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How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? - Health - Nairaland

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The Facts And Myths Of Sickle Cell Disease / Postinor How Effective Is It? / Postinor 2 - How Effective Is It? (2) (3) (4)

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How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by blackhope: 7:30pm On Sep 08, 2006
Here are a couple of interesting/promising articles about a new sickle cell drug developed in Nigeria called nicosan (aka niprisan) :-

Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo Launches Xechem's Sickle Cell Drug, NICOSAN(TM), in Nigeria
http://biz.yahoo.com/bw/060711/20060711005212.html?.v=1

Demand for New Sickle Cell Drug NICOSAN(TM) Far Exceeds Supply
http://biz.yahoo.com/bw/060726/20060726005261.html?.v=1

If these articles are anything to go by then this is a huge breakthough for Nigerian scientists and more importantly for sickle cell sufferers worldwide.

Is this for real or mere hype?

I am curios to know how effective this drug is?

Does anyone have any relevant information from personal experience or hear-say?. I would also be particularly interested in hearing from anyone who may have participated in the clinical trials leading to the NAFDAC approval.

Holler,

BlackHope
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by blackhope: 8:14pm On Jul 10, 2007
Here are some answers to my earlier question :-

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6646289.stm

"My son has sickle cell. It is a terrible thing to experience or witness. Whenever he is in crisis, I feel so sorry for him and cry with him. The pains are very severe. In Nigeria, a drug was discovered which I have been using since I got to know about it. For me, it is very effective indeed! But one has to take it every day. It is very expensive considering the low standard of living in Nigeria. The government should assist sickle cell sufferers just as they assist HIV/AIDS patients. Godwin
Godwin Ondoma, Abuja, Nigeria"

If anyone cares to share their experiences that would be great for the benefit of all who suffer from this difficult disease.

Read the full transcript here

http://blaxchillaxin.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=11

Black Hope
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Elozie: 2:52pm On Nov 11, 2009
@blackhope, its not mere hype, nicosan is actually effective. I've once been with Xechem, the company producing nicosan, b4 d launching, during the period of NAFDAC approval. From real life testimonies pple have commended d effectiveness of d herbal drug, at least it reduces crisis 2 d barest minimum.

But my concern now is d availablity after d closedown of d factory, i do hope dat something will be done fast 2 make d drug available again, cos it is truly a life saver 4 scd patients.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by queentayo: 6:08pm On Mar 02, 2010
CAN ANYONE PLS HELP WITH THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION

Is Nicosan presently available in any reputable pharmacy in nigeria
How much is a pack
Direct testimony from Nicosan user

Feedback highly appreciated
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Elozie: 10:50am On Mar 03, 2010
If u are in Abuja, Nicosan is available in some pharmacies in Gwagwalada, Mararaba and in the town, but is quite expensive, ranges from N6,000 to N7,500 depending on whether it is for child or adult.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by dominique(f): 2:16am On Mar 11, 2010
i read about it a while ago. its nice to know sicklers can live healthy productive with this kind of drug.
but is is readily available? i can't imagine what will happen if they don't take their dosage regularly.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Elozie: 10:05am On Mar 12, 2010
Nicosan is a Nigerian manufactured drug at Sheda, Gwagwalada in Abuja. It ought to be readily available for nigerians, but for some reasons, production is hampered. We hope that very soon production will start in earnest. For full effectiveness patient must take the required dosage regularly.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 3:08am On Jan 04, 2014
Who's heard of Solamin?
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 7:44am On Jan 04, 2014
Good to know NICOSAN is out there after months of problems. The drug was developed solely by NIPRD(National institute for pharmaceutical research and development). Since early last year or so, issues with bulk manufacturing, licensing and distribution av surfaced. I can assure you those issues will be put aside soon.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Myriam164: 8:57am On Jan 04, 2014
adeola_drg: Good to know NICOSAN is out there after months of problems. The drug was developed solely by NIPRD(National institute for pharmaceutical research and development). Since early last year or so, issues with bulk manufacturing, licensing and distribution av surfaced. I can assure you those issues will be put aside soon.

How can i buy nicosan for my child.. pls help
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by bluerange(f): 10:03am On Jan 04, 2014
smartchoice: Who's heard of Solamin?
l have and it is very effective!
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by bluerange(f): 10:09am On Jan 04, 2014
Myriam164:

How can i buy nicosan for my child.. pls help
Solamin is very effective taking it alongside Esomoron I came across it in the Sun newspaper in 2008 and immediately called a relative who is a carrier to go get them.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 10:24am On Jan 04, 2014
please tell me more

bluerange: l have and it is very effective!
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by bluerange(f): 11:02am On Jan 04, 2014
smartchoice: please tell me more

My relative is now 39 and married. he looks so healthy now, far from the skinny and yellowish eyes person l grew up with.lt has been tested & verified as far as South Africa. A bottle is N2000
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by sammyjay76(m): 12:09pm On Jan 04, 2014
I have the best solution for you... purely herbal and it cures it not managing it, you can check my profile, i ve used Solamin, Nicosan, Carao, Discovite & cell od, all only manages it until i met the real herbal cure. The dosage is 2-8months in both mild & severe cases. The sure thing is within a month of taking the remedy you won't believe the efficacy! If you can come in person to have it or order it there is room for seeing is believing! Therapy herbal- There are several ways to therapy cure of variety of diseases and illnesses through the use of herbs, leaves and roots that are naturally given by mother nature. In Africa , there are good people who have gone far in their research for greater height and using it to cure many diseases and which chemical- based medicines failed to cure such as Sickle Cell, HIV, Cancer and many that will be mentioned as I proceed . Now there are testimonies obtained by many patients who had benefited from our remedies. ILLNESS / DISEASE DURATION OF TIME TO BE CURED Malaria- 2 Weeks Injury / intestinal bleeding- one week Ulcer- 3 weeks Hot track- 2 Weeks Cholera- 1 day Bilharzia ( urination with blood) 3Days Heavy Heart ( breathing ) 1 month Prostate- 6 weeks Low sperm count- 3 weeks Fluid back (female ) 3 Weeks Sickle Cell- 8 weeks Easy Childbirth6 1 Day Dizziness ( eyes turning) 1 week Abnormal heart beat- 1 week Anemia- 3 days Hernia- 1 month Hemorrhoids- 2 Weeks Asthma- 2 Weeks Hiccups- 1 day Stuttering / stammering- 1 month Alcohol Abuse- 1 week Anti Drugs - 1 week Jaundice- 3 days TB- 2 Weeks Ring worm- 2 Weeks Whit low -1 week Internal bleeding- 1 day Cirrhosis- 1month Fibroid- 1 month Cyst ( For women ) 1 month Diabetes- 1 month Rheumatism- 1 month CONTACT ME IF ANY OF THESE ILLNESS IS YOUR PROBLEM!!! +22966088270, sajolive6@gmail.com skype-sajolive
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Myriam164: 12:29pm On Jan 04, 2014
sammyjay76: I have the best solution for you... purely herbal and it cures it not managing it, you can check my profile, i ve used Solamin, Nicosan, Carao, Discovite & cell od, all only manages it until i met the real herbal cure. The dosage is 2-8months in both mild & severe cases. The sure thing is within a month of taking the remedy you won't believe the efficacy! If you can come in person to have it or order it there is room for seeing is believing! Therapy herbal- There are several ways to therapy cure of variety of diseases and illnesses through the use of herbs, leaves and roots that are naturally given by mother nature. In Africa , there are good people who have gone far in their research for greater height and using it to cure many diseases and which chemical- based medicines failed to cure such as Sickle Cell, HIV, Cancer and many that will be mentioned as I proceed . Now there are testimonies obtained by many patients who had benefited from our remedies. ILLNESS / DISEASE DURATION OF TIME TO BE CURED Malaria- 2 Weeks Injury / intestinal bleeding- one week Ulcer- 3 weeks Hot track- 2 Weeks Cholera- 1 day Bilharzia ( urination with blood) 3Days Heavy Heart ( breathing ) 1 month Prostate- 6 weeks Low sperm count- 3 weeks Fluid back (female ) 3 Weeks Sickle Cell- 8 weeks Easy Childbirth6 1 Day Dizziness ( eyes turning) 1 week Abnormal heart beat- 1 week Anemia- 3 days Hernia- 1 month Hemorrhoids- 2 Weeks Asthma- 2 Weeks Hiccups- 1 day Stuttering / stammering- 1 month Alcohol Abuse- 1 week Anti Drugs - 1 week Jaundice- 3 days TB- 2 Weeks Ring worm- 2 Weeks Whit low -1 week Internal bleeding- 1 day Cirrhosis- 1month Fibroid- 1 month Cyst ( For women ) 1 month Diabetes- 1 month Rheumatism- 1 month CONTACT MtE IF ANY OF THESE ILLNESS IS YOUR PROBLEM!!! +22966088270, sajolive6@gmail.com skype-sajolive
OH MY GOD... i dont believe that there is anyonr in the world as stupid as you are... how on earth do you cure a dna linked disease through oral medication?!!
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 3:44pm On Jan 04, 2014
Nicosan
- Sickle
Cell
information
- Clinical
trials
NICOSAN™ is
a non-toxic,
Phyto-
pharmaceutical, product for the treatment of
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). NicosanTM is
obtained from the mixture of four Nigerian
plant materials e.g. Piper guineese (Seeds),
Pterocarpus Osun (Stems), Eugenia
caryophyllum (Fruits), Sorghum bicolor
(Leaves), in a standard ratio which produce
a hygroscopic, reddish-brown powder with
a pungent odour.
In July, 2002, Xechem acquired exclusive
worldwide license from the Ministry of
Health, Federal Government of Nigeria to
develop and market NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™
in the US).
NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™) was shown to be a
safe and efficacious medicine for the
management of patients with Sickle Cell
Disease. As published in the May 2003
issue of the British Journal of Hematology,
Dr.Toshio Asakura and colleagues from
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP),
USA and the University of Pennsylvania
demonstrated the anti-sickling effects of
NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™) in transgenic mice.
The quality and standardization of the
medicine has been tested and proved by
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) and bioassay.
NICOSAN™ Characteristics
A 100 % Nigerian indigenous Product.
Product available in Capsules, pleasant
tasting with no known side effects.
Dose determined and Clinical Trials
conducted.
The pricing strategy will favor the poor and
underprivileged.
BENEFITS OF NICOSAN™
1. It is used for prophylactic management
of sickle cell disease (SCD).
2. It has potent anti sickling effect on
sickled erythrocytes, obtained from patients
with SCD and on transgenic mice that
produced human sickle hemoglobin, thus
useful in preventing painful crisis
experienced by SCD patients.
3. It reduces hypoxic stress experienced by
SCD patients (due to trapping of sickle cell
in lungs), drastically.
4. It removes the incidence of blood
transfusion in SCD PATIENTS.
5. It prevents clinical sequel (i.e. painful
crisis).
6. It prevents ocular damage
PRESENTATION
NicosanTM
comes in two
different strengths:
250mg (Children Dose)
350mg (Adults Dose)
It is presented as 30 capsules, packaged in
60ml, HDPE bottles
DOSAGE
Adult Dose:
One (1) capsule (350mg) daily at meal time
with water.
Child Dose:
One (1) capsule (250mg) daily at meal time
with water.
SIDE EFFECTS
Rare:
Mild non- itching muscular rash
Mild headache.
TOXICITY
- Non Toxic
- Higher doses of 2000mg 5000mg/kg
LD50 (A lethal Dose at which 50% of the
population of experimental mice were
expected to die), there was no death
recorded.
- No kidney or liver damage was observed
both in human volunteers and in
experimental animals during and after the
clinical trials, the drug is safe in humans at
the
recommended dose.
CONTRAINDICATION
There is no known contra-indication in
both mice and human to all the active
ingredients. The potash used for extraction
and the binding agent (Lactose) are safe for
human consumption.
No health hazard was observed, when
administered in the proper dosage form.
INTERACTION
It can be safely combined, with other
drugs, even the cytotoxic drugs like
Indinavir, Zidovudine, Lamivudine and
Vevirapine used in the management of HIV/
AIDS.
Paracetamol was found to increase the
invivo concentration of NicosanTM care
must be taken, when they are co
administered.
TERATOGENECITY
There is no known teratogenic effect
produced by NicosanTM, even some
pregnant women who opted (against
clinician's advice) to continue taking
NicosanTM had normal babies.
STORAGE CONDITION
To be stored in a dry clean place storage
temperature is 25oc. Protect from moisture
and humidity.
CONCLUSION
NICOSANTM is an effective and safe drug of
choice for the management of sickle cell
disease (SCD).
WARNING
Keep out of reach of the children don't
exceed the stated dose.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by sammyjay76(m): 10:07pm On Jan 04, 2014
THE HIDDEN TRUTH
The pharmaceutical industry has more to gain when people are sick than when they are well.
Therefore, they manufacture drugs that only relieve symptoms but do not cure disease. There’s a vested interest in keeping people sick because the big bucks are in drugs for ongoing diseases. And yet, the pharmaceutical companies’ clever propaganda to make themselves look like the savior of all mankind - a savior that finds “cures” for diseases and saves people’s lives - has successfully deceived us into regarding them with a sense of awe, reverence and respect for all that they do for human health.

The irony of it all is that more people have died from preventable diseases than all the wars of the world combined as a direct result of the pharmaceutical business. These deaths were not just from the use of drugs (as in the case of the 106,000 deaths per year from the negative effects of drugs) but from the industry’s suppression of information about non-drug health alternatives that could have kept people from dying.

Pharmaceutical companies routinely use their power and unlimited financial resources to keep doctors from prescribing natural therapies - and their powerful lobbyists even get Congress to disallow established health claims for natural remedies. If you do some research on your own, you’ll find this to be true. They have built an elaborate maze of manipulation, control, infiltration and economic incentives to systematically deceive millions of people into thinking that drugs are the only solution to disease
The deception has become so pervasive that we have been brainwashed into thinking that whenever we are sick or are not feeling well, all we have to do is take a pill to feel better

According to a June 2008 article written by Dr. Joseph Mercola in his popular natural health newsletter,
“As much as the drug companies want you to believe that it’s normal to take medicine every day, it’s not. It is the rare exception that you should ever need to take a drug.”
It is of no comfort that the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), the government agency created to protect public health, makes it a priority to promote drugs and the financial interests of pharmaceutical companies. This is so because many of the FDA’s senior management and members of its advisory committees accept more than $50,000 apiece in corporate grants, contracts and consulting fees from pharmaceutical companies.

It wasn’t until the Vioxx scandal took place that the true nature of the FDA was revealed, along with its leniency toward the industry it’s supposed to be regulating.

In 2004, Merck marketed Vioxx for the treatment of arthritis and other conditions causing chronic or acute pain. Later, it was discovered that Merck had deliberately suppressed the heart attack risks of Vioxx. The international medical community has criticized the FDA for not only being “asleep at the wheel” while this was happening, but also of acting in collusion with Merck to cover up the truth.

The irresponsible behavior of the FDA caused Dr. Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet (one of the most respected medical journals in the world) to state,
“This discovery points to astonishing failures in Merck’s internal systems of post-marketing surveillance, as well as to lethal weaknesses in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulatory oversight.”
Vioxx has since been taken off the market.

Instead of relying on drugs and paying close to a trillion dollars to the pharmaceutical cartel for drugs that do not cure (and often cause harm, or even death), we must rely more on natural approaches for achieving optimal health.

The answer is this: Disease is big business.

Americans are spending over $2 trillion dollars on health care, and that figure is expected to reach the $3 trillion mark by the end of the decade. Over $1 trillion dollars of the spending is on pharmaceutical drugs.

With these kinds of revenues, there is no incentive on the part of the pharmaceutical industries to promote better health. They are the most profitable industry in the world, enjoying average profit margins of 30,000% to 50,000% on pharmaceutical drugs over the cost of raw materials. Sometimes, their markups can be as high as 569,000%!

The average business person in his right mind wouldn’t dare walk away from such profits, and would do almost anything to ensure that the trillion-dollar cash cow remains intact.

As a result, the pharmaceutical industry has assembled a pharma-cartel consisting of an army of lobbyists that influence not only the entire medical industry but also the U.S. Congress; and by extension, the lives of the entire American population.

Pharmaceutical companies spend enormous amounts of money to get doctors to prescribe their drugs to patients; to get the American public to believe, via the barrage of drug commercials, that they’ve got a health problem; and to get Congress to pass legislation that ensures their continued profitability.

1 Like 1 Share

Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by oluplus(m): 8:35pm On Sep 04, 2014
Please and please, where can I get these drugs, nicosan, solamin. Please save a soul. Urgent response will be appreciated.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 9:01am On Sep 05, 2014
oluplus: Please and please, where can I get these drugs, nicosan, solamin. Please save a soul. Urgent response will be appreciated.

PM me
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 9:04am On Sep 05, 2014
adeoladrg: Nicosan
- Sickle
Cell
information
- Clinical
trials
NICOSAN™ is
a non-toxic,
Phyto-
pharmaceutical, product for the treatment of
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). NicosanTM is
obtained from the mixture of four Nigerian
plant materials e.g. Piper guineese (Seeds),
Pterocarpus Osun (Stems), Eugenia
caryophyllum (Fruits), Sorghum bicolor
(Leaves), in a standard ratio which produce
a hygroscopic, reddish-brown powder with
a pungent odour.
In July, 2002, Xechem acquired exclusive
worldwide license from the Ministry of
Health, Federal Government of Nigeria to
develop and market NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™
in the US).
NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™) was shown to be a
safe and efficacious medicine for the
management of patients with Sickle Cell
Disease. As published in the May 2003
issue of the British Journal of Hematology,
Dr.Toshio Asakura and colleagues from
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP),
USA and the University of Pennsylvania
demonstrated the anti-sickling effects of
NICOSAN™ (HEMOXIN™) in transgenic mice.
The quality and standardization of the
medicine has been tested and proved by
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) and bioassay.
NICOSAN™ Characteristics
A 100 % Nigerian indigenous Product.
Product available in Capsules, pleasant
tasting with no known side effects.
Dose determined and Clinical Trials
conducted.
The pricing strategy will favor the poor and
underprivileged.
BENEFITS OF NICOSAN™
1. It is used for prophylactic management
of sickle cell disease (SCD).
2. It has potent anti sickling effect on
sickled erythrocytes, obtained from patients
with SCD and on transgenic mice that
produced human sickle hemoglobin, thus
useful in preventing painful crisis
experienced by SCD patients.
3. It reduces hypoxic stress experienced by
SCD patients (due to trapping of sickle cell
in lungs), drastically.
4. It removes the incidence of blood
transfusion in SCD PATIENTS.
5. It prevents clinical sequel (i.e. painful
crisis).
6. It prevents ocular damage
PRESENTATION
NicosanTM
comes in two
different strengths:
250mg (Children Dose)
350mg (Adults Dose)
It is presented as 30 capsules, packaged in
60ml, HDPE bottles
DOSAGE
Adult Dose:
One (1) capsule (350mg) daily at meal time
with water.
Child Dose:
One (1) capsule (250mg) daily at meal time
with water.
SIDE EFFECTS
Rare:
Mild non- itching muscular rash
Mild headache.
TOXICITY
- Non Toxic
- Higher doses of 2000mg 5000mg/kg
LD50 (A lethal Dose at which 50% of the
population of experimental mice were
expected to die), there was no death
recorded.
- No kidney or liver damage was observed
both in human volunteers and in
experimental animals during and after the
clinical trials, the drug is safe in humans at
the
recommended dose.
CONTRAINDICATION
There is no known contra-indication in
both mice and human to all the active
ingredients. The potash used for extraction
and the binding agent (Lactose) are safe for
human consumption.
No health hazard was observed, when
administered in the proper dosage form.
INTERACTION
It can be safely combined, with other
drugs, even the cytotoxic drugs like
Indinavir, Zidovudine, Lamivudine and
Vevirapine used in the management of HIV/
AIDS.
Paracetamol was found to increase the
invivo concentration of NicosanTM care
must be taken, when they are co
administered.
TERATOGENECITY
There is no known teratogenic effect
produced by NicosanTM, even some
pregnant women who opted (against
clinician's advice) to continue taking
NicosanTM had normal babies.
STORAGE CONDITION
To be stored in a dry clean place storage
temperature is 25oc. Protect from moisture
and humidity.
CONCLUSION
NICOSANTM is an effective and safe drug of
choice for the management of sickle cell
disease (SCD).
WARNING
Keep out of reach of the children don't
exceed the stated dose.

Ade can you reproduce the drug?
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 4:10pm On Sep 05, 2014
smartchoice:

Ade can you reproduce the drug?

I'll need a lot money, a well stocked laboratory and bulk manufacturing plant.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 7:31pm On Sep 05, 2014
adeoladrg:

I'll need a lot money, a well stocked laboratory and bulk manufacturing plant.
You've not answered my question
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 7:57pm On Sep 05, 2014
...
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 7:57pm On Sep 05, 2014
smartchoice:
You've not answered my question

Then i need to understand your question sir.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 8:29pm On Sep 05, 2014
can you reproduce it or not?

adeoladrg:

Then i need to understand your question sir.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by oluplus(m): 9:08pm On Sep 05, 2014
[quote author=smartchoice]
PM me[/quote.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 9:18pm On Sep 05, 2014
[quote author=oluplus][/quote]

pls put a fone no...
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by oluplus(m): 9:49pm On Sep 05, 2014
--
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by oluplus(m): 12:39pm On Sep 08, 2014
@smart choice: still waiting
Thanks
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by adeoladrg(m): 12:51pm On Sep 08, 2014
smartchoice: can you reproduce it or not?


Reproduce should have a synonym.
Re: How Effective Is Nicosan For The Treatment Of Sickle Cell ? by Nobody: 2:48pm On Sep 08, 2014
adeoladrg:

Reproduce should have a synonym.

Find it!

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