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Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment - Politics - Nairaland

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Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 7:46pm On Apr 18, 2015
The Emergence of radical or marxist-oriented paradigm to the study of development and underdevelopement has precipitated a kind of intellectual revolution , which has made a mark in the Landscape of political Economy, firstly , this recrudescence has forced bourgeois scholars , for the first time to take into account the non-economic factors In their analysis of development and underdervelopment . Secondly and most importantly , one of the basic consequences of the marxist theoretical and methodological engineering in the field has been the saturation of the area with a plethora of concepts. The Existence of plurality of concepts in the field has resulted in what (Ian Roxborough) calls the 'jargon' with attendant confusion and contradiction in their usage. This is so because the Bourgeois notion of economic concepts are fixed , universal and therefore abstract , while those of the marxist scholars , as observed by Eskor Toyo derive from, "historical materialist method as well as logical analysis" thus the content of the categories as defined by them is bound to differ even "though these categories bear the same names in their appearance."

Given this difference , attempt is made in this book to define major concepts to reflect the thinking of both schools of thought; and to familiarize readers with their strands of arguments.

The Concept of Development.

The term "development" as used in contemporary social science literature is not only vague and nebulous , but is also polemical.

Using concepts such as 'growth', change, and in some instances "industrialization" interchangeably with development, tends to complicate the problem of arriving at a universally acceptable definition for the term.
Besides the disputations by radical scholars of the various liberal theorizing have complicated the problem more and more. This in part explains why (Meier) observes that it is difficult to advance one precise meaning for the term "development" and perhaps easier to say what development is not than what it is.

Development: The Liberal Perspective.
Development in the Liberal Perspective has been variously defined. In its elementary form the term is inextricably tied to The economic domain. Most Liberal theorists see it as economic development. Which could be gauged in terms of growth of the Gross National Products (GNP). Accordingly , development is defined as "the maximization and industrialization" in this context , development implies change which "often follows a well-ordered sequence and exhibits common characteristics across countries " or what (micheal todaro) calls , "a series of successive stages of transformation"
Thus , for most liberal scholars , development means "the capacity of a national economy Whose initial economic condition has been more of less static to generate and sustain an annual increase in its gross national Product(GNP) at rates of perhaps 5 to 7percent or more"

The above conception of development represents the dominant bourgeois/capitalist thinking of the 1950s and 1960's . The Failure of most third world countries to overcome the perennial problem of poverty regardless of bold attempt at industrialization brought to a proper focus the futility of forging ahead through the pursuance of economic growth . (Mahbuhul Hag of pakistan) seems to speak for all underdeveloping countries when he lamented thus : "we were taught to take care of our GNP as this will take care of our poverty. Let is reverse this and take care of property as this will take care of the GNP.

Given the Fact that the increased rate of industrialization in most of the hitherto "primitive" areas has woefully failed to usher in the Much desired eldorado. It has been maintained in some quarters that economic growth through industrialization is not development . Meier seems to have struck the right cord when he observes that

"Development is more than just the acquisition of industries But include such ideals of modernization as. Rise in productivity , Social and economic equalization , Modern technical know-how . Improved institutions and attitudes as well as rationally coordinated policy apparatus."

The conceptualization of development in terms of Gross National Product and other variables of growth has not only been attacked for being dubious and unreliable. But is has also been jettisoned because it is static and restricted. As noted by (Micheal Todaro). "While economic progress is an essential component of development .it is not the only one". Development encompasses more than the financial and material side of people's lives.

In search of a more fruitful conceptualization of development . Some development economists define it as an instrument process of overcoming persistent poverty, absorbing the surplus labour and diminishing inequality. Defined in this way, development implies what Morris refers to as "emerging from poverty" or what Todaro calls "the reduction or elimination from poverty" or what Todaro calls "the reduction or elimination of poverty. Inequality and unemployment within the context of a growing economy."

The lIberal scholars who conceive of development in terms of escaping from poverty are in absolute agreement that growth in GNP is not a sufficient condition for the removal of poverty. But they disagree on the possible route to achieving the goal. Thus While the world bank for instance , emphasizes on the redistribution of Growth, the International Labour Organization (ILO) places premium on basic human Needs. Also , a liberal scholar like T.W schultz insists on rural development as a means of reducing if not eradicating poverty. In this conception of development ot human resources development.

The last three decades of the 20th century witnessed yet another conception of development spearheaded by M.D Little. In his book , economic development , he forcefully argues that industrialization and the removal of poverty are not enough to stimulate development . In his view "getting the prices right" is one of the salient policies that could enhance development . He further contends that beyond the elimination of price distortions.
Development and growth could be stimulated if the following innovations are introduced . Firstly, "inward-oriented strategies of development must give way to liberalization and export promotion.
Secondly , inflation must submit to stabilization programmes. And thirdly, state-owned enterprises should be privatized."

The limitation with his definition is that little was merely advancing his views on how development could be attained but not defining the concepts of development. As a matter of fact development is not synonymous with trade liberalization or structural adjustment programme. The problems experienced by most third world countries due to structural adjustment programme are well known, therefore , like most other bourgeois definitions of development, little's conception ignores the human element which is of dramatic importance to change.

Development : the marxist Perspective.

The radical scholars' perception of development is quite different from that of their liberal counterparts. In their view , development rather than being an abstract economic category is a multi-dimensional process. When veiwed from the dialectical materialist binocular, development rather than been restricted to macro economic variables focuses on man and his well-being. As a result of this,human beings constitute the fulcrum on which it revolves.

It is thus contended by these theorists that , a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the meaning of development provides the most functional path towards overcoming the endemic problem of backwardness . In the same vein . A lopsided or faulty understanding provides a veritable avenue for tackling its symptoms rather than its viruses . Thus , radical scholars reject various liberal definitions of development .this is primarily - because they correspondingly lead to faulty policy options, which in most cases worsen and deepen the problems of development.

The failure of the liberal scholars "expert advice " to ginger up genuine development in the backward areas has constrained the radical scholars to take a hard look at the concept of development. But before examining in detail the various marxist conceptions of development. Perhaps it would be useful to re-echo the words of walter Rodney which encapsulate Marxist expositions on development. He notes that:

"Development in Human society is a many sided process. At the Level for individual, it implies increased skill and capacity , greater freedom, creativity ,self discipline , responsibility and material well being... At the level of social groups , it implies an increasing capacity to regulate both internal and external relations... In the past , development has always meant the increase in the ability to guard the independence of the social group."

The above excerpt from (Rodney's work sets the tone and provides the basis for our understanding of the development in the marxist perspective. The marxists view development at three broad levels. These are the individual level, social group level, and mode of production level.
At the individual level, human beings are seen as the epicenter of development. Therefore human development is seen as a prerequisite for real development. In line with this reasoning ,development as the individual level implies mental and academic sophistication. moral rectitudes as well as material well being. It is contended that the acquisition of this aspect of development will inevitably catapult the society to the frontiers of genuine development and thus explode the shells of backwardness. For instance , the development of man will lead to increase in productivity, ability to harness the forces of nature and capacity for man to eke out a living In the face of harsh natural forces .it must be noted that this process is not influenced much by increase in capital ot the rise in GNP. In view of this , the radical scholars forcefully maintain that the first step towards development is the overall improvement of man who is expected to be the harbinger of transformation and change.

With respect to how man can be developed in order to serve as the vanguard of society's development , some marxist scholars advocate:

-i) Free , compulsory and universal education;

-ii ) Improvement of the general education, cultural and technical training of the working population;

-iii) improvement of people's health and extending their active life through a system of universal health checks in the polyclinics and sanatotriums; and

-v) ensuring that the level and structures of consumption of material, social and spiritual goods and services are raised.

It is assumed that if the above conditions are met, the aims of forming a well-rounded individual and creating the conditions for the full flowering of the individual and creating the conditions for the full flowering of the individual capabilities and endowments for the benefit of the society , as a whole , will be attained.
This position has been corroborated by kay who logically points out:

" The essence of material production consists of the actions men take upon nature in their efforts to humanize it: its aim is to transform natural objects of little use in their original form into condition where they satisfy human needs. Hollowing out a tree to make as canoe is a simple example; using iron , coal tin, rubber and so on to manufacturer a car is a more complex one: but in both cases, the principle is the same. Both canoe and car are products as opposed to natural objects, since their existence depends upon human action-labour"

In his conclusion , kay contends that since development is dependent on human labour , as can be proven when a product as a natural object is transformed by human labour so that is satisfies human need, development should center around human beings...

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by otil1: 8:16pm On Apr 18, 2015
Nice writeup. Pls wots ur source so that I can continue reading.

I am a student of development and I love to read about the different development paradigms

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by dhorlipizzu(m): 8:17pm On Apr 18, 2015
This land is not for sale...






























Beware of my crippled lost son
















GEJ















Meanwhile skelewu for making FP and FTC
Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 10:32pm On Apr 18, 2015
otil1:
Nice writeup. Pls wots ur source so that I can continue reading.

I am a student of development and I love to read about the different development paradigms

Brother I'm a political science student as well and that stuff you see was hand-typed from some of my notes and a handout particularly (O . Okereke 2002. Development and underdevelopment: politics of the north-south divide). And I intend to continue filling in from time to time .

What happened is that I'm hopelessly addicted to nairaland so much that I spend more time here than on my books, so I thought since I'm to typing, what usain bolt is to racing,(I write notes in class on my blackberry handheld, its faster for me , as fast as following a moderately-fast talking man word for word ). So I decided I should get my books and notes
in here and create a bookmark on my browser for easy access to my pages. So while I'm doing what I love best "surfing nairaland" I'd have the pleasure of reading my notes here as well and so far so good I think the signs show that it'll work, funny enough I can already see a nairalander booking a large space on my thread lol, I can see this whole thing has the potentials of adding that typical nairaland feel to my reading. I can tell its going to be fun at the long run, moreso with intellectuals like you following and contributing as well.

so just follow, and please feel free to make your contributions as well. Thanks bro. And as for dhorlipizzu booking a large space, your space is well secured o. Welldone bro .lmao

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by nicklaus40: 11:09pm On Apr 18, 2015
We can also use theories to explain development and underdevelopment such as modernization theory and dependency theory

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 11:28pm On Apr 18, 2015
nicklaus40:
We can also use theories to explain development and underdevelopment such as modernization theory and dependency theory
thank you very much, this is exactly what I want. If it's possible please explain further.

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by nicklaus40: 11:50pm On Apr 18, 2015
Mrshroud:
thank you very much, this is exactly what I want. If it's possible please explain further.
modernization theory is a theory based on d ideologies of the west(developed European countries) they bliv that for less developed countries to attain development they must imbibe the cultures of the west i.e they must be like d west... they bliv d ldc should embrace capitalism and spread it and by doing so dey wld be developed, ww rostow explained dat development involves 5 stages wich are traditional stage,transitional stage, take off stage,drive to maturity stage nd high consumption stage,he blivs d developed countries esp US av gobe thru this stage and dat is why dey are developed and for LDCs to attain development dey must go thru dia stages(from traditional to modern stage)..... the dependency theorists on d oda hand are scholars frm d LDCs and dey claim dat underdevelopment in d 3rd world today is as a result of imperialism,colonialism nd neo colonialism,dey also believe capitalism is used by d developed countries to exploit d LDCs and globalisation is a tool dey use to achieve their aim of exploitation,so for LDCs to attain development dey must av nothing to do with d developed countries i.e total 'delink' from the developed countries so as nt to be exploited further, I hope dis will help

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 1:57am On Apr 19, 2015
In his conclusion , kay contends that since development is dependent on human labour , as can be proven when a product as a natural object is transformed by human labour so that is satisfies human need, development should center around human beings.

Contd...

Thus , at the individual level, development is defined as the interplay between man and nature in the process of production of material needs, at the social group . In addition , it implies the ability of members of the social group. In addition, it implies the ability of members of the society to concertedly deal with their environment . And this directly depends upon the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science) , on the extent to which they put that understanding into practice by devising tools (technology) , and on the manner by which work is organized.

In consonance with this view , development is used to imply the ability by the collectivity of individuals to organize themselves with a view. To eking out , a living from nature. Historically, this has manifested itself in various forms. Firstly , by the evolutionary progress From crude stone tools to the application of metals. The Change over from the hunting and gathering of wild fruits to the domestication of animals and cultivation of crops was the second manifestation. The third form presented itself by the improvement in the manner social work organized "from being an individualistic activity which assumes a social character through the participation of many.

The third conception of development by the marxist scholars organically ties development to socialist mode of production. The thinking here is that capitalist mode of production is an impediment to development and people's well-being . It breeds inequality , exploitation and crises. Therefore, socialism is seen as the only method of bringing about development "that can duly ease the lives of working people and improve their well-being as much as possible."

But at what juncture does capitalism give way to socialism? What are the peculiar features of capitalism that inhibit development? What is socialist mode of production? And how is it relevant and suitable to development ? These and other questions will be answered by examining development in the context of socialism. Radical scholars maintain that capitalism is anti-development.
This is so because of numerous contradictions that are associated with it. It is contended that when the economic system is based upon private ownership, individual initiative , profit and competition," a number of features that thwart development are bound to arise. According to (Williams A. McClenghan) some of these features are:

-a) the means by which goods are produced are held as private property by individuals or companies formed, owned and controlled by one , a few or many individuals;

-b) the owners of means of production hire labour and compete with one another to produce goods and services at a profit and

-c) competition is the life-blood of this system.

A superficial view of the basic traits of capitalism indicates that it is innocuous to development. But (karl marx) in his path - breaking work, capital , has scientifically examined its specific features, concrete forms and peculiarities of its manifestations. This led him to conclude that capitalism is an evil. This position has been supported by all radical scholars. For instance (Professor M.K Bunkina) has advanced the following points to demonstrate that capitalism impairs development efforts;

-i) under capitalism , production relations between the working class and bourgeoisie assume the form of commodity relations and thus leading to exploitation of the former;

-ii) capitalism creates anarchy and bitter rivalry thus leading to uneven development of individual enterprises ; and bitter rivalry in turn unavoidably generates the rise of monopoly and exploitation.

Other marxist scholars such as Lenin, Frank , Rodney , Toyo, Nkrumah and Kay, just to mention a few of them, have similarly attacked capitalism and imperialism as Being incapable of generating development . For instance, while Lenin Talks of wars , crisis and among the capitalist-power, " Nkrumah maintains that foreign capital is used for exploitation rather than development of less developed parts of the world.

In his own critique, Rodney neatly sums up the reasons why capitalism is not a panacea to the problems of underdervelopment and why socialism is therefore imperative. According to him:

" Capitalism has proved incapable of transcending fundamental weakness such as under -utilization of productive capacity , the persistence of a permanent sector of unemployed , and periodic economic crisis..... Capitalism has created its own irrationalities such as a vicious white racism, the tremendous waste associated with advertising , and their rationality of incredible poverty in the midst of wealth and wastage."

In view of the critical examination of the bad effects of capitalism vis-a-vis development, Rodney concludes that it Is no longer effective in promoting development but rather acts as brakes.

Isotaori Mesxaros seems to strike a similar tune when he notes that, the structural antagonism inherent in capitalism makes the system to remain Always unreformable and uncontrollable.
As a result of the Numerous problems Associated with capitalism , it is contended that development only comes about through socialism. This system marks the threshold of true human Freedom and the end of human suffering , exploitation , alienation and class depredations.
Given the fact that socialist mode of production is perceived as development ,it is necessary to examine what it is: and how it is a form of development.
As noted by onimode , the socialist mode of production is characterized by the public ownership and control of the means of production as well as social appropriation of surplus. According to Marx and engels , this mode of production makes it possible for " the free development of each to be condition for the development of all"
Socialist mode of production is based on a number of socialist oriented laws. These laws when applied , "in economic and administrative management", exert profound impact on the various sectors of production. This , Consciousness of these laws is considered as a sine qua non for development and social transformation. It is also contended that, a sound knowledge and application of the Imperatives of socialist laws, helps to lay bare the main objective of socialist enterprise. This in turn improves relations of production. But when they are ignored, (Kuznetsov) says, "disproportions results and a drag is exerted on the development of various. Sectors of production".
Some of these laws which are relevant to development are the laws of proportional and balanced development of the economy.
This is one of the most crucial factors that enhances rapid development. The Reason Is because it leads to the implementation of planned programmes of development in areas of crucial Needs. The next is law of comradely co-operation and mutual assistance in production process. This law eliminates competition, conflict and labour unrests that characterize the capitalist mode of production.

In addition , since the objective of socialism is to control production in the interest of the workers, they "now become the most dynamic force" in development process. Finally, the law of socialists production gears production toward raising people's well-being and endangers development".

To marxists, Irrespective of the angle one looks at the development,it is indeed synonymous with socialist mode of production. All other modes of production that preceded it are seen to have been transient. That is to say, they were temporary and had to pave way to socialism.
From our analysis of both the liberal and marxist perceptions of development it is clear that development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures , attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth and eradication of poverty. In consonance with the multi-dimensional nature of development, (Dudley Seers) has posed basic questions whose answers could unveil the meaning of development. He posited that:

"The questions to ask about a country's development are therefore ; what has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to equality? If all three of these have declined from high levels , then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned . If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result "development " even if per capita income doubled."

In order to grasp the fundamental of development , it is perhaps instructive to follow the footsteps of dennis Goulet whose basic components or core values of development, "serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the inner meaning of development" according to Goulet, the basic components or core value of development are life-sustenance, self-esteem and freedom, these represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies.

Life sustenance refers and relates to the provision of basic human needs such as qualitative food, education, housing and clothing.
Thus one of the goals of development should be "to raise people out of poverty and to provide basic needs at the same time"

Self. Esteem is Concerned with independence and self-respect. No country ,which is exploited and is heavily dependent on another for basic human needs and industralization , can claim to be developed . Third world countries seek development so as to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful underdervelopment".

Freedom as the third core-value of development implies freedom from "want , ignorance and squalor " A scholar like (W. Arthur Lewis) has noted that has noted that there is a significant relationship between economic growth and development when he observed that "the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human Choices".

Using goulet's concept of development , therefore , development implies a situation where " there has been improvement in the basic needs, when economic progress has contributed to a greater sense of self-esteem for the country and individuals within it , and when material advancement has expanded the range of choice for individuals"
From our angle , a more fruitful approach to the definition of development ought to follow the marxist tradition as well as goulet's conception and thus take into account not only economic and political factors alone, but also social indicators as well. In specific terms, such an approach should see development as "people inspired ,human centered and citiZen anchored". In other words people should be seen as the agent of change and development , and development should directly affect the quality of life and well-being of mankind.
From this standpoint , development as will be used in this literature implies the qualitative and quantitative change not only in the Standard of living of the members of the society. But also. The transformation of the society, in all its ramifications. Thus , the availability of such development indicators as high literacy rate, good road network, constant supply of electricity , improved medical facilities , decent housing as well as equitable distribution of income are indicative of a developed society and is a manifestation of the will and capacity to induce social change by the use of labour power and available resources to improve the living standard of the citizens.

The Concept of underdervelopment.

Our knowledge of development and what constitutes it as presented by two schools of thought reviewed above will facilitate our understanding of the concept , underdervelopment. The term underdervelopment as used in the social sciences to refer to certain areas of the world, gained currency in the late 1940's . Prior to this time; time , other derogatory terms had been used to qualify and describe these areas. As Meier has noted , in the 18th century, such terms as "rude" and "barbarous" were used to describe countries in asia , Africa , the Caribbean and Latin America. In the 19th century those terms were dropped in favour of new terms such as backward" and primitive" . In the 20th century, especially after the end of world war II , the previous terms were equally abandoned . In their places new terms such as "underdeveloped" and "developing" were used.

At the moment it has been suggested in some quarters that such terms as "less developed" "developing" "poor" and "emergent" countries should be used instead of underdeveloped countries. The reason any unpleasantness which may be attached to it" and which might be interpreted as inciting such physical deformities as mental and moral underdervelopment.
It has also been suggested that the previous derogatory terms should be dropped in favour of less offensive or mild ones such as "developing" or "emergent". This is perceived by Marxist scholars as a calculated design or ploy by the west to mask and or camouflage economic stagnation and exploitation that exist in underdeveloped areas.

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 2:08am On Apr 19, 2015
nicklaus40:
modernization theory is a theory based on d ideologies of the west(developed European countries) they bliv that for less developed countries to attain development they must imbibe the cultures of the west i.e they must be like d west... they bliv d ldc should embrace capitalism and spread it and by doing so dey wld be developed, ww rostow explained dat development involves 5 stages wich are traditional stage,transitional stage, take off stage,drive to maturity stage nd high consumption stage,he blivs d developed countries esp US av gobe thru this stage and dat is why dey are developed and for LDCs to attain development dey must go thru dia stages(from traditional to modern stage)..... the dependency theorists on d oda hand are scholars frm d LDCs and dey claim dat underdevelopment in d 3rd world today is as a result of imperialism,colonialism nd neo colonialism,dey also believe capitalism is used by d developed countries to exploit d LDCs and globalisation is a tool dey use to achieve their aim of exploitation,so for LDCs to attain development dey must av nothing to do with d developed countries i.e total 'delink' from the developed countries so as nt to be exploited further, I hope dis will help
Right now I wish there was a word more greater than thank you. You've really impacted in me in this regard. Thanks a lot. Pls do well to share and explain other perceptions as well as theories you might know regarding this topic. That reminds me, I am to write on (Conceptual Issues

A) undeveloped
B) Underdeveloped
C)Developing
D) Less Developed
E) Development)
Pls Kindly offer me a summary in your perspective.

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by nicklaus40: 10:35am On Apr 19, 2015
Mrshroud:
Right now I wish there was a word more greater than thank you. You've really impacted in me in this regard. Thanks a lot. Pls do well to share and explain other perceptions as well as theories you might know regarding this topic. That reminds me, I am to write on (Conceptual Issues

A) undeveloped
B) Underdeveloped
C)Developing
D) Less Developed
E) Development)
Pls Kindly offer me a summary in your perspective.
u wlcm....undeveloped is lack of development, it is like d first stage of development and it is believed every country either developed or underdeveloped av bin at dis level at a particular time,underdeveloped is nt lack of development buh a process in attaining development,a country may be developed politically buh may be underdeveloped economically and dis is underdevelopment, for a country to be regarded as developed it must be socially,economically and politically developed,wen a country lacks d 4 den dat is undeveloped buh wen a country has at least one dat is underdevelopment, undevelopment is d first stage of development buh I don't tink an undeveloped state still exist buh dia are many underdeveloped states...Underdeveloped,less developed and developing are d same thing,just dat diff scholars use dem aw dey feel,d word underdeveloped lacks moral standard while less develop also discourages d 3rd world,developing gvs unnecessary hope because a country whose development has stalled hears ppl calling it developing would gv unnecessary hope,dis 3 words can be used interchangeably so it is best to call d less developed,developing nd underdeveloped countries 3rd world,i hope u understand my point here

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 10:19pm On Apr 20, 2015
nicklaus40:
u wlcm....undeveloped is lack of development, it is like d first stage of development and it is believed every country either developed or underdeveloped av bin at dis level at a particular time,underdeveloped is nt lack of development buh a process in attaining development,a country may be developed politically buh may be underdeveloped economically and dis is underdevelopment, for a country to be regarded as developed it must be socially,economically and politically developed,wen a country lacks d 4 den dat is undeveloped buh wen a country has at least one dat is underdevelopment, undevelopment is d first stage of development buh I don't tink an undeveloped state still exist buh dia are many underdeveloped states...Underdeveloped,less developed and developing are d same thing,just dat diff scholars use dem aw dey feel,d word underdeveloped lacks moral standard while less develop also discourages d 3rd world,developing gvs unnecessary hope because a country whose development has stalled hears ppl calling it developing would gv unnecessary hope,dis 3 words can be used interchangeably so it is best to call d less developed,developing nd underdeveloped countries 3rd world,i hope u understand my point here
thanks sir, this really went a long way. I'm interested to know on which divide you belong as regards the radical and Bourgeois schools of thought.

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by Mrshroud: 8:47am On Apr 21, 2015
Thus , at the individual level, development is defined as the interplay between man and nature in the process of production of material needs, at the social group . In addition , it implies the ability of members of the social group. In addition, it implies the ability of members of the society to concertedly deal with their environment . And this directly depends upon the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science) , on the extent to which they put that understanding into practice by devising tools (technology) , and on the manner by which work is organized.

In consonance with this view , development is used to imply the ability by the collectivity of individuals to organize themselves with a view. To eking out , a living from nature. Historically, this has manifested itself in various forms. Firstly , by the evolutionary progress From crude stone tools to the application of metals. The Change over from the hunting and gathering of wild fruits to the domestication of animals and cultivation of crops was the second manifestation. The third form presented itself by the improvement in the manner social work organized "from being an individualistic activity which assumes a social character through the participation of many.

The third conception of development by the marxist scholars organically ties development to socialist mode of production. The thinking here is that capitalist mode of production is an impediment to development and people's well-being . It breeds inequality , exploitation and crises. Therefore, socialism is seen as the only method of bringing about development "that can duly ease the lives of working people and improve their well-being as much as possible."

But at what juncture does capitalism give way to socialism? What are the peculiar features of capitalism that inhibit development? What is socialist mode of production? And how is it relevant and suitable to development ? These and other questions will be answered by examining development in the context of socialism. Radical scholars maintain that capitalism is anti-development.
This is so because of numerous contradictions that are associated with it. It is contended that when the economic system is based upon private ownership, individual initiative , profit and competition," a number of features that thwart development are bound to arise. According to (Williams A. McClelland) some of these features are:

-a) the means by which goods are produced are held as private property by individuals or companies formed, owned and controlled by one , a few or many individuals;

-b) the owners of means of production hire labour and compete with one another to produce goods and services at a profit and

-c) competition is the life-blood of this system.

A superficial view of the basic traits of capitalism indicates that it is innocuous to development. But (karl marx) in his path - breaking work, capital , has scientifically examined its specific features, concrete forms and peculiarities of its manifestations. This led him to conclude that capitalism is an evil. This position has been supported by all radical scholars. For instance (Professor M.K Bunkina) has advanced the following points to demonstrate that capitalism impairs development efforts;

-i) under capitalism , production relations between the working class and bourgeoisie assume the form of commodity relations and thus leading to exploitation of the former;

-ii) capitalism creates anarchy and bitter rivalry thus leading to uneven development of individual enterprises ; and bitter rivalry in turn unavoidably generates the rise of monopoly and exploitation.

Other marxist scholars such as Lenin, Frank , Rodney , Toyo, Nkrumah and Kay, just to mention a few of them, have similarly attacked capitalism and imperialism as Being incapable of generating development . For instance, while Lenin Talks of wars , crisis and among the capitalist-power, " Nkrumah maintains that foreign capital is used for exploitation rather than development of less developed parts of the world.

In his own critique, Rodney neatly sums up the reasons why capitalism is not a panacea to the problems of underdervelopment and why socialism is therefore imperative. According to him:

" Capitalism has proved incapable of transcending fundamental weakness such as under -utilization of productive capacity , the persistence of a permanent sector of unemployed , and periodic economic crisis..... Capitalism has created its own irrationalities such as a vicious white racism, the tremendous waste associated with advertising , and their rationality of incredible poverty in the midst of wealth and wastage."

In view of the critical examination of the bad effects of capitalism vis-a-vis development, Rodney concludes that it Is no longer effective in promoting development but rather acts as brakes.

Isotaori Mesxaros seems to strike a similar tune when he notes that, the structural antagonism inherent in capitalism makes the system to remain Always unreformable and uncontrollable.
As a result of the Numerous problems Associated with capitalism , it is contended that development only comes about through socialism. This system marks the threshold of true human Freedom and the end of human suffering , exploitation , alienation and class depredations.
Given the fact that socialist mode of production is perceived as development ,it is necessary to examine what it is: and how it is a form of development.
As noted by onimode , the socialist mode of production is characterized by the public ownership and control of the means of production as well as social appropriation of surplus. According to Marx and engels , this mode of production makes it possible for " the free development of each to be condition for the development of all"
Socialist mode of production is based on a number of socialist oriented laws. These laws when applied , "in economic and administrative management", exert profound impact on the various sectors of production. This , Consciousness of these laws is considered as a sine qua non for development and social transformation. It is also contended that, a sound knowledge and application of the Imperatives of socialist laws, helps to lay bare the main objective of socialist enterprise. This in turn improves relations of production. But when they are ignored, (Kuznetsov) says, "disproportions results and a drag is exerted on the development of various. Sectors of production".
Some of these laws which are relevant to development are the laws of proportional and balanced development of the economy.
This is one of the most crucial factors that enhances rapid development. The Reason Is because it leads to the implementation of planned programmes of development in areas of crucial Needs. The next is law of comradely co-operation and mutual assistance in production process. This law eliminates competition, conflict and labour unrests that characterize the capitalist mode of production.

In addition , since the objective of socialism is to control production in the interest of the workers, they "now become the most dynamic force" in development process. Finally, the law of socialists production gears production toward raising people's well-being and endangers development".

To marxists, Irrespective of the angle one looks at the development,it is indeed synonymous with socialist mode of production. All other modes of production that preceded it are seen to have been transient. That is to say, they were temporary and had to pave way to socialism.
From our analysis of both the liberal and marxist perceptions of development it is clear that development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures , attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth and eradication of poverty. In consonance with the multi-dimensional nature of development, (Dudley Seers) has posed basic questions whose answers could unveil the meaning of development. He posited that:

"The questions to ask about a country's development are therefore ; what has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to equality? If all three of these have declined from high levels , then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned . If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result "development " even if per capita income doubled."

In order to grasp the fundamental of development , it is perhaps instructive to follow the footsteps of dennis Goulet whose basic components or core values of development, "serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the inner meaning of development" according to Goulet, the basic components or core value of development are life-sustenance, self-esteem and freedom, these represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies.

Life sustenance refers and relates to the provision of basic human needs such as qualitative food, education, housing and clothing.
Thus one of the goals of development should be "to raise people out of poverty and to provide basic needs at the same time"

Self. Esteem is Concerned with independence and self-respect. No country ,which is exploited and is heavily dependent on another for basic human needs and industralization , can claim to be developed . Third world countries seek development so as to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful underdervelopment".

Freedom as the third core-value of development implies freedom from "want , ignorance and squalor " A scholar like (W. Arthur Lewis) has noted that has noted that there is a significant relationship between economic growth and development when he observed that "the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human Choices".

Using goulet's concept of development , therefore , development implies a situation where " there has been improvement in the basic needs, when economic progress has contributed to a greater sense of self-esteem for the country and individuals within it , and when material advancement has expanded the range of choice for individuals"
From our angle , a more fruitful approach to the definition of development ought to follow the marxist tradition as well as goulet's conception and thus take into account not only economic and political factors alone, but also social indicators as well. In specific terms, such an approach should see development as "people inspired ,human centered and citiZen anchored". In other words people should be seen as the agent of change and development , and development should directly affect the quality of life and well-being of mankind.
From this standpoint , development as will be used in this literature implies the qualitative and quantitative change not only in the Standard of living of the members of the society. But also. The transformation of the society, in all its ramifications. Thus , the availability of such development indicators as high literacy rate, good road network, constant supply of electricity , improved medical facilities , decent housing as well as equitable distribution of income are indicative of a developed society and is a manifestation of the will and capacity to induce social change by the use of labour power and available resources to improve the living standard of the citizens.

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Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by hashtagg(m): 10:27am On Mar 14, 2016
Mrshroud:

In his conclusion , kay contends that since development is dependent on human labour , as can be proven when a product as a natural object is transformed by human labour so that is satisfies human need, development should center around human beings.

Contd...

Thus , at the individual level, development is defined as the interplay between man and nature in the process of production of material needs, at the social group . In addition , it implies the ability of members of the social group. In addition, it implies the ability of members of the society to concertedly deal with their environment . And this directly depends upon the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science) , on the extent to which they put that understanding into practice by devising tools (technology) , and on the manner by which work is organized.

In consonance with this view , development is used to imply the ability by the collectivity of individuals to organize themselves with a view. To eking out , a living from nature. Historically, this has manifested itself in various forms. Firstly , by the evolutionary progress From crude stone tools to the application of metals. The Change over from the hunting and gathering of wild fruits to the domestication of animals and cultivation of crops was the second manifestation. The third form presented itself by the improvement in the manner social work organized "from being an individualistic activity which assumes a social character through the participation of many.

The third conception of development by the marxist scholars organically ties development to socialist mode of production. The thinking here is that capitalist mode of production is an impediment to development and people's well-being . It breeds inequality , exploitation and crises. Therefore, socialism is seen as the only method of bringing about development "that can duly ease the lives of working people and improve their well-being as much as possible."

But at what juncture does capitalism give way to socialism? What are the peculiar features of capitalism that inhibit development? What is socialist mode of production? And how is it relevant and suitable to development ? These and other questions will be answered by examining development in the context of socialism. Radical scholars maintain that capitalism is anti-development.
This is so because of numerous contradictions that are associated with it. It is contended that when the economic system is based upon private ownership, individual initiative , profit and competition," a number of features that thwart development are bound to arise. According to (Williams A. McClenghan) some of these features are:

-a) the means by which goods are produced are held as private property by individuals or companies formed, owned and controlled by one , a few or many individuals;

-b) the owners of means of production hire labour and compete with one another to produce goods and services at a profit and

-c) competition is the life-blood of this system.

A superficial view of the basic traits of capitalism indicates that it is innocuous to development. But (karl marx) in his path - breaking work, capital , has scientifically examined its specific features, concrete forms and peculiarities of its manifestations. This led him to conclude that capitalism is an evil. This position has been supported by all radical scholars. For instance (Professor M.K Bunkina) has advanced the following points to demonstrate that capitalism impairs development efforts;

-i) under capitalism , production relations between the working class and bourgeoisie assume the form of commodity relations and thus leading to exploitation of the former;

-ii) capitalism creates anarchy and bitter rivalry thus leading to uneven development of individual enterprises ; and bitter rivalry in turn unavoidably generates the rise of monopoly and exploitation.

Other marxist scholars such as Lenin, Frank , Rodney , Toyo, Nkrumah and Kay, just to mention a few of them, have similarly attacked capitalism and imperialism as Being incapable of generating development . For instance, while Lenin Talks of wars , crisis and among the capitalist-power, " Nkrumah maintains that foreign capital is used for exploitation rather than development of less developed parts of the world.

In his own critique, Rodney neatly sums up the reasons why capitalism is not a panacea to the problems of underdervelopment and why socialism is therefore imperative. According to him:

" Capitalism has proved incapable of transcending fundamental weakness such as under -utilization of productive capacity , the persistence of a permanent sector of unemployed , and periodic economic crisis..... Capitalism has created its own irrationalities such as a vicious white racism, the tremendous waste associated with advertising , and their rationality of incredible poverty in the midst of wealth and wastage."

In view of the critical examination of the bad effects of capitalism vis-a-vis development, Rodney concludes that it Is no longer effective in promoting development but rather acts as brakes.

Isotaori Mesxaros seems to strike a similar tune when he notes that, the structural antagonism inherent in capitalism makes the system to remain Always unreformable and uncontrollable.
As a result of the Numerous problems Associated with capitalism , it is contended that development only comes about through socialism. This system marks the threshold of true human Freedom and the end of human suffering , exploitation , alienation and class depredations.
Given the fact that socialist mode of production is perceived as development ,it is necessary to examine what it is: and how it is a form of development.
As noted by onimode , the socialist mode of production is characterized by the public ownership and control of the means of production as well as social appropriation of surplus. According to Marx and engels , this mode of production makes it possible for " the free development of each to be condition for the development of all"
Socialist mode of production is based on a number of socialist oriented laws. These laws when applied , "in economic and administrative management", exert profound impact on the various sectors of production. This , Consciousness of these laws is considered as a sine qua non for development and social transformation. It is also contended that, a sound knowledge and application of the Imperatives of socialist laws, helps to lay bare the main objective of socialist enterprise. This in turn improves relations of production. But when they are ignored, (Kuznetsov) says, "disproportions results and a drag is exerted on the development of various. Sectors of production".
Some of these laws which are relevant to development are the laws of proportional and balanced development of the economy.
This is one of the most crucial factors that enhances rapid development. The Reason Is because it leads to the implementation of planned programmes of development in areas of crucial Needs. The next is law of comradely co-operation and mutual assistance in production process. This law eliminates competition, conflict and labour unrests that characterize the capitalist mode of production.

In addition , since the objective of socialism is to control production in the interest of the workers, they "now become the most dynamic force" in development process. Finally, the law of socialists production gears production toward raising people's well-being and endangers development".

To marxists, Irrespective of the angle one looks at the development,it is indeed synonymous with socialist mode of production. All other modes of production that preceded it are seen to have been transient. That is to say, they were temporary and had to pave way to socialism.
From our analysis of both the liberal and marxist perceptions of development it is clear that development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures , attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth and eradication of poverty. In consonance with the multi-dimensional nature of development, (Dudley Seers) has posed basic questions whose answers could unveil the meaning of development. He posited that:

"The questions to ask about a country's development are therefore ; what has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to equality? If all three of these have declined from high levels , then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned . If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result "development " even if per capita income doubled."

In order to grasp the fundamental of development , it is perhaps instructive to follow the footsteps of dennis Goulet whose basic components or core values of development, "serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the inner meaning of development" according to Goulet, the basic components or core value of development are life-sustenance, self-esteem and freedom, these represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies.

Life sustenance refers and relates to the provision of basic human needs such as qualitative food, education, housing and clothing.
Thus one of the goals of development should be "to raise people out of poverty and to provide basic needs at the same time"

Self. Esteem is Concerned with independence and self-respect. No country ,which is exploited and is heavily dependent on another for basic human needs and industralization , can claim to be developed . Third world countries seek development so as to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful underdervelopment".

Freedom as the third core-value of development implies freedom from "want , ignorance and squalor " A scholar like (W. Arthur Lewis) has noted that has noted that there is a significant relationship between economic growth and development when he observed that "the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human Choices".

Using goulet's concept of development , therefore , development implies a situation where " there has been improvement in the basic needs, when economic progress has contributed to a greater sense of self-esteem for the country and individuals within it , and when material advancement has expanded the range of choice for individuals"
From our angle , a more fruitful approach to the definition of development ought to follow the marxist tradition as well as goulet's conception and thus take into account not only economic and political factors alone, but also social indicators as well. In specific terms, such an approach should see development as "people inspired ,human centered and citiZen anchored". In other words people should be seen as the agent of change and development , and development should directly affect the quality of life and well-being of mankind.
From this standpoint , development as will be used in this literature implies the qualitative and quantitative change not only in the Standard of living of the members of the society. But also. The transformation of the society, in all its ramifications. Thus , the availability of such development indicators as high literacy rate, good road network, constant supply of electricity , improved medical facilities , decent housing as well as equitable distribution of income are indicative of a developed society and is a manifestation of the will and capacity to induce social change by the use of labour power and available resources to improve the living standard of the citizens.

The Concept of underdervelopment.

Our knowledge of development and what constitutes it as presented by two schools of thought reviewed above will facilitate our understanding of the concept , underdervelopment. The term underdervelopment as used in the social sciences to refer to certain areas of the world, gained currency in the late 1940's . Prior to this time; time , other derogatory terms had been used to qualify and describe these areas. As Meier has noted , in the 18th century, such terms as "rude" and "barbarous" were used to describe countries in Asia , Africa , the Caribbean and Latin America. In the 19th century those terms were dropped in Favour of new terms such as backward" and primitive" . In the 20th century, especially after the end of world war II , the previous terms were equally abandoned . In their places new terms such as "underdeveloped" and "developing" were used.

At the moment it has been suggested in some quarters that such terms as "less developed" "developing" "poor" and "emergent" countries should be used instead of underdeveloped countries. The reason any unpleasantness which may be attached to it" and which might be interpreted as inciting such physical deformities as mental and moral underdevelopment.
It has also been suggested that the previous derogatory terms should be dropped in Favour of less offensive or mild ones such as "developing" or "emergent". This is perceived by Marxist scholars as a calculated design or ploy by the west to mask and or camouflage economic stagnation and exploitation that exist in underdeveloped areas.

Oyari O.Okereke former Dean Faculties of humanities and social sciences. Ikenga
Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by steph2sweet(f): 1:14pm On Dec 11, 2016
Thanks very much for this thread Mrshroud, u have saved me in this test i am preparing for.

1 Like

Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by cbravo(m): 3:46pm On Apr 15, 2017
Re: Politics Of Development. And Underdevelopment by cbravo2: 8:28am On Apr 18, 2017

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