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Parvovirus / 8 Tips To Prevent Parvovirus In Your Dog Or Puppy (2) (3) (4)

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Parvovirus......... by Magpies(m): 11:47am On Jul 07, 2015
Canine Parvovirus (or "Parvo" as it is commonly
referred to) is highly contagious virus infection that
is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect
contact with their feces. Canine Parvovirus affects
domestic dogs and also other canine species
including foxes, wolves, and coyotes.
The disease is primarily spread through fecal
matter in dirt. It can also live on surfaces and
objects such as shoes, clothing, food and water
dishes, toys, bedding and towels. The virus can
survive in the ground for years and is often found in
yards and dog parks where pets that have had the
illness carry it.
Parvovirus can be shed in the feces of a dog 3 to 4
days after infection, but before clinical signs of
illness appear in a dog. At this stage, infected
animals shed huge amounts of the virus. Dogs that
have recovered from parvo can also still transmit
the disease up to 3 weeks (or sometimes even up to
6 weeks) after recovery.
The virus is extremely hardy and survives through
very cold and hot temperatures. Occasionally,
outbreaks will occur in shelters when a stray dog
that is infected is taken in, or in unhygienic kennels
(e.g. puppy mills) where dogs usually are
unvaccinated. But any unvaccinated dog can catch
parvovirus. That is why the virus is particularly
dangerous to dogs under a year old that have not
been vaccinated, or only received part of their
course of injections.
Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman
Pinschers, and Pitbull terriers, as well as other
black and tan colored dogs, may be more
susceptible to parvovirus.
Dogs that are treated early and aggressively
usually pull through, with mortality rates for the
disease being between 5% and 20%. However,
chances of survival for puppies are much lower
than older dogs. Even when dogs given veterinarian
care, there is no guarantee of survival.
The virus kills through a combination of attacks.
Dogs who catch parvovirus usually die from the
dehydration it causes, or from secondary infections,
rather than the virus itself. Diarrhea and vomiting
leads to extreme fluid loss and dehydration that in
turn, leads to shock and death. Loss of the intestinal
barrier allows bacterial invasion of potentially the
entire body and septic shock result.
Concurrent infections often occur because of
multiple factors such as age, breed, stress, and the
overall general health of the dog. Bacteria, parasites
and canine coronavirus all increase the risk of a
dog getting a severe infection, which complicates
treatment of the disease. Also, red and white blood
cell levels drop dangerously low resulting in anemia
and loss of immunity.
In cases of the more uncommon cardiovascular
form of parvovirus, the heart muscle is attacked
leading to death.
Dogs with severe parvovirus infections can die
within 48 to 72 hours of evincing symptoms if they
are not treated with fluids and antibiotics.
Types and Forms of Parvovirus
Canine Parvovirus is a relatively new disease. The
CPV1 strain was detected in the late 1960s. Then a
new strain, CPV2 was detected in the late 1970s.
CPV2 is more virulent strain and affects more dogs
than the original and has several mutated strains -
CPV2a and CPV2b - which are believed to cause
most cases of canine parvovirus infection
nowadays. A third type, CPV2c, has been recently
discovered in Italy, Spain and Vietnam and is
spreading to other countries as well.
Canine Parvovirus has two forms – an intestinal
form and a cardiac form. Depending on the form of
parvovirus a dog contracts, symptoms and
outcomes of the disease can vary.
Intestinal form
The intestinal form is the most common form of
canine parvovirus. A dog’s intestinal lining is
affected and blood, protein and bacteria leak into
the intestines leading to anemia (lack of red blood
cells that provide oxygen to the body) and
endotoxemia (which leads to septic shock). Affected
Dogs have a distinctive odor in the later stages of
the infection. At later stages, white blood cell counts
fall as well further weakening the dog. Any or all of
these factors can lead to shock and death.
Cardiac form
The cardiac form of parvovirus is much rarer. It is
more commonly seen in puppies where mothers
may not have been vaccinated against the disease
and infects her pups in utero or shortly after birth
until 8 weeks of age. The virus attacks the heart
muscle. A puppy often dies suddenly without any
sign or after a brief period of breathing difficulty.
This form of the disease may or may not be
accompanied with the signs and symptoms of the
intestinal form. However, this form is now rarely
seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding
dogs. That said, there are higher instances in
puppies that come from puppy mills or stray dogs.
Symptoms of Parvovirus
There is typically an incubation period of 3 to 7 days
between initial infection and onset of first
symptoms. Usually the lymph nodes in the throat
are where the virus incubates for a few days, after
which the virus enters the bloodstream and into the
organs. The two areas typically hit hardest by CPV
are the bone marrow and intestinal walls.
Three to four days following infection, the virus is
shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the
dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed
the virus periodically.
The virus is usually more deadly if the dog is
concurrently infested with worms or other intestinal
parasites.
Common signs of the intestinal form are severe
vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms include:
Lethargy (lack of energy)
Severe and/or bloody diarrhea
Vomiting
Fever
Loss of appetite
Dehydration
Seizures
The cardiac form causes respiratory and
cardiovascular failure. There are several tests that
can be run by your veterinarian to help determine
whether what is affecting your dog is CPV or some
other problem.
Diagnosis of Parvovirus
By far the most common and most convenient
method of testing for the presence of CPV virus is
the fecal ELISA test. ELISA is an acronym for
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A
veterinarian can complete the test in less than 15
minutes. A small stool sample is necessary for the
completion of the ELISA test. Though the ELISA test
is quite accurate, there are some cases in which a
false positive or false negative result may be
obtained. In this case, further measures may have
to be taken to establish a diagnosis of CPV.
If further testing is done, a white blood cell count
test will usually definitively diagnose CPV. Because
one of the first things the parvovirus infects is the
bone marrow, a low white blood cell count can be
indicative of CPV infection. If the ELISA test was
positive, but the dog has a normal white blood cell
count, it is unlikely the animal is infected with CPV.
If however the dog has both a positive ELISA
reading and a low white cell count, a fairly
confident diagnosis of CPV may be made. PCR has
also become available to diagnose CPV2, and can
be used later in the disease when potentially less
virus is being shed in the feces that may not be
detectable by ELISA test.
Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can
sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other
forms of enteritis. Parvovirus, however, is more
serious and the presence of bloody diarrhea, a low
white blood cell count, and necrosis of the intestinal
lining also point more towards parvovirus,
especially in an unvaccinated dog. The cardiac form
is typically easier to diagnose because the
symptoms are quite distinct.
Treatment of Parvovirus
Vet hospitalization is required to treat parvovirus,
where supportive care is administered. Treatments
may vary between individuals, but certain aspects
are considered vital for all patients. This includes:
Administering intravenous fluids and nutrients to
help the dog combat the severe dehydration and
electrolyte imbalances that result from vomiting and
diarrhea.
Antibiotics administered either through IV drip or
injection to counteract the secondary bacterial
infections that result.
Medications to control nausea and vomiting are
sometimes added to the IV fluid bag.
Overall, care of dogs with CPV centers around fluid
replacement and constant monitoring of bodily
functions. As many dogs with severe forms also
have intestinal or worms, de-worming medication
may also be administered.
In some cases a blood plasma transfusion is given
if extreme protein loss, anemia or drastic low white
blood cell levels occur. Experimental treatments
include giving blood plasma transfusion from a
donor dog that has already survived CPV is
sometimes used to provide passive immunity to the
sick dog. However there is no controlled studies
regarding this treatment.
Once the dog can keep fluids down, the IV fluids
are gradually discontinued, and very bland food
slowly introduced. A puppy with minimal symptoms
can recover in 2 or 3 days if the IV fluids are begun
as soon as symptoms are noticed and the CPV test
confirms the diagnosis. If more severe, depending
on treatment, puppies can remain ill from 5 days up
to 2 weeks. However, even with hospitalization,
there is no guarantee that the dog will be cured and
survive. That said, puppies that survive for 3 to 4
days generally have a good chance of making a full
recovery within a week.
A dog that successfully recovers from CPV2
generally remains contagious for up to 3 weeks, but
it is possible they may remain contagious for up to
6 weeks. Therefore infected dogs should be
quarantined and have no, or limited exposure to
other dogs until the risk has past. Neighbors and
family members with dogs should be notified of
infected animals so that they can ensure that their
dogs are vaccinated or tested for immunity.
Prevention of Parvovirus
Treating parvo can be quite costly (running
thousands of dollars) so having a puppy and dog
vaccinated to prevent parvovirus infection is the
only effective prevention. Puppies too young to
receive vaccinations, or only partially through their
vaccination regime, should have limited exposure to
outdoor areas such as dog parks to prevent
exposure to viruses such as parvo. Veterinarians
often recommend this for all puppies until their
vaccination series in completed at age 16 weeks.
It’s a delicate balance between socializing your
puppy and giving your puppy time to have defenses
against disease.
Veterinarians usually administer the CPV vaccine as
part of a combination shot which includes, among
others, the distemper and coronavirus vaccines.
These shots are given every 3 to 4 weeks from the
time a puppy is 6 weeks old until he is at least 16
weeks of age. Manufacturers of the vaccine include:
Pfizer’s Vanguard PLUS 5 Vaccine, Intervet’s
Progard-6 Vaccine, Schering-Plough Animal
Health’s Galaxy Vaccine and Fort Dodge’s
Duramune Puppy Shot.
The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV2 has
been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in
the United States and has been found to be at least
3 years after the initial puppy series and a booster 1
year later. The vaccine will take up to 2 weeks to
reach effective levels of immunity.
The reason that vaccination is the primary tool for
prevention is that the parvovirus is extremely
difficult to eradicate. It is resistant to every
household cleaning product, with the exception of
bleach. It can live in the soil, grass, lawns, and
homes through extreme heat and cold. It will
survive in the soil for over a year. It can be carried
around on shoes, clothes, bags, fur and other
surfaces.
As the virus can also live on surfaces such as food
and water bowls, crates, bedding and towels be
cautious if you receive or purchase second hand
materials for your dog. Be sure to thoroughly bleach
the items to decontaminate them.
As many of these environments are not
decontaminated with bleach regularly, it is safe to
assume most areas carry some level of
contamination.
Dogs that have recovered from parvovirus should
remain quarantined for at least three weeks and
have no, or limited exposure, to other dogs until the
risk has past. Dogs that visit regularly with an
infected dog such as those of neighbors and friends
should be vaccinated or tested for immunity to
avoid getting infected.
Since the introduction of effective vaccinations,
parvovirus has become much less of a threat to
domesticated dogs. That said, parvovirus is a
serious illness if contracted, so taking the
necessary step towards prevention is key to
avoiding putting your dog at risk.
Re: Parvovirus......... by Apitch(m): 12:24pm On Jul 07, 2015
Plagiarism is a crime!
Always reference
Nice one bro but too lengthy, I swear I no read all

1 Like

Re: Parvovirus......... by BANGERLEE1(m): 1:48pm On Jul 07, 2015
Okay thankz... But try and summarize next time..Oshey
Re: Parvovirus......... by Magpies(m): 2:20pm On Jul 07, 2015
would do
Re: Parvovirus......... by Prodeegee(m): 4:36pm On Jul 07, 2015
Magpies:
Canine Parvovirus (or "Parvo" as it is commonly
referred to) is highly contagious virus infection that
is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect
contact with their feces. Canine Parvovirus affects
domestic dogs and also other canine species
including foxes, wolves, and coyotes.
The disease is primarily spread through fecal
matter in dirt. It can also live on surfaces and
objects such as shoes, clothing, food and water
dishes, toys, bedding and towels. The virus can
survive in the ground for years and is often found in
yards and dog parks where pets that have had the
illness carry it.
Parvovirus can be shed in the feces of a dog 3 to 4
days after infection, but before clinical signs of
illness appear in a dog. At this stage, infected
animals shed huge amounts of the virus. Dogs that
have recovered from parvo can also still transmit
the disease up to 3 weeks (or sometimes even up to
6 weeks) after recovery.
The virus is extremely hardy and survives through
very cold and hot temperatures. Occasionally,
outbreaks will occur in shelters when a stray dog
that is infected is taken in, or in unhygienic kennels
(e.g. puppy mills) where dogs usually are
unvaccinated. But any unvaccinated dog can catch
parvovirus. That is why the virus is particularly
dangerous to dogs under a year old that have not
been vaccinated, or only received part of their
course of injections.
Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman
Pinschers, and Pitbull terriers, as well as other
black and tan colored dogs, may be more
susceptible to parvovirus.
Dogs that are treated early and aggressively
usually pull through, with mortality rates for the
disease being between 5% and 20%. However,
chances of survival for puppies are much lower
than older dogs. Even when dogs given veterinarian
care, there is no guarantee of survival.
The virus kills through a combination of attacks.
Dogs who catch parvovirus usually die from the
dehydration it causes, or from secondary infections,
rather than the virus itself. Diarrhea and vomiting
leads to extreme fluid loss and dehydration that in
turn, leads to shock and death. Loss of the intestinal
barrier allows bacterial invasion of potentially the
entire body and septic shock result.
Concurrent infections often occur because of
multiple factors such as age, breed, stress, and the
overall general health of the dog. Bacteria, parasites
and canine coronavirus all increase the risk of a
dog getting a severe infection, which complicates
treatment of the disease. Also, red and white blood
cell levels drop dangerously low resulting in anemia
and loss of immunity.
In cases of the more uncommon cardiovascular
form of parvovirus, the heart muscle is attacked
leading to death.
Dogs with severe parvovirus infections can die
within 48 to 72 hours of evincing symptoms if they
are not treated with fluids and antibiotics.
Types and Forms of Parvovirus
Canine Parvovirus is a relatively new disease. The
CPV1 strain was detected in the late 1960s. Then a
new strain, CPV2 was detected in the late 1970s.
CPV2 is more virulent strain and affects more dogs
than the original and has several mutated strains -
CPV2a and CPV2b - which are believed to cause
most cases of canine parvovirus infection
nowadays. A third type, CPV2c, has been recently
discovered in Italy, Spain and Vietnam and is
spreading to other countries as well.
Canine Parvovirus has two forms – an intestinal
form and a cardiac form. Depending on the form of
parvovirus a dog contracts, symptoms and
outcomes of the disease can vary.
Intestinal form
The intestinal form is the most common form of
canine parvovirus. A dog’s intestinal lining is
affected and blood, protein and bacteria leak into
the intestines leading to anemia (lack of red blood
cells that provide oxygen to the body) and
endotoxemia (which leads to septic shock). Affected
Dogs have a distinctive odor in the later stages of
the infection. At later stages, white blood cell counts
fall as well further weakening the dog. Any or all of
these factors can lead to shock and death.
Cardiac form
The cardiac form of parvovirus is much rarer. It is
more commonly seen in puppies where mothers
may not have been vaccinated against the disease
and infects her pups in utero or shortly after birth
until 8 weeks of age. The virus attacks the heart
muscle. A puppy often dies suddenly without any
sign or after a brief period of breathing difficulty.
This form of the disease may or may not be
accompanied with the signs and symptoms of the
intestinal form. However, this form is now rarely
seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding
dogs. That said, there are higher instances in
puppies that come from puppy mills or stray dogs.
Symptoms of Parvovirus
There is typically an incubation period of 3 to 7 days
between initial infection and onset of first
symptoms. Usually the lymph nodes in the throat
are where the virus incubates for a few days, after
which the virus enters the bloodstream and into the
organs. The two areas typically hit hardest by CPV
are the bone marrow and intestinal walls.
Three to four days following infection, the virus is
shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the
dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed
the virus periodically.
The virus is usually more deadly if the dog is
concurrently infested with worms or other intestinal
parasites.
Common signs of the intestinal form are severe
vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms include:
Lethargy (lack of energy)
Severe and/or bloody diarrhea
Vomiting
Fever
Loss of appetite
Dehydration
Seizures
The cardiac form causes respiratory and
cardiovascular failure. There are several tests that
can be run by your veterinarian to help determine
whether what is affecting your dog is CPV or some
other problem.
Diagnosis of Parvovirus
By far the most common and most convenient
method of testing for the presence of CPV virus is
the fecal ELISA test. ELISA is an acronym for
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A
veterinarian can complete the test in less than 15
minutes. A small stool sample is necessary for the
completion of the ELISA test. Though the ELISA test
is quite accurate, there are some cases in which a
false positive or false negative result may be
obtained. In this case, further measures may have
to be taken to establish a diagnosis of CPV.
If further testing is done, a white blood cell count
test will usually definitively diagnose CPV. Because
one of the first things the parvovirus infects is the
bone marrow, a low white blood cell count can be
indicative of CPV infection. If the ELISA test was
positive, but the dog has a normal white blood cell
count, it is unlikely the animal is infected with CPV.
If however the dog has both a positive ELISA
reading and a low white cell count, a fairly
confident diagnosis of CPV may be made. PCR has
also become available to diagnose CPV2, and can
be used later in the disease when potentially less
virus is being shed in the feces that may not be
detectable by ELISA test.
Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can
sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other
forms of enteritis. Parvovirus, however, is more
serious and the presence of bloody diarrhea, a low
white blood cell count, and necrosis of the intestinal
lining also point more towards parvovirus,
especially in an unvaccinated dog. The cardiac form
is typically easier to diagnose because the
symptoms are quite distinct.
Treatment of Parvovirus
Vet hospitalization is required to treat parvovirus,
where supportive care is administered. Treatments
may vary between individuals, but certain aspects
are considered vital for all patients. This includes:
Administering intravenous fluids and nutrients to
help the dog combat the severe dehydration and
electrolyte imbalances that result from vomiting and
diarrhea.
Antibiotics administered either through IV drip or
injection to counteract the secondary bacterial
infections that result.
Medications to control nausea and vomiting are
sometimes added to the IV fluid bag.
Overall, care of dogs with CPV centers around fluid
replacement and constant monitoring of bodily
functions. As many dogs with severe forms also
have intestinal or worms, de-worming medication
may also be administered.
In some cases a blood plasma transfusion is given
if extreme protein loss, anemia or drastic low white
blood cell levels occur. Experimental treatments
include giving blood plasma transfusion from a
donor dog that has already survived CPV is
sometimes used to provide passive immunity to the
sick dog. However there is no controlled studies
regarding this treatment.
Once the dog can keep fluids down, the IV fluids
are gradually discontinued, and very bland food
slowly introduced. A puppy with minimal symptoms
can recover in 2 or 3 days if the IV fluids are begun
as soon as symptoms are noticed and the CPV test
confirms the diagnosis. If more severe, depending
on treatment, puppies can remain ill from 5 days up
to 2 weeks. However, even with hospitalization,
there is no guarantee that the dog will be cured and
survive. That said, puppies that survive for 3 to 4
days generally have a good chance of making a full
recovery within a week.
A dog that successfully recovers from CPV2
generally remains contagious for up to 3 weeks, but
it is possible they may remain contagious for up to
6 weeks. Therefore infected dogs should be
quarantined and have no, or limited exposure to
other dogs until the risk has past. Neighbors and
family members with dogs should be notified of
infected animals so that they can ensure that their
dogs are vaccinated or tested for immunity.
Prevention of Parvovirus
Treating parvo can be quite costly (running
thousands of dollars) so having a puppy and dog
vaccinated to prevent parvovirus infection is the
only effective prevention. Puppies too young to
receive vaccinations, or only partially through their
vaccination regime, should have limited exposure to
outdoor areas such as dog parks to prevent
exposure to viruses such as parvo. Veterinarians
often recommend this for all puppies until their
vaccination series in completed at age 16 weeks.
It’s a delicate balance between socializing your
puppy and giving your puppy time to have defenses
against disease.
Veterinarians usually administer the CPV vaccine as
part of a combination shot which includes, among
others, the distemper and coronavirus vaccines.
These shots are given every 3 to 4 weeks from the
time a puppy is 6 weeks old until he is at least 16
weeks of age. Manufacturers of the vaccine include:
Pfizer’s Vanguard PLUS 5 Vaccine, Intervet’s
Progard-6 Vaccine, Schering-Plough Animal
Health’s Galaxy Vaccine and Fort Dodge’s
Duramune Puppy Shot.
The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV2 has
been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in
the United States and has been found to be at least
3 years after the initial puppy series and a booster 1
year later. The vaccine will take up to 2 weeks to
reach effective levels of immunity.
The reason that vaccination is the primary tool for
prevention is that the parvovirus is extremely
difficult to eradicate. It is resistant to every
household cleaning product, with the exception of
bleach. It can live in the soil, grass, lawns, and
homes through extreme heat and cold. It will
survive in the soil for over a year. It can be carried
around on shoes, clothes, bags, fur and other
surfaces.
As the virus can also live on surfaces such as food
and water bowls, crates, bedding and towels be
cautious if you receive or purchase second hand
materials for your dog. Be sure to thoroughly bleach
the items to decontaminate them.
As many of these environments are not
decontaminated with bleach regularly, it is safe to
assume most areas carry some level of
contamination.
Dogs that have recovered from parvovirus should
remain quarantined for at least three weeks and
have no, or limited exposure, to other dogs until the
risk has past. Dogs that visit regularly with an
infected dog such as those of neighbors and friends
should be vaccinated or tested for immunity to
avoid getting infected.
Since the introduction of effective vaccinations,
parvovirus has become much less of a threat to
domesticated dogs. That said, parvovirus is a
serious illness if contracted, so taking the
necessary step towards prevention is key to
avoiding putting your dog at risk.
http://www.dogheirs.com/dogheirs/posts/336-canine-parvovirus-symptoms-treatment-and-prevention


say thank you
Re: Parvovirus......... by Magpies(m): 6:19pm On Jul 07, 2015
Re: Parvovirus......... by GRACEGLORY: 8:25pm On Jul 07, 2015
Magpies:
Canine Parvovirus (or "Parvo" as it is commonly
referred to) is highly contagious virus infection that
is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect
contact with their feces. Canine Parvovirus affects
domestic dogs and also other canine species
including foxes, wolves, and coyotes.
The disease is primarily spread through fecal
matter in dirt. It can also live on surfaces and
objects such as shoes, clothing, food and water
dishes, toys, bedding and towels. The virus can
survive in the ground for years and is often found in
yards and dog parks where pets that have had the
illness carry it.
Parvovirus can be shed in the feces of a dog 3 to 4
days after infection, but before clinical signs of
illness appear in a dog. At this stage, infected
animals shed huge amounts of the virus. Dogs that
have recovered from parvo can also still transmit
the disease up to 3 weeks (or sometimes even up to
6 weeks) after recovery.
The virus is extremely hardy and survives through
very cold and hot temperatures. Occasionally,
outbreaks will occur in shelters when a stray dog
that is infected is taken in, or in unhygienic kennels
(e.g. puppy mills) where dogs usually are
unvaccinated. But any unvaccinated dog can catch
parvovirus. That is why the virus is particularly
dangerous to dogs under a year old that have not
been vaccinated, or only received part of their
course of injections.
Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman
Pinschers, and Pitbull terriers, as well as other
black and tan colored dogs, may be more
susceptible to parvovirus.
Dogs that are treated early and aggressively
usually pull through, with mortality rates for the
disease being between 5% and 20%. However,
chances of survival for puppies are much lower
than older dogs. Even when dogs given veterinarian
care, there is no guarantee of survival.
The virus kills through a combination of attacks.
Dogs who catch parvovirus usually die from the
dehydration it causes, or from secondary infections,
rather than the virus itself. Diarrhea and vomiting
leads to extreme fluid loss and dehydration that in
turn, leads to shock and death. Loss of the intestinal
barrier allows bacterial invasion of potentially the
entire body and septic shock result.
Concurrent infections often occur because of
multiple factors such as age, breed, stress, and the
overall general health of the dog. Bacteria, parasites
and canine coronavirus all increase the risk of a
dog getting a severe infection, which complicates
treatment of the disease. Also, red and white blood
cell levels drop dangerously low resulting in anemia
and loss of immunity.
In cases of the more uncommon cardiovascular
form of parvovirus, the heart muscle is attacked
leading to death.
Dogs with severe parvovirus infections can die
within 48 to 72 hours of evincing symptoms if they
are not treated with fluids and antibiotics.
Types and Forms of Parvovirus
Canine Parvovirus is a relatively new disease. The
CPV1 strain was detected in the late 1960s. Then a
new strain, CPV2 was detected in the late 1970s.
CPV2 is more virulent strain and affects more dogs
than the original and has several mutated strains -
CPV2a and CPV2b - which are believed to cause
most cases of canine parvovirus infection
nowadays. A third type, CPV2c, has been recently
discovered in Italy, Spain and Vietnam and is
spreading to other countries as well.
Canine Parvovirus has two forms – an intestinal
form and a cardiac form. Depending on the form of
parvovirus a dog contracts, symptoms and
outcomes of the disease can vary.
Intestinal form
The intestinal form is the most common form of
canine parvovirus. A dog’s intestinal lining is
affected and blood, protein and bacteria leak into
the intestines leading to anemia (lack of red blood
cells that provide oxygen to the body) and
endotoxemia (which leads to septic shock). Affected
Dogs have a distinctive odor in the later stages of
the infection. At later stages, white blood cell counts
fall as well further weakening the dog. Any or all of
these factors can lead to shock and death.
Cardiac form
The cardiac form of parvovirus is much rarer. It is
more commonly seen in puppies where mothers
may not have been vaccinated against the disease
and infects her pups in utero or shortly after birth
until 8 weeks of age. The virus attacks the heart
muscle. A puppy often dies suddenly without any
sign or after a brief period of breathing difficulty.
This form of the disease may or may not be
accompanied with the signs and symptoms of the
intestinal form. However, this form is now rarely
seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding
dogs. That said, there are higher instances in
puppies that come from puppy mills or stray dogs.
Symptoms of Parvovirus
There is typically an incubation period of 3 to 7 days
between initial infection and onset of first
symptoms. Usually the lymph nodes in the throat
are where the virus incubates for a few days, after
which the virus enters the bloodstream and into the
organs. The two areas typically hit hardest by CPV
are the bone marrow and intestinal walls.
Three to four days following infection, the virus is
shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the
dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed
the virus periodically.
The virus is usually more deadly if the dog is
concurrently infested with worms or other intestinal
parasites.
Common signs of the intestinal form are severe
vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms include:
Lethargy (lack of energy)
Severe and/or bloody diarrhea
Vomiting
Fever
Loss of appetite
Dehydration
Seizures
The cardiac form causes respiratory and
cardiovascular failure. There are several tests that
can be run by your veterinarian to help determine
whether what is affecting your dog is CPV or some
other problem.
Diagnosis of Parvovirus
By far the most common and most convenient
method of testing for the presence of CPV virus is
the fecal ELISA test. ELISA is an acronym for
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A
veterinarian can complete the test in less than 15
minutes. A small stool sample is necessary for the
completion of the ELISA test. Though the ELISA test
is quite accurate, there are some cases in which a
false positive or false negative result may be
obtained. In this case, further measures may have
to be taken to establish a diagnosis of CPV.
If further testing is done, a white blood cell count
test will usually definitively diagnose CPV. Because
one of the first things the parvovirus infects is the
bone marrow, a low white blood cell count can be
indicative of CPV infection. If the ELISA test was
positive, but the dog has a normal white blood cell
count, it is unlikely the animal is infected with CPV.
If however the dog has both a positive ELISA
reading and a low white cell count, a fairly
confident diagnosis of CPV may be made. PCR has
also become available to diagnose CPV2, and can
be used later in the disease when potentially less
virus is being shed in the feces that may not be
detectable by ELISA test.
Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can
sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other
forms of enteritis. Parvovirus, however, is more
serious and the presence of bloody diarrhea, a low
white blood cell count, and necrosis of the intestinal
lining also point more towards parvovirus,
especially in an unvaccinated dog. The cardiac form
is typically easier to diagnose because the
symptoms are quite distinct.
Treatment of Parvovirus
Vet hospitalization is required to treat parvovirus,
where supportive care is administered. Treatments
may vary between individuals, but certain aspects
are considered vital for all patients. This includes:
Administering intravenous fluids and nutrients to
help the dog combat the severe dehydration and
electrolyte imbalances that result from vomiting and
diarrhea.
Antibiotics administered either through IV drip or
injection to counteract the secondary bacterial
infections that result.
Medications to control nausea and vomiting are
sometimes added to the IV fluid bag.
Overall, care of dogs with CPV centers around fluid
replacement and constant monitoring of bodily
functions. As many dogs with severe forms also
have intestinal or worms, de-worming medication
may also be administered.
In some cases a blood plasma transfusion is given
if extreme protein loss, anemia or drastic low white
blood cell levels occur. Experimental treatments
include giving blood plasma transfusion from a
donor dog that has already survived CPV is
sometimes used to provide passive immunity to the
sick dog. However there is no controlled studies
regarding this treatment.
Once the dog can keep fluids down, the IV fluids
are gradually discontinued, and very bland food
slowly introduced. A puppy with minimal symptoms
can recover in 2 or 3 days if the IV fluids are begun
as soon as symptoms are noticed and the CPV test
confirms the diagnosis. If more severe, depending
on treatment, puppies can remain ill from 5 days up
to 2 weeks. However, even with hospitalization,
there is no guarantee that the dog will be cured and
survive. That said, puppies that survive for 3 to 4
days generally have a good chance of making a full
recovery within a week.
A dog that successfully recovers from CPV2
generally remains contagious for up to 3 weeks, but
it is possible they may remain contagious for up to
6 weeks. Therefore infected dogs should be
quarantined and have no, or limited exposure to
other dogs until the risk has past. Neighbors and
family members with dogs should be notified of
infected animals so that they can ensure that their
dogs are vaccinated or tested for immunity.
Prevention of Parvovirus
Treating parvo can be quite costly (running
thousands of dollars) so having a puppy and dog
vaccinated to prevent parvovirus infection is the
only effective prevention. Puppies too young to
receive vaccinations, or only partially through their
vaccination regime, should have limited exposure to
outdoor areas such as dog parks to prevent
exposure to viruses such as parvo. Veterinarians
often recommend this for all puppies until their
vaccination series in completed at age 16 weeks.
It’s a delicate balance between socializing your
puppy and giving your puppy time to have defenses
against disease.
Veterinarians usually administer the CPV vaccine as
part of a combination shot which includes, among
others, the distemper and coronavirus vaccines.
These shots are given every 3 to 4 weeks from the
time a puppy is 6 weeks old until he is at least 16
weeks of age. Manufacturers of the vaccine include:
Pfizer’s Vanguard PLUS 5 Vaccine, Intervet’s
Progard-6 Vaccine, Schering-Plough Animal
Health’s Galaxy Vaccine and Fort Dodge’s
Duramune Puppy Shot.
The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV2 has
been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in
the United States and has been found to be at least
3 years after the initial puppy series and a booster 1
year later. The vaccine will take up to 2 weeks to
reach effective levels of immunity.
The reason that vaccination is the primary tool for
prevention is that the parvovirus is extremely
difficult to eradicate. It is resistant to every
household cleaning product, with the exception of
bleach. It can live in the soil, grass, lawns, and
homes through extreme heat and cold. It will
survive in the soil for over a year. It can be carried
around on shoes, clothes, bags, fur and other
surfaces.
As the virus can also live on surfaces such as food
and water bowls, crates, bedding and towels be
cautious if you receive or purchase second hand
materials for your dog. Be sure to thoroughly bleach
the items to decontaminate them.
As many of these environments are not
decontaminated with bleach regularly, it is safe to
assume most areas carry some level of
contamination.
Dogs that have recovered from parvovirus should
remain quarantined for at least three weeks and
have no, or limited exposure, to other dogs until the
risk has past. Dogs that visit regularly with an
infected dog such as those of neighbors and friends
should be vaccinated or tested for immunity to
avoid getting infected.
Since the introduction of effective vaccinations,
parvovirus has become much less of a threat to
domesticated dogs. That said, parvovirus is a
serious illness if contracted, so taking the
necessary step towards prevention is key to
avoiding putting your dog at risk.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&ei=YiecVdb7DIuyswGRjqQg&url=http://www.dogheirs.com/dogheirs/posts/336-canine-parvovirus-symptoms-treatment-and-prevention&ved=0CCkQFjAD&usg=AFQjCNHhiXPJnfZzCmTzAc7AXFFnRDw2MA&sig2=P4XZ0SnT6TtLPp7QqJi8yQ
Re: Parvovirus......... by bonetalk(m): 4:51pm On Jul 09, 2015
all I want is the preventive measures and the best vaccine when symptom appears
Re: Parvovirus......... by Magpies(m): 12:01pm On Jul 10, 2015
bonetalk:
all I want is the preventive measures and the best vaccine when symptom appears
vaccinate your dogs as at when due.
that's the only preventive measure one should adhere to

(1) (Reply)

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