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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 5:45pm On Jun 08, 2016
Potassium. There are sources that claim akanwu to be potash (a potassium compound). Other sources claim it to be a sodium compound. Considering our current inability to accurately verify, and considering that we already have a term for sodium (Unum), I am not against the development of a term for potassium from akanwu. I am considering 'Kam' for potassium.

Also, most sources on akanwu mention it as 'saltpetre'. The saltpetre potash contains nitrate. So, in light of a current inability to accurately verify akanwu's chemical composition, I am considering 'Anwum' for nitrogen. Incidentally, nitrogen makes up a huge chunk of the air that we breath. However, it is only safe because of the oxygen that is present. Remove that oxygen and we die... Anwu (dying) -m ... Anwum (dying element). This isn't the actual logic, but I simply thought it was cool how it lined up.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by AjaanaOka(m): 8:46pm On Jun 08, 2016
Actually, ChinenyeN, akanwu (from Kanuri kanwa) is natron in English.

A quick Google search says natron is a mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate and sodium bicarbonate.

It doesn't appear to contain any potassium.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by AjaanaOka(m): 8:55pm On Jun 08, 2016
Given that historically a source of potassium (or rather potash, from which potassium can be produced) was ashes of burnt wood, I suggest coining a word for potassium from 'ntu'.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 9:18pm On Jun 08, 2016
AjaanaOka, thank you for this. See, o bu whe e si nyukalata mamiri ufufu. So, with that, kam and anwum are out of the pictures (for this element). I will move forward with itum for potassium.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by AjaanaOka(m): 9:36pm On Jun 08, 2016
There has to be an Igbo word for saltpetre. The internet says it is used widely in West Africa as a thickening agent for soups and stews. Since it is a nitrate, we can derive a term for nitrogen from it. If only we know it.
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 9:51pm On Jun 08, 2016
Wait... I know that gun powder was made by mixing saltpetre somewhere along the lines. We call gun powder nshi egbe. I assume general Igbo might call it nsi egbe. We could simply get Isim from that to create the term for nitrogen, since I do not know the actual name of saltpetre used in making gun powder. I would ask, but I'm mostly unwilling to wait around for a response.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by AjaanaOka(m): 10:04pm On Jun 08, 2016
I actually also thought of nshi egbe. But I wanted to see if you maybe have something else. I think isim (or ishim) will do.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 10:16pm On Jun 08, 2016
Great Minds, as bekee likes to say.

From left to right, top to bottom..

Imim (Hydrogen)
Inyim (Carbon)
Isim (Nitrogen)
Umem (Oxygen)
Unum (Sodium)
Erem (Sulfur)
Inum (Chlorine)
Itum (Potassium)
Igwe (Iron)
Ola (Copper)
Gbam (Zinc)
Jem (Silver)
Kom (Tin)
Tam (Lead)

Potassium Nitrate - Itum Ishuume
Sodium bicarbonate - Unum Inyuumelaabu
Dinitrogen Monoxide - Ishimlaabu Umem (laughing gas)

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 5:00am On Jun 11, 2016
Helium - Anwum (sun element)
Lithium - Ikumam (stone element)
Beryllium - Berim (systematic loan)
Boron - Borom (systematic loan)
Fluorine - Ugbam (gba - adjoin; for the fact that fluorine is naturally found as a bonded element)
Neon - Uhuum (from ohuu [newness])
Magnesium - Magum (systematic loan)
Aluminum - Alumim (systematic loan)
Silicon - Silim (systematic loan)
Phosphorus - Ukerem (from ke - spark/glow)
Argon - Udubem (from Ngwa .. dube .. listless)
Calcium - Ukirim (from Nkiri ... lime)
Scandium - Sukadam (systematic loan)
Titanium - Taitam (systematic loan)
Vanadium - Vanam/Banam (systematic loan)
Chromium - Agbakam (intensely colored)
Manganese - Mangam (systematic loan)
Cobalt - Kobalum (systematic loan)
Nickel - Nikem (systematic loan)
Gallium - Galum (systematic loan)
Germanium - Jamanum (systematic loan)

... I'll be back for the others.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 7:49am On Jun 11, 2016
Arsenic - Udom (from yellow)
Selenium - Selem (systematic loan) or possibly Onwum (moon)
Bromine - Ushim (from smell)
Krypton - Ozom (hidden element)
Rubidium - Ohiem (from red)
Strontium - Suturom (systematic loan)
Yttrium - Itirim (systematic loan)
Zirconium - Zekom (systematic loan)
Niobium - Niobim/Niyobim (systematic loan)
Molybdenum - Katam (like lead)
Technetium - Akam (from nka technology)
Ruthenium - Rudem (systematic loan)
Rhodium - Rodim (systematic loan)
Palladium - Palam (systematic loan)
Cadmium - Kadim (systematic loan)
Indium - Urim (from indigo)
Antimony - Otajem (from otanjere)
Tellurium - Telurim (systematic loan)
Iodine - Uritim (from indigo)
Xenon - Achalam (from residue)
Caesium - Ugwerim (from igwe - sky)
Barium - Unyirim (heavy element)
Lanthanum - Hetum (lie hidden)
Cerium - Serim (systematic loan)
Praseodymium - Parasem (systematic loan)
Neodymium - Niodim/Niyodim (systematic loan)
Promethium - Porom (systematic loan)
Samarium - Samarim (systematic loan)
Europium - Uropim (systematic loan)
Gadolinium - Gadolim (systematic loan)
Terbium - Tebim (systematic loan)
Dysprosium - Sikenwem (hard to get)
Holmium - Holom (systematic loan)
Erbium - Ibim (systematic loan)
Thulium - Dulim (systematic loan)
Ytterbium - Itebim (systematic loan)
Lutetium - Lutetim (systematic loan)
Hafnium - Hafunim (systematic loan)
Tantalum - Tantam (systematic loan)
Tungsten - Kumanyim (heavy stone)
Rhenium - Renim (systematic loan)
Osmium - Shishim (from smell)
Iridium - Iridim (systematic loan)
Platinum - Kajem (like silver)
Gold - Oledo (contraction ola edo)
Mercury - Mekum (systematic loan)
Thallium - Dalum (systematic loan)
Bismuth - Bisim (systematic loan)
Polonium - Polom (systematic loan)
Astetine - Ughadam (gha - chaos/unstable)
Radon - Ikum (from ku - radiate)
Francium - Furasim (systematic loan)
Radium - Ihekem (light ray)
Actinium - Ihekum (light beam)
Thorium - Dorim (systematic loan)
Protactinium - Buhekum/Vuhekum (precede actinium)
Uranium - Uranim (systematic loan)
Neptunium - Nepum (systematic loan)
Plutonium - Pulum (systematic loan)
Americium - Amerim (systematic loan)
Curium - Kurim (systematic loan)
Berkelium - Bekem (systematic loan)
Californium - Kalim (systematic loan)
Einsteinium - Ainim/Ayinim (systematic loan)
Fermium - Femim (systematic loan)
Mendelevium - Mendem (systematic loan)
Nobelium - Nobem (systematic loan)
Lawrencium - Lorem (systematic loan)
Rutherfordium - Rodem (systematic loan)
Dubnium - Dubum (systematic loan)
Seaborgium - Sibom (systematic loan)
Bohrium - Borim (systematic loan)
Hassium - Hasim (systematic loan)
Meitnerium - Maim/Mayim (systematic loan)
Darmstadtium - Damum (systematic loan)
Roentgenium - Rontum (systematic loan)
Copernicium - Kopem (systematic loan)
Ununtrium - Ununum (systematic loan)
Flerovium - Filirom (systematic loan)
Ununpentium - Unupem (systematic loan)
Livermorium - Liverim/Liberim (systematic loan)
Ununseptium - Unusem (systematic loan)
Ununoctium - Ununom (systematic loan)

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 8:24am On Jun 11, 2016
Systematic loans typically work by taking the first few (at most three) syllables in the element name and dropping the 'ium' if present in those first few syllables. Outside of general education, the general population will have no need for these element names. So, systematization was done without thought toward aesthetics. Future Igbo-speaking chemists (or I) will of course amend anything they (I) feel needs amending.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 9:11am On Jun 11, 2016
Basic Chemistry Concepts (Whe Ntu l'Amumwhe Elo)

Chemical Nomenclature (Agumaha Elo)

Chemical nomenclature is the term given to the naming of compounds. Chemists use specific rules and "conventions" to name different compounds. This section is designed to help you review some of those rules and conventions.
Agumaha elo bu okwu e nyere ogugu-aha okiloki. Nde amumwhe elo na-eji ejirimere guo okiloki di iche iche aha. Owara na ga-iti gi aka la nleghari ejirimere na.

Oxidation and Reduction (Ufuruete la Mbelata)

When forming compounds, it is important to know something about the way atoms will react with each other. One of the most important manners in which atoms and/or molecules react with each other is the oxidation/reduction reaction. Oxidation/Reduction reactions are the processes of losing and gaining electrons respectively. Remember, lose electrons oxidation, gain elections reduction.
O di mkpa, mgba a na-agbakpu okiloki, imara otu aki ga-emeghachi. Otu whe ka mkpa la otu aki ma okiloki na-emeghachi bu ufuruete/mbelata. Ogbugba ufuruete/mbelata bu otu e ji furu ma nweta ibaaki ete. Cheta ya, ofufu ete, ufuruete. Nnweta ete, mbelata.

Oxidation numbers are assigned to atoms and compounds as a way to tell scientists where the electrons are in a reaction. It is often referred to as the "charge" on the atom or compound. The oxidation number is assigned according to a standard set of rules. They are as follows:
A kara aki la okiloki ogugu ufuruete ka nde amumwhe mara ebe ibaaki ete no la mmeghachi. E ji akpo ya "ekeke" l'aki ma o bu okiloki. E so ukpuru kaa ogugu ufuruete. Ha dikwa l'usoro:


1. An atom of a pure element has an oxidation number of zero.
2. For single atoms in an ion, their oxidation number is equal to their charge.
3. Fluorine is always -1 in compounds.
4. Cl, Br, and I are always -1 in compounds except when they are combined with O or F.
5. H is normally +1 and O is normally -2.
6. The oxidation number of a compound is equal to the sum of the oxidation numbers for each atom in the compound.
1. Aki ke oki efu nwere ufuruete ke zero.
2. Maka aki otu otu l'ime ekeke, ufuruete ha hata l'ekeke ha.
3. Ugbam busikwa -1 l'okiloki.
4. Inum (Cl), Ushim (Br), la Uritim (I) busikwa -1 l'okiloki ma o buu ma ha gbakpuru Umem (O) ma o bu Ugbam (F).
5. Imim (H) ji-abu +1 ma Umem (O) ji-abu -2.
6. Ogugu ufuruete okiloki hata la mgbakota ogugu ufuruete aki ma aki l'okiloki.


... I could continue, but I don't think I need to. We should get the point. Besides, this is not a translation project thread, per se.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 9:35pm On Jun 13, 2016
Nhazi Oki l'Ahiri l'Ogeloge
The Periodic Table of Elements

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by Nobody: 10:09pm On Jun 13, 2016
ChinenyeN:
Nhazi Oki l'Ahiri l'Ogeloge
The Periodic Table of Elements

nice work u're doing here sir keep it up.
I have been following u on this topic in stealth right frm d begining.


just asking, is saltpetre not akanwu?
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 1:03am On Jun 14, 2016
Crotonite, thanks for the support.

I've seen sources state that akanwu is a satlpetre and I've seen other sources state otherwise.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 1:54am On Jun 14, 2016
Well, I was contemplating developing a glossary of basic chemistry concepts and posting it here, but I decided against that. My first goal in this thread has been successfully achieved. The full periodic table has been named and we can now easily discuss chemical elements in our lects. So, if we see ever want to talk about oxygen, then we will know what to call it. If someone ever wants to buy helium for their balloon, they will know what to call it. If we ever want talk about how milk has calcium, we will know what to say. Mission accomplished.

Now I need to find a new objective.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by MUVA(m): 3:00pm On Jun 14, 2016
Asadike nwata mara mma, kee ije?
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 3:10am On Jun 15, 2016
MUVA:
Asadike nwata mara mma, kee ije?
I na-ekwuru m? Abuu m Asadike.
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 3:13am On Jun 15, 2016
Anyone have any requests for a new objective to tackle?

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by MUVA(m): 9:31am On Jun 15, 2016
ChinenyeN:

I na-ekwuru m? Abuu m Asadike.

Lol, ututu oma.


Biko elekwanu etu'm ga esi wee mata na ibu Asadike? Maka na achorom ikwuru ya and odi important.
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by Crayola1: 2:08pm On Jun 15, 2016
ChinenyeN:
Anyone have any requests for a new objective to tackle?

Terms for space and astronomy

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 6:48pm On Jun 15, 2016
MUVA:
Lol, ututu oma.
Biko elekwanu etu'm ga esi wee mata na ibu Asadike? Maka na achorom ikwuru ya and odi important.

Abughi m. Anyway, i deela aha ya. Chere ya ka o zaa, ma o bu gi zigara ya ozi email.
Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 8:33pm On Jun 15, 2016
Space and Astronomy it is then!

In the interest of full disclosure, I guess I should say that we have already thought about this in our household. So, in some way, my coining terminology would be cheating since we already have expressions for various space and astronomy-related concepts in our household. I will do my best to not present the terminology we use at home, however. Instead, I will make the effort to use that terminology as an example to coin terminology for general Igbo use or either find already existing terminology.

Again, it may be needless to say, but I feel like saying it anyway. I am a big proponent of the importance of lects. I expect anyone interested in using these terms to feel free and adapt them for their respective lects.

Anyway, let's get started. The following are either translations of some of the terms we use, or the actual terms because I couldn't figure out how to translate them over. I'll be back for more.

Mbara ... Space
Mbara Uwa ... Outer space (contract in speech or writing if you want to.. i.e. mbarauwa or mbaruuwa)
Uwa ... Universe/Cosmos
Amumihe Mbarauwa ... Astronomy (study of outer space)
Amumihe Uwa ... Cosmology (study of the universe)
Kpakpando ... Star
Omenakpakpando ... Star System
Owa ... Planet/Celestial body
Onwa ... Moon
Kpakpam ... Satellite
Ekili... meteor/celestial body that we do not think of as a planet (I don't know which community uses this term, but I found it in a dictionary)
Ogbuzo ... Orbit
Kpakpandoha/Kpakpandora ... Galaxy (the ha/ra from iha/ira [arrange])
Kpakpandoha Miliki ... Milky Way Galaxy (I strongly believe a name [or names] already exist for this somewhere)
Urupuruwa ... Nebula
Ihukpakpando ... Constellation
Oghere Ojii ... Black Hole
Ikaaru (ike aru) ... Gravity

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 4:59am On Jun 16, 2016
What is Astronomy?
Gini bu Amumihe Mbarauwa?

The study of the universe from the smallest such as atomic reactions in stars to the largest such as galaxies and the evolution of the entire universe.
Omumu uwa site na nke ka ntakiri dika mmeghachi akii n'ime kpakpando gaa na nke ka ibu ibu dika kpakpandoha na mgbanweje uwa niile.

Besides stars, one can see:
Nebulae
Our galaxy (the Milky Way)
Galaxies
Planets
Comets
Sun
Moon
E wezuga kpakpando, a hu:
Urupuruwa
Kpakpandoha nke anyi (Miliki)
Kpakpanduha
Owa
Ekili
Anwu
Onwa


Constellations
Ihukpakpando

Constellations are areas of the sky with stars in a particular pattern.
Ihukpakpando bu ebe kpakpando gbara otu o bu n'usoro n'igwe.

They are accidental patterns; stars are at different distances and not really related to each other.
O bu usoro mberede; kpakpando di na nteanya di iche iche ma nweghi mmeko.

Most patterns have been in use for 1000s of years and usually based on myths.
E jirila otutu usoro fee akuko ife kemgbe afo puku ma puku.

It takes light 8.3 minutes to travel from the Sun to the Earth.
Ihe na-eji nkeji 8.3 esi n'Anwu jere Owaala. (Owaala - Owa Ala - Home Planet of Ala - Earth)

The distance light travels in one year is the unit called the light-year. The most distant quasars are billions of light-years away. We are observing them as they appeared billions of years ago.
Nteanya ihe na-eji eje n'otu afo bu nke a kporo iheafo. Kakpakpando ndi ka ite anya di iheafo nde ma nde. Anyi na-ele ha ka ha si di afo nde ma nde gara aga.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 6:16am On Jun 16, 2016
An interesting aside... (well, interesting to me, but I'll share anyway, maybe someone else will find it interesting as well)

Ala is always casually (conveniently, in my words) referred to as "Mother Earth". Though this term is good for casual referencing (i.e. Europeans needed a way to understand Ala and their own concept of "Mother Earth" was the closest thing they had), I believe it ultimately deviates from pre-colonial, Igbo philosophy. In traditional spirituality, Ala is the most paramount of all natural forces (deities). Primarily, Ala provides morality, order, prosperity, and fertility. However, what is casually ignored (or at least, in my opinion, not discussed) is the scope of her domain.

In traditional Igbo thought, there exist two primary realms of existence. The world of the spirit and the natural world. The natural world is what we know as Uwa. It is well understood that Ala remains the paramount deity in most (if not all) Igbo culture-groups. Ala is the primary deity in the natural world and the most primordial; her existence having been since time immemorial. Within Uwa, all other forces are secondary to Ala and are guided by the morality and order she provides.

Ala is associated with the entire breadth of Uwa. This association is common knowledge to the point that it almost never elicits any discussion (such is my belief). Think of the human realm of existence (Uwa) and remember Ala. And at the time, our ancestors, with their limited understanding, mostly associated Uwa with the ground they stood upon (hence Ala's name), though it also meant the "world" or "natural world" for them (to them, Ala was the goddess of the natural world). As their descendants however, we know now that it is more than that. Uwa is not just this rock or the "world", but the entire "natural world" (i.e. the universe as we understand it today). This consequently makes Ala not just the primary natural force, but a primordial, cosmic force as her domain is, has been, and always will be the entirety of Uwa.

So, imagine future, space-faring Igbo-speaking communities who have some degree of reverence for Ala. To these future, Igbo-speaking, space-faring communities, Ala would be the goddess of the cosmos. That is her domain, and her abode is our home world, Earth. I think that is just too interesting to ignore and a very good foundation for future literature.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by Nobody: 6:13pm On Jun 16, 2016
kudos @chinenyeN

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by Igboid: 8:06pm On Jun 16, 2016
Fire on ChinenyeN, don't think you are alone in this noble venture, most of us are subscribing stealthily.

Good job.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 6:52am On Jun 17, 2016
Thanks for showing the support. Although, to be honest, I have no real intention of maintaining this thread indefinitely. In fact, the thread only truly exists to show Igbo-speaking people that this can be done and show them possible ways to do it, since it is something we have already long since been doing in my household.

I fully expect Igbo people to pick this up on their own and continue it with their own lects. If they want, they could use the terms developed here as a starting point and even incorporate these terms into their own dictionaries (well, they have to develop a dictionary for their lect in the first place and that is something I highly encourage).

Long story short, I'm probably only going continue posting here insomuch as I have a clear objective (and time, of course). For example, the full periodic table of elements was my first objective. I'll likely relent once I've seen that people have gotten the point.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by Igboid: 7:00am On Jun 17, 2016
Most times bro, all that is needed to start a revolution is a little spark usually provided by men of substance who stood tall and though existed in the present, were able to have peep into the future and shared their vision with their people.
Good job once again.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 4:36am On Jun 18, 2016
No work on astronomy would be complete for us without addressing the major/standard bodies in our solar system. So, let's have that be our next objective.

Sun - Anwu
Mercury -
Venus -
Earth - Ala/Owaala
Mars -
Asteroid Belt -
Jupiter -
Saturn -
Neptune -
Pluto -

Who wants to give this a try?

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by AjaanaOka(m): 5:54am On Jun 18, 2016
So the planets:

Since these planets are named after Roman gods/goddesses, one way to go about giving them names in Igbo would be to find the equivalents or near-equivalents of these Roman deities in Igbo mythology.

1. Mercury (named for the god of messages/communication and divination, among other things) - Owaagwu.

(In the Northern Igbo area at least, Agwu is the god of divination and a messenger of the gods, being the revealer of their will to the dibia afa. I understand that Agwu might mean something different in the south.)

2. Venus (named for the goddess of love, beauty, sex, prosperity) - I tried as hard as I could but I can't seem to think of an Igbo deity associated with beauty and prosperity. Surely they must exist.

3. Mars (named for the god of war) - Oweekwesu

(Sad that Ekwesu/Ekwensu has come to represent the Devil for the Igbo Christian. Ekwensu was actually a war god for many Igbo communities.)

4. Jupiter (names for the god of the sky and thunder) - Owakalu

(Kamanu/Kaanu/Kanu or Kamalu/Kaalu/Kalu being the other name for Amadioha the Igbo god of thunder.)

5. Saturn (named for the god of wealth, agriculture, among other things) - Owaajoku

(Ahiajioku, Ifejioku, Njoku, Ajoku, etc being the Igbo god of Yam, and yams being the Igbo staple food and a measure of wealth, I think he is a near equivalent of Saturn, god of wealth and agriculture.)

6. Neptune (god of the sea) - Owangene/Owangele or Owambazuma

(I don't know to what extend the Igbo were conscious of the sea, being basically a hinterland people. However over a significant stretch of Igboland, it appears Ngene/Ngele or Nwangele was recognised as a deity of water bodies.

I'm aware that Echie mythology contains references to a seagod named Mbazuma; so alternatively we could borrow what appears to be a specifically Echie concept and name Neptune Owambazuma .)

Pluto (god of the underworld) - Still thinking about this one.

Asteroid Belt - Thinking about this one too.

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Re: Coining New Igbo Terminology For The Modern Day by ChinenyeN(m): 7:54am On Jun 18, 2016
If we're going to go the route of mirroring a naming scheme after deities/spirits or spiritual/ritual symbols then....

Mercury - Agwu/Owaagwu/Owagwu
Venus - Agbara/Owaagbara/Owagbara
Earth - Ala/Owaala/Owala
Mars - Ekwesu/Oweekwesu/Owekwesu
Jupiter - Kamalu/Kamanu/Owakalu/Owakanu
Saturn - Ajoku/Owaajoku/Owajoku
Uranus - Ogu/Owoogu/Owogu
Neptune - Ngele/Ngene/Owangele/Owangene

Apparently, they are still debating over whether or not Pluto is a planet. So, I guess we can call it something like Owekili.

Honestly, Agbara and Ogu were just the first things that came to mind, without any consideration to origin of the planet name in English.

Asteroid Belt ... Belt (ekechi [-ke : tie] [-chi : close]) ... Asteroid (ekili : celestial body not thought of as a planet). So... ekechi ekili.

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