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Simple Steps On Powder Production - Fashion - Nairaland

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Simple Steps On Powder Production by ozinetbiz: 11:38am On Sep 18, 2015
Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set a foundation after application. It can also be reapplied throughout the day to minimize shininess caused by oily skin. There is translucent sheer powder, and there is pigmented powder. Certain types of pigmented facial powders are meant be worn alone with no base foundation. Powder tones the face and gives an even appearance. Besides toning the face, some powders with sunscreen can also reduce skin damage from sunlight and environmental stress. It comes packaged either as a compact or as loose powder. It can be applied with a sponge, brush, or powder puff. Uniform distribution over the face is achieved more easily when a loose powder is applied.
Because of the wide variation among human skin tones, there is a corresponding variety of colors of face powder. There are also several types of powder. A common powder used in beauty products is talc (or baby powder), which is absorbent and provides toning to the skin.

Requirements of a commercially successful face powder
The characteristics of powders were discussed in all the cosmetic chemistry books of the time and there was general agreement on what was required.
Face powder nowadays constitutes the most indispensable article of my lady’s toilet. She is able to find a powder of whatever quality may suit her purse, and the first thing that attracts her is perfume. This, however, is by no means the only feature which appeals to the woman of discrimination; she is also interested in colour, texture, and perfect adherence to the skin.

A good powder should:
· cover skin imperfections and give the appearance of a flawless complexion without necessarily producing a ‘made-up’ appearance;
be the right colour for the skin, must not change in colour significantly after application, and be consistent from purchase to purchase;
be able to absorb perspiration and oily sebum deposits thereby reducing shine;
remain on the skin for a reasonable period of time (i.e., not blow off and need constant reapplication);
impart a velvet or peach-like appearance (bloom);
have sufficient slip so that it is easy to apply and feels smooth as it is put on; and
be pleasantly perfumed.
The effects of storage also needed to be taken into account. Powders tend to settle after packaging and this may result in a less than optimal experience for the consumer.
Of these characteristics, perfume, shade and texture seem to be the features cosmetic companies concentrated on in their advertising. Presumably, these features are the most obvious to the customer.

Common ingredients used in loose powders
Talc powder: Usually the commonest component in the powder and can make up to 70% or more of a high quality powder. Although it has a low covering power it gives powder a silky feel and provides it with ‘slip’.
It is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3 (SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10 (OH)2. In loose form, it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It has a perfect basal cleavage, and the folia are non-elastic, although slightly flexible. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). It has a specific gravity of 2.5–2.8, a clear or dusty luster, and is translucent to opaque. Talc is not soluble in water, but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Its streak is white.
Talc is used in many industries such as paper making, plastic, paint and coatings, rubber, food, electric cable, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, ceramics, etc. A coarse grayish-green high-talc rock is soapstone or steatite and has been used for stoves, sinks, electrical switchboards, crayons, soap, etc. It is often used for surfaces of lab counter tops and electrical switchboards because of its resistance to heat, electricity and acids. Talc finds use as a cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant, and as filler in paper manufacture. Talc is used in baby powder, an astringent powder used for preventing rashes on the area covered by a diaper. It is also often used in basketball to keep a player's hands dry. Most tailor's chalk, or French chalk, is talc, as is the chalk often used for welding or metalworking.
Talc is also used as food additive or in pharmaceutical products as a glidant.
In medicine talc is used as a pleurodesis agent to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax. In the European Union the additive number is E553b.
Talc is widely used in the ceramics industry in both bodies and glazes. In low-fire artware bodies it imparts whiteness and increases thermal expansion to resist crazing. In stonewares, small percentages of talc are used to flux the body and therefore improve strength and vitrification. It is a source of MgO flux in high temperature glazes (to control melting temperature). It is also employed as a matting agent in earthenware glazes and can be used to produce magnesia mattes at high temperatures.
Baby powder is an astringent powder used for preventing diaper rash, as a deodorant, and for other cosmetic uses. It may be composed of talc (in which case it is also called talcum powder) or corn starch. Talcum powder is harmful if inhaled since it may cause aspiration pneumonia or granuloma. Drugs such as cocaine are sometimes cut with talcum powder. It is also an ingredient in counterfeit pharmaceuticals and food products as a bulking agent in order to give the appearance of a larger quantity than actually present. Pediatricians generally prefer cornstarch to talc because it is unlikely to be easily inhaled.
The ingredients of Johnson's baby powders are listed as Zea Mays starch, Tricalcium Phosphate and Fragrance or Talc and Perfume.
Zinc Oxide: Zinc Oxide, a white powder, is the oxide of zinc. It has a formula of ZnO. Zinc oxide is a topical skin product that is used as a protective coating for mild skin irritations and abrasions. It can promote the healing of chapped skin and diaper rash. Zinc oxide works as a mild astringent and has some antiseptic properties. It is also used in a wide range of cosmetics and personal care products including makeup, nail products, baby lotions, bath soaps and foot powders. Zinc Oxide is also used in Over-the-Counter (OTC) drug products such as skin protectants including ano-rectal skin protectant products, for example, diaper rash ointments, and sunscreen products.
It prevent or to treat diaper rash by forming a protective barrier between the skin and the diaper. Moderate concentrations (e.g., 15%) are usually used for prevention and maintenance of diaper rash. Higher concentrations (up to 40%) may have absorptive properties and are usually used for treatment of diaper rash.
Zinc Oxide is nearly insoluble in water, but soluble in acids and bases.
Zinc Oxide works as a sunscreen agent by reflecting and scattering UV radiation. Sunscreen products reduce or prevent sunburn and premature aging of the skin. Preventing sunburn is an important factor in reducing the risk of getting skin cancer. Sunscreens should not be confused with sun tanning products lotions which allow sunlight to reach the skin and cause tanning (darkening).

Kaolin: Also known as china clay. It is creamy in colour but darkens with moisture. Chemically it is mixture of materials found in the clay.
It does not have a good slip and may feel harsh on the skin if used in too great a proportion but has good covering power, absorbs oils and reduces the slight sheen produced by talc.
Calcium carbonate: White chalk. It has excellent absorbing properties, moderate covering power and gives a matt finish. Like kaolin it does not feel particularly smooth – it lacks slip. It can give a ‘bloom’ effect to the face powder and like kaolin can be used to remove some of the shine produced by talc. High levels should be avoided otherwise a dry, powdery, feel can result.
Magnesium carbonate: Often used to absorb the perfume before it is added to the face powder. It can also be used as a bulking agent. Over use will compromise the smoothness of the finished product.
Calcium silicate: White or slightly cream coloured. It occurs in very fine particles with good water absorption properties makes it ideal for powders.
Starch: Once a very common ingredient in face powders. Some starches were believed to cake in the presence of moisture, go sticky and allow bacterial growth and their use declined for that reason.
Titanium dioxide: Also used in powders to make them white. Titanium dioxide is also a better absorber of UV light than zinc oxide.
Inorganic pigments: By blending the three basic iron oxides black, yellow and red with titanium dioxide or zinc oxide almost any shade of skin tone can be made up. However, limitations on the amount of pigment that can be used in a formulation limit the range of shades. The raw materials also tend to vary in colour which makes it difficult to produce a consistent colour from batch to batch. Keeping the range of colours to a minimum helps. Other inorganic pigments can be used for greens, blues and silver.
Organic lakes: These come in many brilliant shades including reds, pinks, oranges and yellows. Although more intense they are not as stable as the inorganic pigments. They are made by precipitating a soluble dye on to a substrate such as aluminum hydroxide. This process makes the pigment insoluble.
There is a huge range of combinations that can be made using these and other ingredients (e.g., powdered silk, powdered silica, powdered plastics, mica). The formulation will depend on such factors as the covering power required, colour range, the climatic conditions the powder is to be used in, and considerations regarding the selling price.

Measurement table for facial Powder production
Chemicals Quantity
Kaolin 15%
Calcium carbonate, light 10%
Zinc oxide 15%
Zinc stearate 5%
Magnesium carbonate 5%
Talc 50%
Perfume 100ml

Measurement table for facial Powder production
Chemicals Quantity
Talc powder 1kg
Zinc oxide ¼ kg
Calcium carbonates ¼ kg
Perfume 100ml

Measurement table for dusting Powder production
Chemicals Quantity
Talc powder 1kg
Zinc oxide ¼ kg
Calcium carbonates ¼ kg
Perfume 100ml
Menthol crystal 1-2 spoons
Industrial camphor 1-2 spoons

Procedure for facial powder production
Facial powder is very simple to produce; the steps below will guard you on how to go about the production.
Step 1: Measure out the require quantity of Calcium Carbonate, Zinc oxide and your Talc powder in a bowl and mix very well. Label it sample A
Step 2: Filter sample A using white filter cloth to remove the stoning particle contain in the mixtures, label it sample B
Step 3: Add scent (Perfume) of your choice to sample B above and mix well until the scent disperses in the sample B above.
Step 4: The final step is to package in a container for sale.

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