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Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:54am On Nov 29, 2016
lazybone1:
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF YAM PROCESSING

On the basis of reduction in nutrients the preparation of yam flour appears to
be most detrimental process dealing to heavy nutrient losses, particularly
minerals and vitamins.

Fufu preparation and boiling of peeled yam (blanching) also
cause excessive losses due to the fact that yam contain water soluble vitamins
and minerals which are lost during this process. Although blanching unpeeled yam
tuber is a relatively lengthy process, but it has little effect on the nutritional values
(Bonetaet al, 1994).

The processes that appear most advantageous are charcoal grilling and
frying in palm oil. Nutrient loses thus appear to depend primarily on the amount of
edible surface exposed during processing. Peeling after blanching reduces
loses in the edible portion source less is removed during this operation.

Blanched yam flour when compared to un­blanched yam flour will have lower
nutritional quality due to vitamins and minerals loss during the blanching operation,
to reduce the rate of nutrients loss. Time of blanching should not be so long or
lengthy as well as blanching of unpeeled yam can go a long way in retention of
nutrients in yam (Krokida, 1998).

Export opportunity
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:54am On Nov 25, 2016
3.2 Breeding Process

 Acquire a stretch of farmland large enough to hold suitable catfish ponds. You
can grow catfish successfully in ponds as small as a plot.
 Provide an adequate supply of water. E.g. Borehole
 Aerate and heat your pond. There are pump, propeller and paddlewheel aerators
that stir the water and circulate dissolved oxygen for your channel cats to
breathe.
 Stock your pond with fingerlings, baby catfish about 4 to 6 inches long. It's
common for catfish farms to stock ponds to a level of 1,500 fish per acre, but
fewer fish will need less dissolved oxygen. With a smaller than maximum
population, you save yourself the cost of aerating the ponds.
 Feed your fish every day, letting them have everything they can eat for 20 to 25
minutes. Food pellets should contain all the vitamins and minerals necessary for
health, and consist of around 32 percent protein, though 36 percent protein levels
in the first month will boost fingerling growth.
 Gather some breeding-age catfish and place them in a separate pond to spawn.
Select two males for every three females
 Add spawning containers to your pond. The containers can be ceramic pipe,
metal cans, kegs or plastic barrels, as long as they're large enough that a male and
female catfish can both go inside to breed.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:46am On Nov 25, 2016
5.1 Responsibility of the Labour

 Fuelling the vehicles.
 Selling the lubricants.
 Counting and accepting the cash
 Operating the machinery
 Cash Management.
 Book Keeping
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:12am On Nov 24, 2016
1.2 Opportunity Rationale

Flour has been used for centuries as vital ingredient of daily diet. Yam flour is an
important source of complex carbohydrates with a balance mixture of calories, proteins
B-vitamins, calcium, folacin, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, minimal
amounts of sodium and other trace elements.

The products made by flour can be eaten by hand or mixed with other traditional and
modern dishes. Such all factors contribute to make it the most nitrous food for the
individual and commercially very importance for any economy.

Apart from serving as food, it has a lot of industrial uses. It is used in production of allpurpose-
adhesives. The adhesives are used by producers of cartons, packaging
companies and lather and shoe producers. The all-purpose adhesives is produced with
yam or cassava starch. Some industries particularly in Europe use yam flour in
preparation of high quality biscuits, bread, cakes to mention but few. In Nigeria also, it
is used in production of high quality bread and cakes.

The supply gap has been identified to continue to expand as the population of the
country which is estimated to be 160 Million continues to grow at 3.5% per annum. Also
the rural urban drift in the country would help to deepen the market for instant
pounded yam flour which is estimated at over N 3 billion annually in Nigeria.
Business / Re: Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:10am On Nov 24, 2016
1.4 Break-Down Capital Expenses

Startup Capex
No Item Cost (N) Description
1 Potato chip production
line
3,500,000
2 Electrical & Plumbing 200,000
3 furniture’s & Fittings 300,000
4 100KVA Generator 200,000
5 Nafdac registration 150,000
6 Weighing scale 150,000
7 Other Capex 500,000
Total
5,000,000.00
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 4:29pm On Nov 15, 2016
[quote author=lazybone1 post=49934233]1.3 Proposed Capacity

The capacity selection is a critical matter that should be decided through market
research. In this pre-feasibility study, the poundo yam factory would have the capacity
of producing 2 tons of yam flour per day, 50 tons/ month.

Start up Capex

Item Cost (N) Description
1 Industrial dryers 1,500,000
2 Yam milling
machine
2,500,000
3 Automatic packing &
sealing machine
2,000,000
4 Storage racks 2,000,000
5 300KVA Generator 800,000
6 NAFDAC
registration
150,000
7 Weighing scale 150,000
8 Other Capex 500,000
Total
9,600,000.00


To view the start-up capex and opex in tabular form http://nairamarkets.com/yam-flour-production-in-nigeria-feasibility-report/[/quote

for more info!
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 3:00pm On Nov 15, 2016
Designation No of personnel Salary (N)/
month
Salary
(N)/
month
Salary (N)/
Year
Manager 1
40,000.00
40,000.00
480,000.00
Deputy Manager/
Accountant
1
35,000.00
35,000.00
420,000.00
Dispenser 5
12,000.00
60,000.00
720,000.00
Operator/Enginee
r
1
15,000.00
15,000.00
180,000.00
Security 1
15,000.00
15,000.00
180,000.00
Cleaner 1
10,000.00
10,000.00
120,000.00
Total 10
127,000.00
175,000.
00
2,100,000.
00
Proposed Organogram
Manager
Deputy
manager/Accountant
Dispensers
Operators
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:54am On Nov 15, 2016
3.0 Production Process

3.1 Selection of Fish Species

Although a large number of fish species grow successfully in fishponds only a restricted
number are usually recommended for culture in ponds. Therefore, fish species
exhibiting some of the following characteristics are usually selected for stocking in
ponds:

 Adaptability to the environment
 Faster growth rate
 Efficient converter and utilization of both natural and artificial fish feed.
 Hardy and can tolerate adverse environmental fluctuations
 Resistance to diseases
 Palatable with high nutritive value
 Acceptability to the local community
 Is of high demand in the market and
 Has high market price
Business / Re: Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 11:50am On Nov 15, 2016
1.3 Proposed Capacity

The capacity selection is a critical matter that should be decided through market
research. In this pre-feasibility study, the Potato chips factory would have the capacity
of processing 600kg per day of sweat potato.
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 10:59am On Nov 13, 2016
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF YAM PROCESSING

On the basis of reduction in nutrients the preparation of yam flour appears to
be most detrimental process dealing to heavy nutrient losses, particularly
minerals and vitamins.

Fufu preparation and boiling of peeled yam (blanching) also
cause excessive losses due to the fact that yam contain water soluble vitamins
and minerals which are lost during this process. Although blanching unpeeled yam
tuber is a relatively lengthy process, but it has little effect on the nutritional values
(Bonetaet al, 1994).

The processes that appear most advantageous are charcoal grilling and
frying in palm oil. Nutrient loses thus appear to depend primarily on the amount of
edible surface exposed during processing. Peeling after blanching reduces
loses in the edible portion source less is removed during this operation.

Blanched yam flour when compared to un­blanched yam flour will have lower
nutritional quality due to vitamins and minerals loss during the blanching operation,
to reduce the rate of nutrients loss. Time of blanching should not be so long or
lengthy as well as blanching of unpeeled yam can go a long way in retention of
nutrients in yam (Krokida, 1998).
Business / Re: Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 10:50am On Nov 13, 2016
1.2 Opportunity Rationale

With influence of globalization & the invasion of mega supermarkets & fast-foods e.g
Shoprite , Addide , chicken republic & co, Nigerians have been influenced by the western
eating habits, especially the youngsters who tend to emulate those of the west and
consider it as a fashion. Currently, people tend to consume the western snacks and the
consumption is on rise.

Therefore, the potato chips market is also increasing at a high speed , fast food and
restaurants consumes large quantities of potato chips ranging from 50 Kg to 1,000 Kg
per day.

More so, the improvement of people’s life standard premium quality & internationally
recognized plantain chips is needed a new player has a great chance to enter the market
through heavy campaign & promotion activities.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 9:09am On Nov 10, 2016
7.0 Crucial Factors &Steps in Decision Making For Investment

7.1 Key Success Factors

Following factors are the key in making this project profitable:

 Location of the project will play a pivotal role in the successful running of the fuel
station. The daily turnover of the cars largely depends on this important factor.
 Selection of proper equipment is another key for carrying out the successful
operations of the proposed project.
 Continuous efforts should be made for up-gradation of the technology.
 Keeping in view the current market structure, the most important factor for the
success of the project would be the quality of services provided to the customers in
order to get comparative advantage.
 Access to capital: It is important to have access to capital to acquire, upgrade and
maintain equipment and facilities and keep afloat working capital. Also funds must
be available to meet contingent needs of the company.
 Product Quality Standardisation: This guarantees that at any time, the quality of
petroleum product bought and sold will be maintained.
 Health, Safety & Environment: One of the important success factors will be the strict
adherence to health, safety and environmental issues in the running of the station.
 Quick turnover time
 Operational partnership with major marketers
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:49am On Nov 10, 2016
2.2Target Market

 Local market
 Supermarkets & stores
 Export market
 Eateries
 Restaurants
 Bars & Relaxation spots
 Hotels & club houses
Business / Re: Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:31am On Nov 10, 2016
1.1 Proposed Business Legal Status

The legal status of business tends to play an important role in any setup; the proposed
potato chips production is assumed to operate on as a private limited company.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:36am On Nov 08, 2016
6.0 Infrastructure Requirement

The infrastructure requirements of the project will be:

 Power
 Water
 Accessible Road
 Telecommunication
Business / Re: Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:28am On Nov 08, 2016
1.0 Project Brief

This objective of this document is to provide information regarding investment
opportunity for starting a potato chip factory in any commercial city in Nigeria.

The factory would have the capacity of processing 100kg of sweet potato/hour or 600kg
per day into fried potato chips , the manpower requirement for the production is 10 or
more.
Business / Potato Chips Production In Nigeria(pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 7:21pm On Nov 07, 2016
Executive Summary

Nigeria is a major agricultural country with about 70% of her population engaged in
farming and food production. Agriculture's contribution to the GDP is approximately
7%. Also, industry in Nigeria is based on small-scale manufacturing, food processing and
multi-national corporations. Their activities are concentrated in the urban centers of
Lagos, Abuja, Port-Harcourt, Ibadan, Aba, Onitsha and Kano

Food processing sub-sector possesses the greatest potential for growth in Nigeria.
Growth rate of more than 9% is envisaged looking at growing urbanization, population
explosion and changing food consumption pattern among Nigerians for natural foods
and products. This has inevitably increased daily consumption of potato and its
derivatives.
Fried potato chips are a kind of leisure food which is popular all over the world and
deeply welcomed by consumers. It remains the special delicious flavor of roasted potato
on one respect and has the characters of rich nutrition and delicious.

Local production of these snacks has not been commercially explored in it totality,
giving room for the need to develop them. The raw materials are available locally and
the production process is simple requiring simple equipment and space to start small.

This potato chips project involves starting a small scale potato chips manufacturing
factory in any big city of Nigeria which will produce premium quality potato chips to be
sold in the local market, competing with a few existing brands. The factory will be
equipped with modern automated machinery for all the processes in order to ensure the
quality of the final products.

The SWOT analysis showed that the opportunities of the business outweigh the
challenges and was concluded that potato chip production idea is healthy and feasible in
Nigeria

Call or what's app for consultations : 08077918755
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 6:49pm On Nov 07, 2016
[quote author=i2no post=50831824]PEELING OF YAM

This is the removal of the outer corky periderm. The method of peeling varies.
The general methods apply include:­

(a) Steam Peeling:

This involves the exposure of the tubers to steam pressure
for a period of time. The process may be batch or continuous.
During this steam exposure, the stream penetrates the cortex, often the
peel and results in a slight expansion of the space between the peel and the
cortex. This makes it easy for the peels to be removed when subject to minor
abrasive or mechanical processing.

(b)Chemical Peeling:

This involves the immersion of the yam tuber in some
non ­toxic chemical such as caustic soda solution of low concentration which
helps to soften the peel. Usually, when this method is used, they are couplet with
the use of heat. The process is controlled by varying the concentration of the lye
and its temperature for effective peeling process. One major setbacks of this
method is the need to use a large volume of water to remove the effect of the
chemicals during the post ­peeling washing.

(c) Mechanical Peeling:

The basic mechanical methods includes the Abrasive
peelers, rotary laid mounted rim peelers and use if belt conveyor. In the abrasive
peeler, the peeler consists of a vertical cylinder with a rotating disc in the bottom
and a hinge cover at the top. Abrasive grits may be applied to the inner walls of
the chambers or to rotating disc or both. A measured load of the root or tuber is
put into the cylinder and when the disc is rotated, the tuber spins or thimble so
that the peels are rubbed off when the tubers shall against the abrasive surface

Good information
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 9:17am On Nov 03, 2016
Every year, Niger State produces several tons of yams that require further value-added processing, preservation and packaging; the researchers conducted research trials to enhance preservativeness and storage of yam flour. Instant pounded (poundo) yam flour is made from dehydrated and grounded (comminuted) yam peels. Traditionally, pounded yam is made by pounding boiled yam with a pestle in a very big mortar with concomitant addition of some quantities of water to make it soft and pliable. Instant pounded yam flour is made by boiling hot water which is used to pregelatinize the carbohydrate and then turn it with a paddle or spoon depending on the size of the yam flour. The research work has enabled the development of novel yam flour for instant pounded yam production. It has also produced pounded yam which the colour and flavour were not adversely affected
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 9:15am On Nov 03, 2016
Every year, Niger State produces several tons of yams that require further value-added processing, preservation and packaging; the researchers conducted research trials to enhance preservativeness and storage of yam flour. Instant pounded (poundo) yam flour is made from dehydrated and grounded (comminuted) yam peels. Traditionally, pounded yam is made by pounding boiled yam with a pestle in a very big mortar with concomitant addition of some quantities of water to make it soft and pliable. Instant pounded yam flour is made by boiling hot water which is used to pregelatinize the carbohydrate and then turn it with a paddle or spoon depending on the size of the yam flour. The research work has enabled the development of novel yam flour for instant pounded yam production. It has also produced pounded yam which the colour and flavour were not adversely affected
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 9:08am On Nov 03, 2016
4.5 Furniture and Fixtures

Furniture and fixtures mainly include tables, chairs, sofas, fans & lights, carpet, curtains
and fire extinguishers. It is estimated that the furniture and fixtures of N150, 000 would be
purchased.
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 9:06am On Nov 03, 2016
2.0 Market

2.1 Fish Supply And Demand in Nigeria


Fish constitutes about 41% of the total animal protein intake by the average Nigerian
hence there is great demand for fish in the country. Nigeria requires about 2.66 million
metric tons of fish annually to satisfy the dietary requirement of its citizens (150
Million). Regrettably, the total aggregate domestic fish supply from all sources (capture
and culture fisheries) is less than 0.7 million metric tons per annum. Nigeria has to
import about 0.7 million metric tons of fish valued at about $500 million annually to
augment the shortfall. This massive importation of frozen fish in the country has ranked
Nigeria the largest importer of frozen fish in Africa The huge sum of money spent by
Nigeria annually in fish importation could be used to invest in fish farming. Nigeria can
substitute fish importation with domestic production to create jobs, reduce poverty in
rural areas where 70% of the population lives and ease the balance of payments.
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 2:38pm On Nov 02, 2016
2.0 Market Analysis

2.1 Industry Analysis


The Nigerian Agro-allied Food processing industry comprises local and multinational
manufacturers of processed raw agricultural produce such as semovita, semolina, wheat
flour, and the distributors/retailers of these products. The operators within this industry
are regulated by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control
(NAFDAC) which ensures that processed food when packaged commercially is safe for
consumption and processes leading to it production are within approved regulatory
requirements. The Standards Organisation of Nigeria also plays a regulatory role in
ensuring that minimum product standards are met if not surpassed by manufacturers.
The Manufacturers Association of Nigeria also partners with all stakeholders towards
maintaining quality product standards, lobbying government for policies that encourage
manufacturing and safeguarding consumer interest. Other government agencies that
play a role in the industry include the Consumers’ Protection Council which strives to
protect consumer rights and the various states chambers of commerce.

The situation with packaged raw food flour production has progressively been
improving since 2001 with sharp growth in middle class population, increasingly
growing western influence on Nigerian lifestyle which requires average parents to have
tight work schedules and little leisure time increased public health consciousness with
many Nigerians and a host of other factors. These have led to increasing demand for
processed raw food flour to meet the dietary needs of Nigerian families.

The main challenges operators face are numerous but inadequate power supply is the
main challenge since the business depends entirely on power supply to produce and
PHCN doesn’t provide adequately. Power costs alone account for nearly 35% of running
expenses in many cases sometimes affecting the profit margin and final price. There is
also high cost of distribution to deal with. The target market is global therefore global.

Most of the existing pounded yam flour production companies in Nigeria produce only
for local consumption and rarely export to neighboring African countries.
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 2:34pm On Nov 02, 2016
Cost of Project
870,500.00


1.5 PROJECT TIMELINES

Specific time is set for each phase of production of one batch of high breed catfish. The
period of 5 to 6 months has been recommended for harvesting one batch of high breed
catfish, at the end of the 6th months care are taken to remove adults.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 2:30pm On Nov 02, 2016
4.4 Suppliers

Products will be sourced directly from PPMC, accredited marketers with reliable and high
quality products and delivery time. Suppliers such as Capital Oil, Zenon Oil, MRS, A-Z
Petroleum and a host of others will are highly recommended.
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:42am On Nov 02, 2016
It is estimated that 30 per cent of the harvested tubers yam are lost as waste due to none processing and preservation mechanisms in Nigeria. One of the more acceptable means of preserving yam is to convert it to yam flour.

The traditional processing method is out modelled and laborious and grossly inefficient for mass production to satisfy the teeming population and local demand and make room for the export market to earn foreign exchange.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:24am On Nov 02, 2016
4.3 Machinery & Equipment’s

There are various foreign manufacturers providing the fuel filling station equipment. In this
pre-feasibility report, a German origin compressor has been selected. This equipment is
selected because of its low electricity consumption, higher outlet pressure, low
maintenance, durable working, longer periods between overhauls and good market repute
and presence.

The total capacity of the selected equipment is 400M3/Hr with a total power load of 93 KW.
All the Fuel filling station equipment is foreign manufactured and imported on the specific
requirement of the sponsor by the authorized agent. Usually, the equipment is delivered
within 12 to 16 weeks from the receipt of purchase order and initial payment.
Business / Re: Catfish Farming In Nigeria (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 8:21am On Nov 02, 2016
Break-Down Operating expenses

Start-up Opex & Opening stock


No Item Cost (N) Description
1 Salaries
70,000.00
2 Vaccination
15,000.00
3 land lease
100,000.00
4 Fingerlings
31,500.00
8 Feeds
250,000.00
Total
466,500.00
Business / Re: Poundo Yam Flour Production (pre- Feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 7:34am On Nov 01, 2016
MARKET INFORMATION

There is high demand for Instant Pounded Yam Flour in both domestic and internation­al markets. In the international market, large market exists in Europe and America and other continents most especially with sizeable black people. The po­tential demand for IPYF is in ex­cess of 500,000 tonnes/annum.
Business / Re: Setting-up A Fuel Filling Station (pre-feasibility & Cost Analysis) by lazybone1: 7:27am On Nov 01, 2016
4.2.2 Building

There are certain civil works required to be carried out at the proposed location. The civil
works would be carried out on an area of 2250 square feet. The rest of the area will be
floored with concrete. Civil work includes the following:

 Office
 Shed for Dispenser
 Toilet/washroom
 Underground Tanks and Power Cables
 Flooring

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