get lost. With this, the clearances in the engine would start giving off a ticking sound.

3. Thumping sound

A thumping sound often results from a faulty thermostat, blocking the coolant flow to the radiator. Don’t get this wrong; the thermostat often blocks the coolant from flowing to the radiator in cold conditions, as an engine will not start when running cold.

When there’s a failure in allowing the coolant into the radiator, the coolant gets heated within the engine block. When this occurs, you will start hearing this thumping sound from the front area of the engine. It occurs in a bid of the cold coolant situated in the radiator trying to create a mixture with the heated coolant held back in the engine block.

4. Smoke emission from the bonnet

With the effect of extreme temperature, steam/smoke starts emitting from the car’s bonnet as the coolant starts boiling. In essence, the coolant is way past its boiling point and would start acting like steam water. This sign seems more pronounced, and with it; you can tell that your engine is overheating.

5. Coolant Spillage

Ever seen a car that has some spillage on the ground after parking for a while? Well, most Nigerians aren’t strangers to said spillage(s). Sometimes it may be fuel, water, oil spillages or a mixture of the aforementioned. Nevertheless, the coolant may also leak. You can notice such on the ground after leaving your car parked for a while.

Such spillage on the ground can be due to a leak from the cooling system, which would cause the engine to overheat. However, if the coolant has been boiling inside the cooling system, the car will find a way of relieving it through its coolant overflow tank.

What to do if your vehicle begins overheating

If you’re on the road and the dashboard warning lights come on, you notice a strange smell coming from the engine, or see smoke, or feel your car isn’t driving as it should, please follow these precautions:

1. Pull over and assess the situation

As soon as you notice an issue with your vehicle, the next course of action is to pull off the road to a safe position and clear area, then turn off the vehicle. If a vehicle is overheating, continuing to drive it may potentially cause irreversible engine damage.

2. Keep moving only if necessary

If there is a situation where you are not able to come to a complete stop in a safe and clear area, keeping the vehicle moving slowly (in some cases) may still allow constant airflow around the motor to help aid natural cooling. Leaving your car at rest with the engine running may worsen the problem, which can quickly produce additional and unwanted heat.

3. Open all the windows

The goal is to release as much heat as possible. Rolling down and opening as many windows as possible is another way to allow heat flow out from the vehicle.

4. Call for assistance

And finally, we saved the best for last as this is usually the first order of business – call for the service of your mechanic or roadside assistance.

Preventive measures to take in order to avoid overheating of the engine

Remembering a few quick tips as you drive can help to alleviate permanent engine damage. These are a few to be aware of:

1. Check your vehicle’s coolant levels on a consistent basis.

2. Store an extra bottle of coolant and a gallon of water in your boot.

3. Monitor your car’s thermostat as you’re driving.

4. Do not overuse the car’s air conditioning on extremely hot days especially if you notice the temperature gauge needle rising higher and higher within a short timeframe.

5. Help cool the engine by slowing down, then turning off the engine at the first sign of overheating.

6. Refer to the vehicle owner’s manual to stay up to date on coolant service flushes.

7. An overheating engine is a sign of a serious issue. Regular maintenance checks will help identify problems early on, before potentially causing permanent damage to your vehicle.

8. Do not try to open the bonnet/hood of your car until the vehicle has cooled down.

9. Once the vehicle is at a complete stop and turned off, do not lift the bonnet/hood immediately or you could risk serious scalding. Depending on how long the vehicle has been running, the coolant in the vehicle could be increasing in temperature to an extremely hot level, and essentially pressurising the cooling system itself!

Only when the vehicle has completely cooled down will it be suitable to attempt to open the bonnet/hood! The vehicle should be allowed to cool down naturally before opening, we can’t overemphasise the importance of this very action.

10. Again, be patient. Do take your time and ensure the vehicle has cooled down before attempting any form of repair. Don’t be a hurry if your car is overheating.

To confirm that the vehicle has appropriately cooled down, monitor the temperature gauge in your vehicle as it moves from hot to cool, which may take upwards of 30 minutes. Depending on the vehicle you drive, the temperature gauge may only be functional when the ignition is in the “accessory” or “on” position. During this step, it’s important to not start the engine, and in this situation, only activate the ignition to the “on” position to read the temperature gauge. To reiterate, DO NOT START THE ENGINE TO READ THE GAUGE. Only turn on the ignition. Thanks for reading. Wishing you a safe drive out there.


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Car Talk / Re: Tips For Avoiding Car Accidents by AutoHubNG(m): 12:16pm On Dec 06, 2023
God bless you for this
Car Talk / Tips For Avoiding Car Accidents by AutoHubNG(m): 10:23am On Dec 06, 2023
No one wants to get into a car accident but unfortunately, they happen every day the world over. It is estimated that an average of 1.3 million people die in car crashes globally every year, and another 20-50 million people are injured or disabled after a car crash – which is an average of about 3,200 deaths every day.

Fortunately, there are things you can do to help solve this menacing issue. Here are some steps you can take to prevent a car accident:

Know your car
First and foremost you should know the vehicle you own, about to drive or currently driving. Every car has its own limitations and you should always know what your car is capable of.

If your vehicle leans a lot when turning, turning the wheels in one direction may not be the best way to avoid an accident. Familiarise yourself with your car’s tyres and brakes and how they react; having this knowledge ahead of time is helpful because you are more likely to react instinctively, quickly and correctly when certain situations arise.

Watch your speed

This can’t ever be overemphasised. Overspeeding so happens to be one of the leading causes of accidents. We would be doing a great deal service and safety, if we all speed – less. You can read more about the dangers and consequences of overspeeding here: https://www.nairaland.com/7803959/dangers-consequences-over-speeding-while-driving

Be aware of threats
When driving, you should drive defensively and always be aware of potential problems. If a car is changing lanes frequently or making a quick turn, if you see an okada too close for comfort, or if it looks like a pedestrian is about to cross into oncoming traffic, do your best to anticipate these situations.

Show up – so be ready for them! Try to get rid of the threat as safely as possible. Also, be prepared to stop suddenly to avoid a collision if and when a potential hazard arises.

Avoid blind spots
Adjusting the rear and side mirrors will help ensure an almost uniform panoramic view of the rear and sides of the car. However, you can’t just rely on them! You should turn around and look directly at the lane next to you so you don’t miss anything that your rearview mirror doesn’t. When driving, also consider the blind spot of other drivers, especially truck drivers. Try to stay out of other people’s blind spots or spend as little time as possible in them. There’s an unofficial rule about truck drivers’ blind spots— if you can’t see them in their often-large mirrors, there’s a good chance they can’t see you either.

Keep your hands in the right position while driving
The best driving position is with the hands at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock. Do not drive lazily with your hands on the bottom of the steering wheel or with one hand in 12 position (top center), but always select positions 9 and 3 to maximise vehicle safety and handling…

If you find yourself driving on a road or in a situation that requires quick manoeuvres intermittently, this will be the best position to ensure your safety.

Correctly adjust the position of the driver’s seat
If your seat is close enough that you can rest your hands on the steering wheel with your arms outstretched and your back against the seat, you will have better steering control.

Please this isn’t taking a swipe at those who haven’t been blessed with height, there isn’t any shame with placing a pillow on the driver’s seat or pushing said seat extremely close to the steering wheel. Remember, safety first.

Rate the driver based on the condition of the vehicle
Yes, it is somewhat wrong to judge a book by its cover; but you can however - judge in this context. You can often make a quick assessment about a driver If their vehicle has several dings and dents, or dirty windows, that’s usually a sign of a careless driver — and you’ll probably want to avoid driving too close to them.

Keep your car well maintained
Follow the manufacturer’s recommended car maintenance schedule to ensure your car accelerates, turns and stops when it should. Change your tyres when they’re due as well, so you’ll be ready when you hit slippery roads or more challenging terrains.

Be careful at night
Some choose to travel at night to avoid traffic, but this only creates new threats and dangers. You may be too tired to see clearly; no one needs a reminder on how bad some of our roads are in Naija. You may also encounter other tired or drunk drivers or, in the worst case scenario, armed robbers and/or kidnappers. Be especially careful when driving at night!

Be courteous to other drivers
You are not the only one on the road, so be aware of others around you and respect them. If someone is moving slower than you want, that’s not a good reason to ignore the following distance rules between you. Maintain a safe following distance (at least half a car’s length) to safely cross banks when they clear.

Apply your own discretion
As with other things in life, there really isn’t any hard and fast rule to be followed to the tee. As we often say – use your head. So please, adjust and amend as necessary…

If you follow the above tips carefully and judiciously, it will help you avoid car accidents. Please drive safely.



Car Talk / Re: Basic Routine Checks For Your Car by AutoHubNG(m): 10:19am On Dec 06, 2023
Very informative.
I will save this post and come for it when I finally have a car.

You're welcome.
Car Talk / Basic Routine Checks For Your Car by AutoHubNG(m): 11:00am On Dec 01, 2023
It is easy to forget to take care of your car and maintain it properly, especially when you’re “always busy”. But if you also want to drive smoothly and prevent your car from breaking down on the road and resulting in expensive repairs, these checks will need to be done frequently.

In order to enjoy the life and optimal performance of your car, you need to be aware of your regular car maintenance habits. You’ll need to take the time to carry out these checks on your car bi-weekly, at the very least. The time (and resources) spent can prevent your car from wearing out quickly.

If you want your car to last a long time, here are some routines that can help maintain your car, keep it in top shape, and keep it safe on the road.

1. Clean your car

Simple, yet so effective! Before going to your car in the morning, it should be cleaned quickly. Keeping your car clean is more than just making it look good. It also makes your car last longer. Every trip you take every day exposes your car to dust, grease, dirt and grime. They can cause your car to rust which isn’t ideal, especially in the long run (maybe when you might want to resell – it’ll reduce your car’s overall value.

You can start with simple cleaning procedures, such as removing trash and dusting the interior of the car, i.e. dashboard, centre console, car seats and floor mats. You can then also use washer fluid to clean exterior parts such as windshields, rearview mirrors, headlights, and car wipers. These basic daily tasks can be done every day to prevent dirt and pollutants from damaging your car. Take care of your car properly to ensure its longevity and safety. You should also wash your car regularly.

2. Check fluid levels

The fluid levels of your car should be checked routinely. These are your car’s engine oil, automatic transmission fluids, radiator coolant reservoirs, power steering, windscreen washer, battery, brake, and clutch fluid. Check the oil level in your car and if it is dirty or running low, ensure that you replace it. The coolant and water levels should also be checked regularly. It is essential to check the radiator coolant levels to see if more coolant is required. You can use a dipstick to check the transmission fluid.

The windscreen washer fluid might need to be filled up with clean water so it is important that it is routinely checked as well. Ensure you check the brake fluid levels. The brake fluid can be inspected visually through the plastic reservoirs and it can be topped up with recommended replacement fluids if and when needed.

Taking proper care of your car by ensuring that your car fluid levels are properly checked and there are no leaking pipes would definitely contribute to less air pollution and a cleaner environment. Making sure that your car fluids are routinely checked and maintained will keep your car longer-lasting and performing optimally.

3. Check the filters

As part of maintaining your car by engaging in the daily routine, you need to ensure that you check your car’s engine air filter, oil filter, and cabin air filter. Your car’s oil is vital for lubricating and keeping important parts of your car’s engine from friction that can totally destroy the engine. It is essential that you check your car’s oil and change it regularly, which is one of the most important routines you have to do to keep your car running smoothly.

Changing your car’s air filters can be one of the easiest routines to do in the morning depending on your car’s model. The efficient operation of your car’s engine requires a mixture of air and fuel. To prevent your air filter from getting clogged with debris or other contaminants, you need to check it then have it cleaned and replaced regularly.

Dirty air filters should be removed otherwise they can increase emissions and reduce both your fuel efficiency and your car’s horsepower. Fresh and uncontaminated oil, clean fuel, and clean air filters will keep your car running smoothly, for longer.

4. Check the spark plug, wires and warning lights

When inspecting your car’s spark plugs and wires, you’ll want to check for signs of melting or severe wear. Other signs that your car’s spark plug is bad include starting problems, irregular engine noises, slow acceleration, power surges, or unusually high fuel consumption. If you notice any of these signs, it may mean that the spark plug needs to be replaced. You can always check your car’s manual for where and how to change your spark plugs, or you can ask a professional mechanic to do it for you.

You should also check your car’s exterior lights, headlights and bulbs. Car warning lights such as engine lights, oil warning lights, electrical fault lights and brake warning lights should not be overlooked. Make sure all broken or damaged indicator lamps and bulbs are properly installed or replaced.

5. Check seat belts, brakes and tyres

If you want to extend the life of your car, you should perform regular car maintenance. You should perform basic safety checks, such as checking the condition of your car’s brakes, seat belts, and tyres. Be sure to check serpentine belts, hoses (including seat belts) to see if they are properly attached or damaged due to wear and tear and need to be replaced.

For safety reasons, check your brake system and brake pads. Check your brakes regularly to keep your car safe on the road. Car tyres are one aspect you don’t want to miss. Your car’s tyres wear easily, so they should be checked regularly. Check your car’s tyre pressure and tread depth. Rotate the tyres and make sure they are properly inflated and in good condition. You don’t want a bump in the road.

Carrying out these checks routinely ought to improve fuel efficiency; keep your car in tip-top working condition, extend its life, and most importantly – keep you safe on the road. Thanks for reading.


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Car Talk / Vehicle Electrical Systems And Components: A Basic Guide by AutoHubNG(m): 11:58am On Nov 24, 2023
Back in the day, and I’m referring to the pre-30s/40s automotive era; vehicles’ circuits were simple, containing only a few basic interlays such as lighting, wiper, etc., but over time vehicular circuitry have gotten immense upgrades which have in turn greatly increased their overall complexity – thereby making the understanding of said electrical systems, a bit challenging.

However, if the electrical system is approached logically, it becomes less of a headache. In this guide, the basics of an electrical system are explained in simple terms. It is essential to know the basics of car electrical systems and how they work, so below is the explanation of a car’s electrical system and how it works. You will learn the basics of a car’s electrical system, vehicle electrics, working parts, and basic terminologies; which are practically used in cars’ electrical systems.

A car’s electrical system is composed of a wiring harness and electrical components. It consists of several smaller, sub-electrical systems such as the ignition system, charging system, starting system, fuel system, lighting system, etc., which work together harmoniously. In all sub-electrical systems, one thing is a must, and that is the need for voltage which is necessary to operate the electrical components.

The car’s electrical system is a bit like your body’s blood circulatory system, the primary function of your blood is to provide oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells and tissues. Similarly, the primary function of the electrical system is to provide voltage to all the electrical components in a vehicle.

Vehicle Electrics

Vehicle electrics is the system of electric wiring and parts in a vehicle. The vehicle electrics interconnect all of the car’s electrical parts with each other by carrying electric current and voltage to all the parts such as various computers, sensors, actuators, motors, gauges, power windows, radio, headlights, sunroof, starter motor, and many other electrical components. All the electrical components receive voltage from the battery and return it to the battery.


The battery is the fundamental source of power in a vehicle’s electrical system that provides electrical current to all electrical components when the engine is OFF. With the engine running, all the electrical components receive energy from the alternators. This is because the alternator produces a higher current than the battery, that’s why it can successfully charge the battery as well supply current to all the other electrical needs of the car while the engine is running.

How Car Electrical Systems Work

As previously stated, a car’s electrical system works by providing voltage which is necessary to operate all its electrical components. Without voltage, the electrical system is only just a bunch of wires.

Sub-Systems Of A Car’s Electrical System

A car’s electrical system is composed of many sub-electrical systems. Below are the common sub-electrical systems, which are:

1. Charging System

2. Ignition System

3. Starting System

4. Fuel System

1. Charging System

The alternator is the main component of the charging system. It supplies the charge to the battery and accessories. The charging system provides electricity to your car’s electrical system. It provides the current to your car’s electrical system and components – such as starting system, ignition system, fuel system, lighting system, radio, air conditioner, washer pump, etc.

The battery stores the electrical current and initially provides the current to the car’s electrical system when the engine is OFF. When the engine has been started and the alternator starts to produce the electrical current, that current starts to flow from the alternator onwards to the car’s entire electrical system.

2. Ignition System

The function of the Ignition System is to provide a continuous spark to the spark plug in the compression stroke of the gasoline engine cylinders. The ignition system’s job is to ignite the air-fuel mixture in a petrol engine cylinder.

The ignition system consists of many components such as ignition coils, spark plugs, battery, fuse, and relay. The ignition coil converts the normal battery voltage to a high voltage pulse that goes into the engine cylinder to ignite the air-fuel mixture.

It is worth noting that diesel engines do not have the classic ignition system; instead in a diesel engine, the air-fuel mixture gets ignited when it is compressed to such an extent that it heats up and ignites in the combustion chamber.

3. Starting System

The starting system is an electrical system that works on the principle of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Previously, a mechanical hand crank was used to start up a car but in 1912, the electrical starting system was introduced to start a car.

The function of the starting system is to provide an engine start. The starter motor is the main basic component in the starting system. It uses electrical energy and converts it into rotational energy.

4. Fuel System

The fuel system is an electrical system that provides fuel to the engine cylinder. In the past, the fuel system was mechanical in which a mechanical fuel pump was used to send the fuel to the engine cylinder.

However, due to advancements in technology, the fuel system is now able to operate electrically. The fuel tank stores the fuel that is pumped by the fuel pump through fuel pipelines to the engine cylinder. A fuel system consists of a fuel pump, fuel filter, inertia safety switch, fuse, and relay.

Car Electrical Parts

Every part in a vehicle that operates electrically or electronically is called a vehicle’s electrical system part.

In the early generation of vehicles, the majority of components were mechanical and simple. With time, the vehicle’s parts got updated, and components started to operate electrically or electronically.

The reason for operating the parts electrically and electronically is for ease of operation and precision control. A car’s electrical system has hundreds of electrical and electronic parts. Let’s have a look at five of them, namely:

1. Fuse

2. Relay

3. Battery

4. Alternator

5. Starter Motor

1. Fuse

The fuse is the most essential part of a car’s electrical system. It is a safety device used to protect the electrical wiring from damage in the event of a short circuit.

A fuse kills itself when the current exceeds its pre-determined current value. Ideally, every electrical circuit in a car should have a fuse to protect the circuit from damage in the unfortunate event of an overload. The fuse’s working principle is based on the heating effect of the current. It is designed to blow up in an overload situation and break the connection.

A fuse contains a metal element and two terminals encased by a plastic housing body. The metal element is a resistive material made from zinc, copper, or aluminum, which produces heat when the current flows through it.

When the current exceeds its predetermined current value, too much heat is produced in the fuse element which causes it to blow the fuse. The fuse element is soldered to the fuse terminals. Fuses are located in the fuse box inside the cabin or outside in the engine compartment. Some aftermarket circuits use an inline fuse.

2. Relay

The relay is a very important car electrical system part. It can control many electrical circuits with a single trigger.

A relay is an electromagnetic switch used to connect and disconnect the electrical circuit. It is mostly used in heavy circuits, which consume a tremendous amount of current. The relay controls a large amount of current by using only a small amount to avoid burden on the wires.

The engine cooling fan uses a relay to provide a high amount of current to the cooling fan for maximum cooling. Similarly, the car’s air conditioner, ABS Motor, headlight, starter motor, horn, etc., use a relay to provide the maximum current to the components and avoid load on the wires. Relays are fitted alongside fuses in the fuse box.

Usually, there are three types of relays used in the automobile industry – they are three-pin, four-pin, and five-pin Relays. The four and five-pin relays are very common in vehicles.

3. Battery

The battery is the heart and most necessary part of a car’s electrical system. It provides life to the electrical system. It is the basic source of electricity in the car’s electrical system. It provides electric current through wires to all the electrical components.

The battery is an electrochemical device and a power bank, which stores the electrical current. It stores the electric current in chemical form and converts it into electrical (electric current) form when required. With the engine OFF, the battery provides the current to all the electrical circuits, including ignition and starting circuit to start up the engine. And when the engine starts, the alternator supplies current to all the electrical circuits.

The lead-Acid battery is one of the most common batteries in the car. It contains lead plates submerged in sulfuric acid.

The battery acts as a reservoir when the current demand is higher than what the alternator produces. The battery also provides additional current to the electrical circuits. Similarly, the battery acts as a stabiliser, it regulates damaging voltage spikes when the engine is running.

4. Alternator

The alternator is one of the essential parts of the car’s electrical system. The alternator is an electro-mechanical device, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy driven by the engine belt. The alternators produce AC current that is converted to DC current by a rectifier (also known as a diode bridge which consists of six diodes).

The alternator provides electrical power to the car’s electrical system and battery while the engine is running. It initially needs the current (which the battery produces at first) to start producing the electric current. This initial current is known as excitation, in which the alternator is excited by the battery ignition switch through the exciter wire.

The type of alternator, which needs an excitation from the battery to start producing electric current is called a non-self-exciting alternator. Some alternators do not need an excitation current; those types of alternators are called self-exciting alternators.

A fully charged battery gives almost 12.6 volts (with the engine off), and a good working alternator produces almost 14 to 14.6 volts. To charge the battery, an alternator must produce a higher voltage than the battery.

5. Starter Motor

The starter motor is an electrical component of the car’s electrical system that helps in starting the car.

The starter motor, also called a starter or self-starter. It’s a device used to crank the engine. It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy in an IC (Internal Combustion) engine and is usually mounted on the back of the engine casing, or in front of the transmission housing.

The starter motor consists of several parts such as armature, commutator, brushes, pinion gear, overrunning clutch, field coil or permanent magnet, and planetary gear set. All these parts combine to create the starter motor. A solenoid fits on the starter motor assembly, which acts as an electromagnetic switch. The solenoid connects and disconnects the battery to the starter motor.

With this, you now have a good idea about how a car’s electrical system functions, and its various parts. Thanks for reading as always.


Car Talk / 360⁰ Inspection Of A Vehicle You Intend To Purchase by AutoHubNG(m): 1:06pm On Nov 17, 2023
Most used cars are often advertised as “like new” or “in mint condition”, but they are still used cars after all has been said and done. Not saying there aren’t clean cars out there, and the goal isn’t to find a “perfect used-car” but at the very least – find one that’s in good condition.

The best advice is usually to have the car checked first by a mechanic you trust before spending any money but if you know how to identify potential problems and warning signs on your own, it’s an added advantage and that can help you prevent getting a less-than-ideal car at the end of the day.

Here are some tips to further aid you in your quest to find a used car:

Prepare in advance

As with any large purchase, it’ll be wise to take the time to do background research on a used car. If you’re focusing on a specific model, a simple Google search can reveal the most common problems with that used car. Consulting experts and consumer reviews and owner forums can help you gain first-hand insight.

Explore the exterior

It’s amazing what an afternoon of detailing, polishing, and buffing can do to a vehicle. However, don’t let that sparkling paint job distract you. In fact, walk around the car and look at it closely to find signs of repairs that may not have appeared in the pictures you must have seen at first. If the paint colour seems to be a bit off on some body panels or if there’s body-colour paint where it shouldn’t be (like on the trim or windows), or something just doesn’t appear to line up correctly, ask the seller for an explanation and consider moving on to another car. These repairs could be pointing to a simple touch-up or more serious damage.

If the vehicle is older or has spent its life in one of the states with icy climatic conditions, you’ll also want to check for rust or corrosion damage. The most problematic areas are around the wheel wells and along the bottom of the doors (inside and outside). Newer cars are well protected in this regard, but once rust sets in, it’ll be an ongoing and expensive battle to keep it in check.

Also, when examining the exterior of the car, endeavour to inspect the windshield for chips, cracks, or pits. If it looks damaged, you’ll want to have it replaced.

Next, test the exterior lights by having the seller or salesperson activate them individually while you observe them from outside. This may seem like an overkill – until you see the replacement cost of increasingly common high-tech LED headlights especially with the sky rocketing exchange rate. Hmm, make you shine ya eye well O!

Finally, inspect the tyres. If you’re looking at a relatively new, low-mileage car with brand-new, hardly used tyres, that’s a sign of a possible issue and it warrants asking the seller why they needed to be replaced so soon.
Inspect the rims properly as well. It’s common for most young people to want to change the rims as soon as they purchase a vehicle (which don’t come cheap these days), so ask yourself if you want continue using said rims. Also, old tyres – whether worn out/down or starting to dry or rot from age and lack of use will need to be replaced as well, and usually for considerable sum so factor that in during your negotiation.

Investigate the interior

Nothing ruins the appeal of a new or new-to-you car like a stinky interior. Unfortunately, mysterious stale cigarette smoke and other musty, moldy smells can be hard to treat. Foul stenches can also suggest possible past fire or flood damage.

Assuming the interior passes the sniff test, look for excessive wear, rips, cracks, stains, burn holes, or damage in general to the upholstery, headliner, dashboard, steering wheel and door panels. If these areas appear to have been abused or poorly maintained, chances are the rest of the vehicle was treated similarly. The same goes for all of the seat and audio controls, gauges and basic features like turn signals and the rear-view mirror. These should all work properly and be affixed securely. Of course, any illuminated warning lights are a red flag especially in more modern cars and should be addressed before purchase.

Regardless of the season or outside temperature, do your best to determine if the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system is operating correctly, including each of the zones (driver/passenger/rear, if applicable). I remember how the climatic zone settings in one commercial Sienna I travelled in kept malfunctioning as the front passenger vent kept blowing out hot-air; making for an uncomfortable journey. If the AC fails to pump out cold air within a few minutes, it may need a recharge or extensive repair.

Before calling it a wrap on the interior, take a peek inside the boot/trunk or cargo area and check for smells or indications of water damage or structural repairs. Very “importanter”

Look under the bonnet

For many of us, looking under the bonnet of a car is like trying to read a book written in a foreign language. It can be intimidating, but a few simple steps will let you evaluate the overall health of an engine. First, check the condition of the engine oil by pulling out the dipstick, which usually has a yellow pull-tab or hook on the end. There are markings on the end of the dipstick that show the oil level (too low may mean the engine is leaking or burning oil). The colour of the oil should be light brown or brown; if it is black, the oil is dirty and needs to be changed. Oil that contains grit or water, is foamy, or has a milky appearance is indicative of a serious engine issue. Transmission fluid, which can also often be checked with a dipstick, should be pinkish. It should smell sweet. If it smells burnt, there’s likely an issue with the transmission.

There are a number of reservoirs that you’ll see scattered throughout the engine bay for brake fluid, power steering fluid and engine coolant. Each has markings to show you if the fluid is at the proper level. A low level is likely attributable to a leak, which would need to be fixed.

While you’re looking around, take a gander at the hoses and belts. Neither should be brittle or cracked. The battery is almost always under the bonnet but occasionally located in the boot (more common in modern luxury German cars), needs to be checked for excessive corrosion around the terminals. Cleaning the terminals is a simple fix, but if it isn’t done, you could eventually have difficulty starting the car.

Check underneath

There are two main culprits to look for underneath a vehicle and they are – rust and leaks. Although newer cars use better materials and processes to prevent rust from becoming an issue, it can still do proper damage. Pay particular attention to rust on the exhaust system and the frame. Light surface rust is normal and basically unavoidable, but steer clear of vehicles with heavy scaling. A fresh undercoat, welding or paint underneath an older or high-mileage vehicle is a often indicative of problems past or those to come. You can also inquire what was changed/done, then verify and ask yourself if it’s something you can live with.

As for fluid under the vehicle, anything other than condensation from the air conditioning unit is a concern. Perhaps it was nothing more than the technician failing to tighten the drain plug after the last oil change, or maybe it’s a corroded brake line or failing oil-pan gasket. Regardless, fluid leaks can lead to expensive repairs. So check, check, check…


Suspension issues can be costly to remedy too. Whether it’s you or your mechanic test driving, there’s a great need to observe how well the suspension responds on uneven road surfaces. Your inspection should include checking the shocks and struts for leaks and conducting the highly-rated unofficial bounce test (lean on each corner of the car repeatedly to test the stiffness of the suspension).

Consult the pros

As important as your personal inspection is to the buying process, nothing matches the experience of a trained expert. Mechanics/auto-diagnostics technicians will typically charge a token for a pre-purchase inspection but they can justify that expense by fully detailing the condition of the car and providing estimates for any necessary or recommended repairs. That relatively small expense could potentially save you a lot that might be spent further down the road.


Purchasing a used vehicle is a significant endeavour. So, take your time to research what might be the best car for you and then methodically work through your inspection. Be patient; check the exterior, interior, underside and under the bonnet. If you see any cause for concern, move on to the next car. If everything looks good, and your mechanic gives you the all-clear then – congrats! Hopefully your newly acquired ride serves you well.


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Car Talk / Common Signs Your Engine Needs An Oil Change by AutoHubNG(m): 1:06pm On Nov 10, 2023
Oil is to your car just as blood is to your body - but over time, your body can purify the blood and produce new blood cells. Your car can’t. Oil changes are part of regular, ongoing maintenance, and while they may seem relatively simple, they’re actually one of the most important types of car maintenance you need to keep your vehicle healthy and last longer.

Not changing your engine oil regularly can cause a number of problems, from reduced fuel economy to serious engine damage to complete engine failure! How do you know when to change your engine oil? We’ve listed the common signs that your engine needs an oil change or additional maintenance below. Enjoy…

The need for regular oil changes

Before we get into the signs that your engine needs an oil change, it’s important to understand a little about engine oil, the different types of oil available on the market, and why you should change your oil. We’ve been talking about Motor oil and some might ask – what is it? Motor oil (https://www.nairaland.com/7891645/types-motor-oil) is a viscous liquid that helps lubricate and cool your car’s engine.

All car engines need engine oil, but the type, weight, and viscosity of oil varies from engine to engine. It will also vary depending on when the engine was built. Newer engines have stricter requirements for fuel economy and gas mileage – which means engine clearances are tighter. Most engines today use thinner oil than they did 10, 20, or 30 years ago.

There are two main types of motor oil: mineral oil and synthetic oil. Mineral oil is a petroleum product derived from crude oil, just like gasoline. In contrast, synthetic oils are developed in laboratories. There are also mixtures of these two oils. Mineral oil is usually cheaper, but doesn’t last as long. Synthetic oils are more expensive, but require fewer natural resources and last longer (thousands of miles in most cases).

Your engine is designed to use a certain weight of oil, usually listed in your owner’s manual or on the engine oil cap. It can read 0W20, 5W20 or 5W30.
Some vehicles use higher weights, but these are becoming less common (10W30, 10W40, 20W50, etc.).
Be sure to follow the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended oil weight for your engine, otherwise fuel economy may decrease over time or even damage the engine over time.

Why is oil important?

Engine oil is important for several reasons:

The most important reason for engine oil is lubrication. It keeps all the moving parts protected, and prevents them from rubbing against one another. Without oil, metal-on-metal wear would destroy your engine in a very short period of time. Engine oil creates an atoms-thin layer between moving parts, preventing full contact and prolonging engine life.

The second reason for engine oil to be used in your car is cooling. Most of the cooling needed is supplied by the coolant system (radiator, thermostat, water pump, etc.). However, engine oil does provide some supplemental cooling for areas of the engine where coolant cannot reach.

Engine oil is also responsible for helping to clean the engine, removing debris like metal filings and other potentially damaging deposits.

When should I change my oil?

There is no single oil change interval recommended for all engines any longer. Once upon a time, most mechanics recommended changing your engine oil every three months or 4,800 km (3,000 miles), whichever came first. That is no longer the case because with higher quality oils and oil blends these days, we can now drive longer between oil changes. Some oil types can even last up to 16,000 km (10,000 miles) between changes (high-end synthetic oils).

However, the best rule of thumb is to follow your automaker’s recommendation, which should be listed in your owner’s manual. If you don’t have your manual, go with the three-months (two to three long-distance journeys in some cases) rule for conventional mineral oil, and follow your mechanic’s recommendation for synthetic oils.

What is viscosity?

Oil viscosity is nothing more than a term used to express oil’s ability to lubricate your engine and protect moving parts. Over time and through heat, oil thins out and becomes less viscous. This reduces its viscosity and its ability to protect your engine. Thus, the need to change your oil regularly.

What will happen if I drive without oil?

If you were to drive your car with low engine oil, it may do nothing more than result in minor excess wear to internal engine components. It really depends on how low the oil level is. You are generally safe up to about a quarter low. However, if you were to drive with no engine oil at all, the engine would quickly seize up, and you would need to replace the entire engine.

What will happen if I put the wrong oil in my car?

Again, it really depends on the type of oil you add to your engine. In some instances, you’ll notice no difference at all. In others, you’ll see reduced fuel economy. This should be no problem to switch between two different types of oil with different viscosities.

However, you may lose some properties depending on the type of oil you decide to use. For example, going from 5W40 to 5W30 loses some of the benefits at higher temperatures, as a higher number after the W indicates that the oil is more efficient at higher temperatures. In very serious cases, you could cause excess wear to the oil pump, leading to a shorter engine life.

Signs that you need to change your oil

Now that we’ve covered a bit about what engine oil is, why changing it matters, and the type of oil on the market, let’s delve into how you can tell if you need to have your engine oil changed. These common oil change signs are here to guide you:

1. Check your mileage sticker or leaflet

Most mechanics will indicate when you should return. Some workshops will either issue you a leaflet or place a clear sticker on the inside of the windshield on the driver’s side of the car. Here, you’ll find the date and/or specific mileage when you should return.

2. Dark and or dirty oil

When oil is new, it is clean and is usually light to dark gold in colour (this largely depends on the weight/thickness). Over time and through use, oil darkens. This is due to heat, but also to the impurities and debris it picks up while being pumped through the engine. Checking the dipstick regularly will let you keep an eye on the colour of your engine oil as it changes over time. If you pull out the dipstick and notice that the oil is dark, it’s time to change it.

3. Engine noise/knocking

Engine oil’s primary job is lubrication. When there’s not enough oil, moving parts within the engine do not get the lubrication they need. This allows them to make physical, metal-to-metal contact, which can cause a light tapping or knocking sound. You may also hear lifters and/or cam bearing noise due to low oil pressure within the engine if the level is low. Engine noise can also occur when the oil is old and has lost its viscosity (ability to lubricate).

Note that this is not the same as “engine knock” – it’s more of sputtering noise, which is caused by an incorrect air-to-fuel ratio. If you hear engine noise, it is crucial to check your oil level and have it changed immediately. This is a tell-tale oil change sign. It might even be necessary to add oil to the engine to make it safer to drive down to the mechanic shop before the commencement of any repairs.

4. Exhaust smoke

In most cases, your car’s exhaust will be mostly invisible, although it will have a slight smell to it. Note that petrol engines produce very little coloured exhaust smoke, unlike diesel engines, which produce black, soot-like exhaust smoke. However, if you notice that you have blue-ish smoke coming from your exhaust, it’s a sign that there’s something wrong.

Generally, blue smoke is caused by oil seeping into the engine and being burned along with the fuel. Your engine will be low on oil as well. There is also the possibility that there is an external oil leak, and the oil is dripping onto the exhaust system. Note that if the exhaust smoke is grey-ish, it is more likely to be caused by an incorrect fuel-to-air ratio, as your engine is burning “rich” that is – too much fuel is being combusted.

5. You smell oil inside the car

If you smell oil inside the car, it means just one thing – you have an oil leak, and it’s dripping onto a hot part of the engine or exhaust and is burning away. There are plenty of potential areas for oil to leak, including from the following:

Oil plug: This is the drain plug in your engine’s oil pan. It is taken out during oil changes and replaced. However, if it is not tightened properly, or the gasket has degraded (if present), it may drip oil.

Oil filter: The oil filter cleans particulate matter from the oil as it passes through, and should be replaced after each oil change. If the filter is not seated properly or has deteriorated, it can leak oil. The filter can also be damaged, causing an oil leak.

Valve cover gasket: Oil can leak from around the edges of the valve cover gasket at the top of your engine, and then down the side of the engine. Depending on your engine size, you may have more than one valve cover gasket.

Oil sending unit: The oil sending unit, or pressure switch, is usually located on the back of the engine and can leak oil down the block if the gasket is damaged.

Oil pan gasket: The oil pan gasket seals the oil pan to the bottom of the engine. It can leak at any point around its circumference.

Head gasket: A head gasket leak can cause oil to spill down the head of the engine (and usually requires engine tear down to replace).

Front/rear main seals: A leaking front or rear main seal can cause engine oil to leak down the left or right side of the engine, or down the front/back of the engine, depending on the drivetrain type.

Many minor oil leaks are fine to leave as is, so long as your mechanic monitors them over time at each oil change/maintenance service. However, if you are smelling burning oil in the interior of your car, then the leak is severe, and must be repaired immediately. Failure to do so will result in damage to the engine, or even its complete destruction. In some cases, it may even lead to an unfortunate vehicle fire if the oil on the engine ignites.

6. Oil check light on the dashboard

Your dashboard houses a number of important warning lights, including the check engine light, battery light, and more. It also includes an oil check light. This light is red, and shaped like an oil can with a drip coming from the spout. As you might assume, this is one of the easiest oil change signs to interpret since your car is actually telling you it needs an oil change.

If this light comes on while you’re driving, pull over as soon as it is safe to do so and turn off your engine. The light could indicate a couple of different things, but generally comes on when the oil pressure in the engine drops below safe levels. Usually, this is because there is too little oil in the engine. However, it can also mean that the pump/sending unit is faulty and needs to be replaced.

Check the oil level as soon as it is safe. If it is low, you’ll need to top it off with fresh oil. Once you’ve added oil, crank the engine and see if the light goes off. If it does, get the oil changed soon and have the mechanic check for leaks that might have led to the low oil condition.

If the light does not go off, it’s best to call for roadside assistance, as it means that there is insufficient oil pressure in the engine, most likely due to a failed oil pump. Some engine models can operate with very low oil pressure without sustaining too much damage, but most cannot. It is best to play it safe and call for a tow.

7. Oil change reminder light

Newer vehicles usually have two oil lights – one is a red warning light discussed above. The other is an oil change warning light. This oil change sign light has nothing whatsoever to do with your oil level or the amount of oil pressure within the engine. It automatically comes on at certain mileage points as a reminder that it is time to have your oil changed. Your mechanic should reset this light at each service.

If it has come on, it means that you have gone beyond your manufacturer’s recommended service interval mileage, or that the mechanic did not reset the light at your previous service. Check to see if there is an oil change sticker on your windshield. If there is, compare the mileage written on that with the mileage on your odometer. If the odometer reads higher, then you’ve missed your oil change window and you need to have it changed soon. If the sticker mileage is higher, then the mechanic probably forgot to reset the light.

8. Oil level is low

It’s important for all car owners to know where their oil dipstick is located, and to check the level on a regular basis. This allows you to keep an eye on oil consumption, colour and condition; and avoid problems before they become serious. Ideally, you should check your oil level weekly, but once per month is usually safe as well.

If you check your dipstick and the oil level is low, it may mean any number of things. First, it’s considered normal for some engines to use a small amount of oil between oil change intervals. The exact amount differs from automaker to automaker and model to model, as well as with time. For instance, for some Honda Accords made during the 2000s, it is considered normal for the engine to burn up to a quart of oil between oil changes. This oil is not leaked, but burned off.

If the oil is below the safe level on the oil dipstick (some dipsticks use full and safe marks, while others use hashmarks to indicate the safe range), you’ll need to top it off. In most instances, the bottom mark on the dipstick represents the engine being a quart low. If you are within the mileage for your oil service, you may be fine just topping off.

However, if you are at your oil change mileage or beyond, it is important to have your oil changed. It’s also important to have the mechanic you use – check for oil leaks during the service. As mentioned, some oil consumption may be normal, but it may also be caused by a leaking gasket or other problems.

9. Excessive mileage

We rely on our cars to get us to and from work, back and forth from the store, and more. We also rely on them to take us longer distances – your annual “December” vacation trip to the village is a great example. However, long drives put a lot of wear on the engine, and on the engine oil. You should have the oil changed immediately before the trip, and then again once the trip is over. Why, though? Because prolonged use and long periods of time at high temperatures degrade oil more quickly than normal use. The oil will darken more quickly, pick up impurities faster, and lose its ability to lubricate in a much shorter amount of time. Changing your oil before and after a long trip ensures that you don’t inadvertently cause damage to the engine by running oil that’s lost its ability to lubricate.

If you own a used car, you must be even more diligent regarding oil changes because it is likely that your vehicle has already racked up some miles. It is recommended that as your car’s odometer continues to grow larger, you schedule or perform oil changes more frequently and use oil specially designed for high-mileage vehicles. It’s worth noting that some modern cars and ultra high quality oils as stated previously can go well beyond 2/3 trips but it is usually advised to play it safe and change the oil after a trip, especially with older cars.

10. Car stalling

Many modern vehicles are designed with several fail-safes to help protect the engine in adverse conditions. One of this is an automatic shutoff when the oil pressure drops to a certain level, or the oil level drops too low (note that this is not the case for all cars). This causes the engine to stall and die. However, engine stalling itself is very damaging to the engine, as it could lead to damage to the pistons, head and other components.

11. Overheating

Last but not the least is overheating – generally isn’t associated with low oil levels, although it should be. It’s usually noticed if your coolant is low, but low oil can also cause the engine to overheat. This can occur even if your coolant level is fine. If there is too little oil in the engine, it will continue to heat up because it has no opportunity to cool. This means that the engine coolant has a harder time siphoning off excess heat, and you’ll notice your temperature gauge start to climb (note that your temperature gauge indicates coolant temperature, not oil temperature).

If you notice your coolant gauge rising into unsafe levels (yellow or red on the gauge), find somewhere safe to pull over and let it cool down. While the engine is cooling off, check the oil level. If it is low, it will need to be topped off before driving to a mechanic. You should also check your coolant level, but do not do this until the engine is completely cool. Hot coolant can explode out of the reservoir or radiator and cause serious burns.

Once the engine has cooled down, check the coolant level and top it off if necessary. Never run your engine if it is overheating as it can cause serious damage up to, and including cracking the engine block – which essentially destroys the engine.

In the end, it is vital that you keep a close eye on the oil condition and level in your car. Always ensure that it is being serviced at the right intervals, and that you are using the right type and oil weight for your engine as per manufacturer specifications. Any signs of low oil, low oil pressure, oil leaks, or overheating should be addressed immediately. And as always, thanks for reading and do have a safe drive out there.


Car Talk / Re: Driving Through Flooded Roads: The Dos And Don’ts by AutoHubNG(m): 1:48pm On Nov 03, 2023
... and i just reved my engine inside okearo matogun flooded road.
Car Talk / Re: Driving Through Flooded Roads: The Dos And Don’ts by AutoHubNG(m): 1:48pm On Nov 03, 2023
How do you maintain the 3rd point when the vehicle has automatic transmission?

It's better to do so with a manual transmission but in a an automatic, use a lower gear - 1/L or 2 & try to maintain the same speed whilst in the water.
Car Talk / Driving Through Flooded Roads: The Dos And Don’ts by AutoHubNG(m): 10:41am On Nov 03, 2023
Those of us who have to drive as our daily routine don’t always do so in pleasurable circumstances. There are roads that we have to commute across – which are a bit uncomfortable to drive through, such as flooded roads in this instance; and on that note, let us explore some of the “Dos and Don’ts” when driving (as safely as possible) through a flooded road.

Firstly, we’ll touch on some of the things that you should do:

1. Check for another way around

This might seem contrary to the title but is probably the best advice that can be given in such a scenario. If it’s possible to access your destination via an alternate route, the best option would be to choose said route – even if it takes longer, as driving through a flooded road portends danger for your car and you (in cases where the water level is powerful enough to push off your vehicle and keep you adrift).

2. Slow Down/Drive slowly

No driver needs to be told this, common sense should prevail, however, it has to be reiterated, still. It boggles the mind to see people driving hastily in wet driving conditions. Driving slowly through murky water not only benefits you and your vehicle but other road users as well. It behoves you to do the responsible thing.

3. Rev the engine

Revving the engine or “to raise am” as we normally say in our local parlance entails driving through a flooded road with a lower gear and not letting up on the RPM i.e keeping the engine roar steadily (doesn’t mean speeding through please). This ensures water doesn’t enter the engine through various outlets as the car spurts out air continuously thereby keeping water out which of course is a very good thing at that moment.

4. Try to assess where the water level is lower and drive there instead

Usually the advice is “Drive in the middle of the road” but we all know driving in Naija presents a whole different challenge altogether (just ask our “law makers”). You’re advised to use your head and check properly where the road is higher and drive over that path instead. There might be a notorious pothole in the middle of road, or a manhole cover(s) which isn’t present. Just observe and react accordingly.

Also, look out for how and where commercial vehicles are taking as they usually have a better understanding about how to navigate through our “challenging” roadways.

5. Be alert and sufficiently aware of other drivers

As the saying goes – “Shine ya eyes well well.”, you don’t need to be told to be alert when driving in such tricky conditions such as when it’s raining heavily and our “poor drainage system” kicks in. Unfortunately, not everyone will be as careful as you when driving so watch out, no distractions, forget whatever it is that’s going to engage you later on and focus deeply on the task at hand – which is ensuring that you come through safely.

As for the don’ts:

1. Don’t follow blindly/closely (tailgate)

When driving through a flooded road it is extremely important to give enough space from the vehicle in front of you. Half or a full car’s length is considered standard; the reason is so as to not get stuck if the vehicle in front of you suddenly breaks down. Some drivers’ misfortune just might be your saving grace unfortunately, as they might run into a ditch or some other unforeseen incident which should serve as a guide to you. So, always give enough room yourself in order to be to able to manoeuvre your way out.

2. Avoid braking hard and fast

Braking too fast and or hard when driving through a flooded road can cause you to lose control especially if the tyres lock up. It is advised you drive slowly (as earlier mentioned) and brake slowly as well. Never be in a hurry to drive through a flooded road for your own good.

3. Don’t try to restart your car if it goes off (If the water level is above your tyres)

Restarting your car if and when it goes off whilst in a flood can be detrimental to its engine as water might end up getting into it. It is strongly advised that you wait then tow it out instead.

After you come out of the flood

When you’ve successfully driven out of the flooded part of the road, you should press your brakes repeatedly to not only test it out, but to dry it off as well. You might also want to come to down and physically inspect your car and assess if there’s any damage.

Hopefully, you’ve found this useful. Have a safe drive out there.


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Car Talk / Types Of Motor Oil by AutoHubNG(m): 12:52pm On Oct 27, 2023
Engine oil for your car is very important and can’t ever be overstated. Knowing what type your engine needs on the other hand – largely depends on many factors but whichever you choose, consult your car’s manual first.

If you reside in a region where it’s common to experience extreme temperatures, you’d be better off using oil types with high viscosity and that possess also – the ability to maintain their quality over time.

We’ll go into more detail about the different types of motor oil for your car but before that we have to highlight the importance of motor oil being one of the most important fluids in your car because without oil, your engine can quickly break down and you just might end up needing a new one!

Importance of oil to your engine

An engine consists of many interacting parts that rub against each other constantly, creating a lot of friction. Too much friction in turn can cause the motor to overheat and this is one of the worst things that can happen while your engine is running. Using motor oil ensures proper engine lubrication and prevents friction that can cause said overheating and significant wear. We all know that car engine repairs or replacements can be quite expensive so if there’s anything that you can do to avoid such situation, you should by all means.

Because oil deteriorates over time, it may be necessary to change the oil frequently depending on the type of oil you choose and the recommendations in your vehicle owner’s manual as stated earlier. Please note that it is never a good idea to skip an oil change because if you skip an oil change, the oil will lose its important engine lubrication properties and the engine will appear to have little or no oil left, and this can have devastating effects on your engine’s overall health.

The frequency of oil changes however varies greatly on the type of engine oil chosen. Therefore, when choosing an engine oil, pay attention to the frequency of oil changes – especially if you do not want to change the oil often due to your “busy” schedule.

Motor oils

Motor oils come in many varieties, here are some you may encounter when shopping for your next oil. Of course, each oil has its own characteristics and certain advantages, but like all else – it also has disadvantages. There are four categories of commonly used oil, they comprise of:

i. Regular oil

ii. Fully-synthetic oil

iii. Synthetic-blend oil

iv. High-performance oil

Now let’s take a look at the list of motor oils you may come across and highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each:

i. Regular oil

Most vehicles use regular oil. It is simply designed to give the engine the properties it needs to achieve the correct lubrication level without causing the engine to overheat.

ii. Fully-synthetic oil

Synthetic oil or fully synthetic motor oil is the best type of motor oil. It has a higher viscosity and additional properties that prevent engine oxidation problems and thermal damage. Synthetic oil is recommended for larger vehicles and vehicles that require the highest performance. For example, if you drive a car with a turbo engine or need more power without stressing the engine, you may want to consider synthetic oil. One of the best things about this oil is that it doesn’t break down easily, so you don’t have to worry about frequent oil changes.

Some experts have even claimed that you can wait up to a year to change the oil without worrying about engine damage. However, that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t pay attention to the signs that it’s time to change your car’s oil.

Unfortunately, synthetic oil is much more expensive than regular oil. In some cases, you might even end up paying 2-3 times more for synthetic oil and in other cases 4 times more. Therefore, before making a final decision, it is necessary to consult a mechanic to make it clear whether it is necessary to switch to this type of oil.

Another consideration is vehicle compatibility. If you have an older car, you may want to think twice before switching to synthetic oil. Synthetic oil contains special chemicals that effectively clean and break down sludge in engine oil. It is of high quality. However, older cars have weaker engine seals, which can be very dangerous. Again, endeavour to carry out your own research as there isn’t any blanket solution when it comes to choosing the motor oil that best suits your engine.

iii. Synthetic-blend oil

Synthetic oil is a cross between conventional and synthetic oils. As the ever-continuing and ever-expanding natural demands of any free market try to be met, new products will always be launched, eventually. Since this oil type sorts out a couple of issues, the experts decided to combine the qualities of Regular and Synthetic oil to develop a new type of oil that provides very good performance; yet – can be bought at a reasonable price.

iv. High-performance oil

As the name states – this is a highly refined type of motor oil and can protect the engine for an adequate period of time.

The type of engine oil used plays an important role in protecting the engine and reducing the frequency of oil changes. As we’ve detailed before, some oils may not need to be changed as often as fully synthetic oils. On the other hand, if you decide to use Regular oil, you may need to go to the garage more often or change the oil yourself more often than not. Another thing to consider is high-mileage oil. If you drive a high-mileage vehicle, using Regular engine oil may not help you, especially if you experience frequent oil leaks.

What is the viscosity of engine oil?

Have you ever noticed that motor oil has a description like “10W-40”? Or maybe something like “20W-50”? All of these codes indicate certain characteristics of the oil in your vehicle. Deciphering these numbers and letters is important because it will help you determine which oil is right for your car and which oil should be changed at different times and seasons – for those who reside in parts of the world that experience polar climatic conditions.

Oil viscosity simply refers to the flow rate of the oil. This is important because the faster the flow rate, the easier it is for the oil to reach accessible areas in the engine and lubricate it properly.

The letter W in motor oil indicates that the oil is cold resistant. With this, you’ll know how well the oil keeps your engine running in extremely cold conditions. For example, if the letter W is associated with a smaller number, the oil will run faster and smoother at lower temperatures. Usually, the fastest and lowest number is 0W.

The second part of the oil code represents the viscosity of the oil when the engine reaches about 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees Fahrenheit). This function is very important, especially when driving in high temperature conditions where there is a very high risk of oil evaporation.

Can different types of oil grades be mixed? Many car owners are always worried about mixing different types of engine oil. However, there's nothing to worry about as these oils are miscible, meaning you don’t have to worry about mixing different types of oil as long as they are specified for your engine. For example, if you mix one litre of 5W40 oil with another litre of 5W30 oil, you will not have any problems and the mixture is safe to use in a vehicle.

What happens if I use 5W40 instead of 5W30, for example? This should also be no problem to switch between two different types of oil with different viscosities. However, you may lose some properties depending on the type of oil you decide to use. For example, going from 5W40 to 5W30 loses some of the benefits at higher temperatures, as a higher number after the W indicates that the oil is more efficient at higher temperatures.

Can two different brands of motor oils be mixed? Again, yes. There are many different brands of motor oil. Mixing different brands is not a problem as long you can get the right mixture for your engine eventually. If you decide to use one quart of Mobil 1 oil with another quart of Motul oil for instance, you should be fine. Don’t forget when you mix synthetic oil with regular oil, you get the synthetic-blend type.

Hopefully, you now have a better idea about motor oils. As stated, the choice of type of engine oil largely depends on many factors, including the age of the vehicle, the season, etc. If your car is not in basic mechanical condition, it is better to choose the best and highest quality engine oil. Thanks for reading.


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Car Talk / Vehicle Glass Tint; The Good, The Bad, And The In-between by AutoHubNG(m): 10:09am On Oct 20, 2023
We all know modern vehicles usually come default with some level of tint, but this is usually met with some form of friction by authorities the world over due to one reason or the other. However, there are legitimate concerns from car manufacturers as to why they tint the glass in and around their vehicles. And with that said, let’s look at some of the merits and demerits of vehicle glass tint; beginning from the good:

Protection from UV Rays

UV (Ultra-Violet) rays are dangerous rays present in sunlight which can penetrate into the vehicle and are harmful to occupants’ skin (and eyes in some cases). Luckily those of us from these parts have been “greatly blessed” with excess melanin which protects our skin from possible damage that could be brought upon by said harmful rays (“Black Man Fit Dey Sufa, But E No Dey Die!”). However, the same can’t be said for others, especially Caucasians – who are predisposed to the malicious effects of prolonged exposure to the sun.

Protection from Solar Heat

Anyone who has gone out on super-shinny day under the hot sun, especially when you’re stuck in traffic and there isn’t any AC turned on; plus, it’s humid hot and not dry heat – so you’re just sweating all over… will easily attest to how rough that can make moving around be. These effects can be drastically reduced when you pair the AC (even when it’s on “Low”) with window tint. The vehicle remains cool and the atmosphere within the vehicle is quite comfortable, allowing you to arrive at your destination in a pleasant disposition.

On the other hand, less heat in the vehicle also means parts within the interior such as the dashboard, steering wheel, seats are better protected from cracks and bumps thereby making them aesthetically pleasing for an extended period of time. Preserving the value of the vehicle up until when you’re ready to sell. You can check out more about damages to a car from excessive sunlight here: https://www.nairaland.com/7846102/damages-car-excessive-sun-light

Security and Privacy

This is paramount and almost always at the centre of concern around vehicular ownership or commuting even. Nobody wants to drive about feeling unsafe, therefore, with some level of concealment – you can be rest assured that your privacy is upped to another level.

And if you can afford to, it is strongly advised that you also install an extra coat of film to harden the glass and allay yourself from future worries, so it doesn’t break open easily on the first 2 or 3 hits if and when in an unfortunate scenario of being mugged – especially in traffic which is more common these days, or if a person(s) is trying to expropriate your car. Also, tinted glass windows aid in securing one’s possession(s) within the vehicle; after all – potential thieves are less likely to break into a vehicle if they can’t see what is or who is on the inside in the first place.

Other non-functional reasons:

Improved Aesthetics

Yes, this is undoubtedly not as important as the other aforementioned reasons but damn almost any German coupè (the real “baddies”) looks so much better and more expensive as well when it’s all blacked out (down to the wheels) or even when it’s in other colours, but as long it’s fully tinted – it always looks awesome!

VIP Perception

We live in a world where perception matters a great deal and influences how we all relate with one another, moreso in this our immediate environment where driving even a “cheaper” vehicle but with tinted windows gives off some level of importance. And deep down we all wanna feel important, don’t we‽

Now, on to the bad:

Poses Security Risks

As the saying goes; for every solution – there’s always a new problem(s) to tackle. It’s no news that we’ve been battling intense security challenges for the better part of the last decade and darkened windows though bring some modest benefits such as those stated above, does pose a problem to officials of various Law Enforcement Agencies (of which most are already deficient in training and equipment if we’re being honest) who might not be able to properly detect threats being transported – such as weapons and or explosives, or persons in the case of a kidnapping.

Reduced Visibility at Night

Folks in first world countries have an enormous advantage here because if you reside in the city, everywhere is lit up nicely and you might not necessarily have the problem of reduction in visibility at night. However, in many places around the world such as ours – it might be a bit of a hassle to see properly through the darkened windows. As a matter of fact, I remember one fateful night when I had to repark a neighbour’s car and couldn’t see anything when I looked out back through the rear wind-shield neither could I see reflections on either side mirrors as even people and objects were barely visible when I looked out the window, talk more of reflections on mirrors as it was a very dark shade custom tint. Had to wind down both windows before reversing the car.

Honestly, I can’t imagine driving that vehicle on the express-way with the windows rolled up as it’s quite dangerously handicapping to driving safety and overall effectiveness.

After all has been said and done, the fair verdict is simply that vehicle glass tint solves more problems than it causes and there’s a serious case to be made for having it done. Thanks for reading.


Car Talk / Traffic Rules And Regulations by AutoHubNG(m): 10:16am On Oct 13, 2023
Traffic regulations are driving, or non-driving laws enacted by a government to regulate, control and guide the behaviour or action of road users in order to avoid accidents and have a free flow of traffic. These laws are enforced by the road safety agency of Nigeria – better known as “Federal Road Safety Commission Of Nigeria (FRSCN).

Rules and Regulations Guiding Road Users

Some rules and regulations guiding road users, i.e. the traffic rules. Such traffic rules are:

1. Obeying traffic lights, officials, and road signs.

2. Avoiding over-speeding. https://www.nairaland.com/7803959/dangers-consequences-over-speeding-while-driving

3. Being on road without light or faulty lights, without signs or reflector (for larger vehicles), or wrongful use of signals.

4. Obstructing any section of the road with vehicles or in any other way that may affect free flow of traffic.

5. Over-taking another vehicle wrongly.

6. Using a restricted road marked – “no entry”.

7. Driving a vehicle without a valid learner’s permit, driver’s licence, or any other permit required by law.

8. Driving a vehicle or a two-, or three-wheel cycle on any road in a negligent manner that will be dangerous to other road users.

9. Driving a vehicle with “forged” vehicle papers.

10. Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol.

11. Using a road that’s under construction.

12. Failing to move to the slow lane to free up traffic flow.

13. Loading a vehicle above the weight or number of passengers required by law.

14. Driving a vehicle with damaged/shattered wind screen.

15. Driving without a spare tyre.

16. Driving without a fire extinguisher.

17. Driving with one hand.

18. Smoking or eating while driving.

19. Using a mobile phone while driving.

20. Driving on the opposite lane (One-way).

Roles Of Individuals in Maintaining Traffic Regulations

Individuals have lots of roles to play in maintaining traffic regulations. Such roles are:

1. Engaging in defensive driving: This simply means driving to save lives, money, and time – in spite of the condition(s) around the individual and the provocative actions of other driver(s)/road users; he/she recognises hazards but promptly executes the necessary actions required to evade an impending accident.

2. Individuals need to study all the traffic offences and signs, and obey them judiciously.

3. Carry out the obligations of a responsible citizen in the event of road traffic crash such as:

i. Stop when there is crash.

ii. Check if the person(s) involved is hurt.

iii. Assist the person(s) to a safe location.

iv. State the fact of the case if asked by a law enforcement agent.

v. Report the crash at the nearest at the nearest Police Station or FRSC office, or call their phone lines.

4. Individuals should not claim right of way, for claiming such right may unfortunately claim lives.

5. Every driver as an individual should rest for 15 minutes after every 4 hours of driving, and avoid driving more than 10 hours in 24 hours (or a day).

6. Doctors, Nurses, and health workers should attend to accident victims promptly/immediately as each passing second can be extremely vital to saving lives.

Roles of Government in Maintaining Traffic Regulations

Like individuals, the government also has vital roles to play in maintaining traffic regulations. Those roles include:

1. Setting up an agency like FRSC that would implement traffic regulations.

2. Enacting traffic laws, regulations, and policies, and also ensuring that these regulations are fully executed; ensuring maximum compliance.

3. Guarantee the safety of lives and properties of road users.

4. Installing traffic lights, road sign-posts, and other appropriate traffic strategies.

5. Paying the road safety agents and officials their salaries on time, so that they will be motivated to make our roads safe by carrying out their duties responsibly.

6. Providing the needed vehicles to do road safety work and also providing towing vans that would evacuate a broken-down vehicle should the need arise.

7. Provision of ambulances to road safety agents and granting them speedy access to hospitals which in turn – enables them to provide vital assistance towards victims of road crashes.

8. Building and managing road infrastructure effectively.

We all have a role to play in ensuring the safety of our roads. Please let’s comply with the laid-out rules and regulations. And to our officials, please do the needful. Thanks for reading. Drive safely.

Car Talk / The Importance Of Wearing A Seat Belt by AutoHubNG(m): 10:39am On Oct 06, 2023
Through improved technology and higher safety standards these days – motor vehicles have never been safer. However, the safety of occupants is still heavily reliant on the proper use of a seat belt.

Unfortunately, many drivers and passengers choose to ignore this effective and proven safety device and this puts them at risk of injuries or even death.

Why is Wearing a Seat Belt Important?

1. Keeps vehicle occupants inside

This one should be pretty self-explanatory. People thrown from a vehicle are actually four times more likely to be killed than those who remain inside.

2. Restrains the strongest parts of the body

Seat belts contact the body at the hip and shoulder, providing optimum protection.

3. Spreads out the force of a collision

Using a seat belt can help spread the force of a crash over a wide area of the body.

4. Helps the body to slow down

Seat belts extend the time (you must have encountered the “pretensioners” in the past whereby the seat belt ceases when you forcefully try to pull it out) it takes for you to slow down in a collision. Inside the car, you are more protected from injury.

5. Protects your brain and spinal cord

Seat belts protect these two critical and vulnerable areas. Injuries to your brain and or spinal cord can be deadly.

6. Required by law

Wearing a seat belt is the law. If caught without one, you could face expensive fines.

It is of utmost importance for drivers and passengers to wear their seat belts. This can’t ever be overstated as seat belts can be the difference between life and death in the unfortunate event of an automobile crash.

Please always endeavour to properly put on your seat belt. Safe travels.

Car Talk / How Electric Vehicles (EV) Work by AutoHubNG(m): 11:12am On Sep 29, 2023
Electric vehicles are getting extremely popular these days. Major automakers are having big plans for electrical vehicles.

When we look at the plans of major auto makers, it could be safely predicted that most of the vehicles on the road by 2040 will be electric vehicles (albeit hydrogen is starting to make a serious case these days so it just might end up as the most popular vehicle choice cum energy source by the time we approach 2040 who knows).

What does EV actually mean?

EV stands for Electric Vehicle.

Electric Vehicles run on electricity so they don’t need Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). This results in low emissions hence, less pollution; which is good for the environment.

Electric cars are powered by batteries. They are not powered by traditional methods like petrol/gasoline or diesel. They operate on electric motors which are powered by batteries, large batteries.

Let’s talk about how an Electric Vehicle (EV) Works

Electric vehicles work on electric motors. There is a power controller attached to the electric motor of an EV. When the driver of an electric vehicle accelerates or decreases the speed of the vehicle, this information is passed on to the controller then – the controller regulates the power and passes it on to the electric motor. The electric motor is completely operated by a controller.

The battery attached to the vehicle is rechargeable. You can recharge these batteries with the normal electricity in any household or with the charging points provided specifically for EVs.

Electric vehicles are like automated cars. They have two different modes: forward and reverse.

Difference between Electric Motor and Internal Combustion Engine

The electric motor and an Internal Combustion engine are doing the same thing – creating rotatory motion that in turn rotates the wheels of a car.

The important difference is that the energy operating them is different – one uses electric energy and the other uses thermal energy.

If you understand this difference, it will help you understand how an electric vehicle works?

Important Parts of an Electric Vehicle

Electric Traction Motor

The Electric traction motor is the part of the vehicle which uses the electricity and creates the rotatory motion used for propulsion of an Electric Vehicle.

Some vehicles use a motor generator. The motor-generator performs both functions of driving the vehicle and generating electricity. The most commonly used electric motor is the brushless DC motor.

Power Inverter

The power inverter changes the electric DC (Direct Current) into AC (Alternating Current). This AC is used by the electric motor to run the vehicle.

This also has the function of changing the AC into DC and recharging the battery. This is why the type of inverter used is of the bi-directional category.

Traction Battery Pack

The work of the battery pack is to store electricity in the form of direct current. When it gets a signal from the controller, it will transmit the DC electric current.

Power Electronics Controller

The power electronic converter is the combination of inverter and converter. This recharges the battery when there is braking of the electric vehicle. The kinetic energy is used to recharge the vehicle.

Some of the vehicles use electric AC controllers.


The battery provides the necessary power to required power up the different parts of an electric vehicle.

Charging Port

The charging port allows the vehicle to connect to an external supply.

DC/DC Converter

Yes, you read it right, it’s not an AC to DC or a DC to AC converter. Unlike an inverter, it’s something different.

This device converts the high voltage DC power into low voltage DC which runs the different accessories of the electric vehicle. Also aids in recharging the auxiliary battery.


The charger is the battery charging device. It uses the electricity from outside sources and transfers it to the battery.

There are two types of electric vehicle chargers:

On-board charger: These are inside the car and use the internal energy to charge the battery.

Off-Board charger: These are the external chargers.


Transmission parts of the electric vehicle are responsible for transforming the rotatory power from the electric motor directly to the wheels of the car.

With this you’re probably now conversant with how an electric vehicle works. You can also check out our previous article on the Pros and Cons of Electric Vehicles here: https://www.nairaland.com/7854982/pros-cons-electric-vehicles. Thanks for reading.


Car Talk / Re: Pros And Cons Of Electric Vehicles by AutoHubNG(m): 7:21pm On Sep 26, 2023

AutohubNg, the emboldened got me confused, does it mean it doesn't use engine oil to lubricate the engine?
The blender analogy in the other reply was perfect. There's very little need to lubricate various parts as an EV doesn't carry a conventional engine that needs constant lubrication.
Car Talk / Re: Pros And Cons Of Electric Vehicles by AutoHubNG(m): 7:14pm On Sep 26, 2023
This idea will bring down

The demand for crude oil.
This is inevitable; the major reason why "oil-rich" economies in the Middle-East are all scrambling to diversify and push other sectors massively! Bahrain and Oman adapted early, as far back as late 80s/early 90s after it was projected that they were vulnerable and would run out before the others.


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