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Computer Basics Training: Basic Parts Of A Computer - Computers - Nairaland

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Computer Basics Training: Basic Parts Of A Computer by Nobody: 4:19pm On Jan 19, 2021
What are the parts of a computer - the basic components of a PC? Given that computers have pervaded our lives today, it is important that we get acquainted well with the computer, its hardware, how it is assembled/ put together and what are the key computer parts.

While building a PC is more complex than this, the blog is a great starting point. For in this blog, we shall look at the basics of how to assemble a computer or the main hardware components of a PC (personal computer).

The key parts of a PC are as follows:

Computer Case

A computer case, also known as a computer chassis, tower, system unit or a cabinet, is the enclosure housing most of the components of a personal computer. This typically doesn’t include the display, keyboard, and mouse. Cases are usually made from steel or aluminium. Other materials used include plastic, glass, wood and even Lego bricks in some home-built cases. The size and shape of a computer case depends on the form factor of the motherboard, as it is the largest component in most computers. Usually, computer cases include sheet metal enclosures for a power supply unit and drive bays and a rear panel that has room for peripheral connectors protruding from the motherboard and expansion slots. Most cases also have a power button or switch, a reset button, and LEDs to indicate power, hard drive activity, and network activity in some models. Some cases have built-in I/O ports (such as USB and headphone ports) on the front of the case. Such a case usually has the wires required to connect these ports, switches and indicators to the motherboard.

It is important to note that the power supply unit (PSU) mounting point can vary from case to case. That said, the most common locations are the top of the case, which allows the PSU’s built-in fan to act as an auxiliary exhaust fan and the bottom of the case, with an often filtered vent that in turn allows the PSU to draw cool air from the outside.


A motherboard, also called the mainboard, main circuit board, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose computers and other expandable systems. A motherboard makes possible the electrical connections through the other components of the system can communicate. In other words, it holds and allows communication among several key electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. It usually contains major sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset’s input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use and applications.

The reason this board - mainly the PCB - is called the motherboard is because it is the "mother" of all the components attached to it. These components include but are not limited to: peripherals, interface cards, sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives (or other forms of persistent storage), TV tuner cards and cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots. The motherboard is usually attached to the computer case along its largest face: either the bottom or the side of the case depending on the form factor and orientation.


A central processing unit (CPU), also known as a central processor or main processor, refers to the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations as per the instructions. Traditionally, the term CPU alludes to a processor, specifically the processing unit and control unit (CU)

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