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Transmission Of Ebola Virus From Pigs To Non-human Primates - Health - Nairaland

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Transmission Of Ebola Virus From Pigs To Non-human Primates by ifesly(m): 1:47pm On Aug 03, 2014
Introduction:

Six four-week old Landrace piglets (Sus scrofa) were oronasally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of ZEBOV (Kikwit 95) per animal. The piglets were transferred to a separate room for the inoculations, and then moved back into the room containing four cynomolgus macaques. This age group was selected based on the previous observation of differences in severity of the disease in ZEBOV inoculated piglets6 to ensure sufficient survival time of the piglets potentially needed for virus transmission, and to determine whether piglets without an overt clinical disease could transmit the virus. The macaques were housed in two levels of individual cages inside the pig pen, and separated from the piglets by wire barrier placed about 20 cm in front of the bottom cages to prevent direct contact between the two species. Bottom cages housing NHPs Nos. 07M and 20F were about 10 cm above the ground, top cages housing NHPs Nos. 34F and 51M were about 1.4 m above the ground. The NHP cages were located immediately to the side of the air exhaust system. The cubicle layout respective to the airflow (ten complete air exchanges per hour) in the room is schematically indicated in Supplemental Figure S1. During the husbandry, piglets were moved away from the cages and enclosed by the gate system. The floor was washed, taking care that the water is sprayed at low pressure and away from the NHP cages, to avoid any splashes into the bottom cages. Also the 20 cm space between the wire barrier and the cages was cleaned separately with running water prior to proceeding with NHP cage cleaning. Both animal species were fed after the cleaning, providing new clean dishes for the macaques, with staff changing disposable outer gloves between procedures and animals. The design and size of the animal cubicle did not allow to distinguish whether the transmission was by aerosol, small or large droplets in the air, or droplets created during floor cleaning which landed inside the NHP cages (fomites). The husbandry flow during the sampling days was: cleaning, followed by sampling, then feeding, with staff changing disposable outer gloves between procedures and animals. Pigs and NHPs were sampled on alternative days except for day 3 post infection, when NHPs were sampled in the morning and the piglets in the afternoon.
Results:
Clinical signs and gross pathology in swine, following the inoculation with EBOV, were comparable to previous infection study in piglets of this age group6. Increase in respiratory rate (up to 80 breaths/min) and in rectal temperatures (40.2–40.5°C) was observed between 5 and 7 days post infection (dpi). All piglets apparently recovered from the disease by 9 dpi. Piglets Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were euthanized at 12 dpi, and piglets Nos. 3, 5 and 6 at 14 dpi, based on experimental schedule. Clinical scores and parameters are provided in the Supplementary Information (Supplemental Figure 2A, Supplemental Table 1). No significant lesions were observed at the necropsy. Microscopic lung lesions were focal and not extensive, characterized by broncho-interstitial pneumonia with a lobular pattern, similar to those described in our previous report6. Virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in three piglets (No. 2, 4, and week signal in No. 5), primarily within the areas of necrosis often adjacent to bronchioles (Supplemental Figure S3A). The presence of virus in the lung was confirmed by detection of EBOV RNA employing real-time RT-PCR targeting the L gene, and by virus isolation on Vero E6 cells for piglet No. 2 and No. 4. Virus isolation was also attempted from lung associated lymph nodes, based on detection of viral RNA, yielding one, successful isolation. Viral RNA was detected in submandibular lymph nodes of all piglets, and in the spleen and liver of two piglets. Low level of viremia based on RNA levels was detected in blood of four piglets at 5 and 7 dpi. EBOV RNA was detected in nasal and oral swabs of piglets from 1 dpi until 7 dpi, inclusively (Figure 1A), and from rectal swabs on day 1 and 5, but not at 3, 7 and 12 dpi (Supplemental Table 1). Viral isolation was attempted on all swabs. Out of 45 oral and nasal swabs positive by RT-PCR, 16 were positive on virus isolation, while two out of 11 RNA-positive rectal swabs tested positive for virus. Presence of EBOV RNA in cell culture supernatants from the isolates with observed CPE was confirmed by real time RT-PCR






Source: http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121115/srep00811/full/srep00811.html

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