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Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) - Science/Technology - Nairaland

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Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Macsjebs: 5:28pm On Nov 03, 2020
Complete brain of a fox-sized carnivorous dinosaur that walked the Earth 233 million years ago is reconstructed by scientists for the first time

A complete dinosaur brain has been reconstructed by scientists for the first time after a 'perfect skeleton' was found - and the brain weighed less than a pea.

Palaeontologists from the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, used computer images to reveal the size and inner workings of the Buriolestes brain.

The team were able to determine the size of the brain and digitally reconstruct the grey matter thanks to a perfectly preserved skeleton that included the braincase.

The creature roamed the Earth 233 million years ago, was a meat eater and an athletic and skilled hunter that had better eyesight than sense of smell.

Through the use of computer images, the researchers were able to reveal regions involved in coordination, sight, smell, intelligence - and even reproduction.

The remarkable discovery sheds fresh light on the evolution of the biggest land animals that ever lived - although this one was no bigger than a fox.



Named Buriolestes schultzi, it weighed about a stone and while small, was vicious, according to lead author Dr Rodrigo Muller, adding it wasn't as smart as a T-Rex.

Muller said this was an important discovery because 'the brain is a window into its behaviour - and intelligence.'

'The brain of Buriolestes is relatively small, weighing about 1.5 grams (0.05oz) - which is slightly lighter than a pea,' said Muller.

He added that the actual shape of the brain is also primitive, resembling a crocodile's brain.

'In addition, the presence of well developed structures in the cerebellum indicates the capability to track moving prey,' he added.

'Conversely, the olfactory sense was not good. Buriolestes hunted and tracked prey based on sharp eyesight rather than smell.'



Its sharp, curved teeth and claws would have ripped lizards and primitive mammals to shreds - as well as the young of other dinosaurs. It also ate insects.

Buriolestes was hunted itself - by 'killing machine' Gnathovorax. The ten foot tall dinosaur was the apex predator of the period.

Soft organs, such as the brain, don't survive fossilisation. So Muller and his team used CT scans to look into the internal cranial cavities.

'We access isolated sections of the skull, filling the gaps of each. When we put these regions together we get a 3D representation of the space - or endocast,' he said.

The X-rays mapped the cerebellum that controls coordination, balance and posture as well as the optical lobe - the visual processing centre.

They also revealed the olfactory bulb and tract responsible for smell and the cerebrum that triggers intelligence and conscious thoughts.

The pituitary gland at the base of the brain was drawn up too. It produces hormones that fuel growth, blood pressure - and reproduction.

Dr Muller said: 'The technique demands well-preserved braincases, which envelopes the tissues,' adding that is the upper and back part of the skull.

'Buriolestes dates back to the dawn of the dinosaurs,' he explained.

'So far, complete braincases from the oldest dinosaurs worldwide were unknown. It has helped unlock the secrets of its way of life.'

The animal measured about four feet from head to tail. It had a long neck, razor sharp teeth and three long claws on each of its four limbs. It ran on two legs.

Its remains were unearthed in 2015 during an expedition to the rainforest of southern Brazil led by Dr Muller, which he called a 'well known dinosaur graveyard'.



The exact location hasn't been revealed by the team, but it has been described as a 'ravine with other fossilized skeletons in a farm'.

Buriolestes lived during the Triassic, when South America was still part of the supercontinent called Pangaea.

Despite being a carnivore, it is the earliest member of the plant-eating sauropods - that weighed up to 100 tons and reached 110 feet long.

Dr Muller said: 'The reconstruction allows us to analyse the brain evolution of the biggest land animals that ever lived.'

One of the most conspicuous trends is the increase of the olfactory bulbs. These were relatively small in Buriolestes - but became very large in sauropods.



'The development of a high sense of smell could be related to the acquisition of a more complex social behaviour - seen in several vertebrate groups,' Muller said.

'Alternatively, it has also been observed high olfactory capabilities played an important role in foraging - helping animals to better discriminate between digestible and indigestible plants.

'Finally, another putative explanation for the better smell in sauropods relies on the capability to pick up the scent of predators.'

The pituitary gland is also related to size - and is proportionally small in Buriolestes, On the other hand, it is very large in the giant sauropods.

Dr Muller said: 'Hence, we can associate the development of the gland with the gigantism of sauropods. '



The study published in the Journal of Anatomy also calculated the intelligence of Buriolestes based on brain volume and body weight.

'The values obtained are higher than that of the giant sauropods - like Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus - suggesting a decrease in brain size compared to body,' he said.

'It changed across the time, not only in general morphology, but also in the neurological functions. The brain anatomy changes together with the body plan of these animals.

'It is interesting because several other lineages present an increase in this phenomenon - known as encephalization - through time.

'Nevertheless, the 'cognitive capability' of Buriolestes is lower than that of theropod dinosaurs, the lineage that includes T Rex and Velociraptor of Jurassic Park fame - and birds.'

In the view of most experts, birds are 'living dinosaurs'. Their key skeletal features - as well as nesting and brooding behaviours - actually arose first in some dinosaurs.

The findings have been published in the Journal of Anatomy.

Source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8908641/Complete-brain-fox-sized-dinosaur-reconstructed-scientists-time.html

7 Likes 3 Shares

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by DenreleDave(m): 5:29pm On Nov 03, 2020
grin Endtime scientist.... grin

233 million years... Mad people....

Later dem go say dem see fish brain wey don use 1 billion years.. Mad Fifu grin

27 Likes

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by CosmicPhoenix: 5:34pm On Nov 03, 2020
no brain was seen or found anywhere,The brain was reconstructed via CGI,read una no go hear.

DenreleDave:
grin Endtime scientist.... grin

233 million years... Mad people....

Later dem go say dem see fish brain wey don use 1 billion years.. Mad Fifu grin

55 Likes 4 Shares

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by CAPSLOCKED: 5:37pm On Nov 03, 2020
DenreleDave:
grin Endtime scientist.... grin

233 million years... Mad people....

Later dem go say dem see fish brain wey don use 1 billion years.. Mad Fifu grin

THE POST CLEARLY SAYS RECONSTRUCTED USING COMPUTERS.

24 Likes 1 Share

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Nobody: 5:37pm On Nov 03, 2020
Another thread of these "scientist"

1 Like 1 Share

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by starbuck(f): 7:01pm On Nov 03, 2020
Explorers.. Abeg open thread na
I don miss you

5 Likes

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Hambivert: 7:24pm On Nov 03, 2020
Sparogatively, I don't believe in these things in it's entirety most especially their obnoxious dates, but, I still love to hear their stories.

If it's a Saurischia or an Ornithischia I largely don't care. I think I just like to know these things for the goodness of knowing them not that it matters... probably not in a country like Nigeria.

Well, I hope these foreign excavators and researchers continue with their work regardless of the people who think they are wasting their time....

So many Nigerian students and professors depend on them even if they never get to practice what they learn or teach. They still depend!

6 Likes

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by StephenBB(m): 8:18pm On Nov 03, 2020
Macsjebs on it agian
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Pelecius: 8:25pm On Nov 03, 2020
Facts mixed with the usual just-so-stories
"It was a skilled hunter..." How would you know that?
"Buriolestes was hunted itself - by 'killing machine' Gnathovorax." Has the remains of this little been found in Gnathovorax?
"Soft organs, such as the brain, don't survive fossilisation." No wonder Dr. Mary Schweitzger was almost crucified when she discovered soft tissues in a T-rex fossil.
"In the view of most experts, birds are 'living dinosaurs'. Their key skeletal features - as well as nesting and brooding behaviours - actually arose first in some dinosaurs." But we are tired of this 'creed'. Lol. There's nothing to support this long held claim.

Anyway, Kudos to the Nobel Lauretes on physiology for this year whose work was on the Hepatitis B virus. One huge step to making life better

2 Likes

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by cassidy1996(m): 9:51pm On Nov 03, 2020
fake! oyinbo can talk lie

1 Like

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by sunshineV(f): 7:37am On Nov 04, 2020
WHY CAN'T NIGERIANS READ?

4 Likes

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by iamyemiakins(m): 3:26pm On Nov 28, 2020
These scientists juz dey find and reconstruct wetin no lost

1 Like

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by bigdammyj: 3:26pm On Nov 28, 2020
Noted
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by peppermint7(m): 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
Oga righteousness oya come cash in
on this one
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by muykem: 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
The level of lies coming from scientists this days is very alarming.
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Sonnobax15(m): 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
cool. The mathematicians wey calculate the years of the brain's existence,we go like know Dem abeg...
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by sammysmiles(m): 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
There they go again with their millions of years

Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Prodigee: 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
These millions of years scientists don come again
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by cassidy1996(m): 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
oyinbo people can talk lie
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by DenreleDave(m): 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
Lies... Rubbish....


Million years... Shit
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by gbese: 3:27pm On Nov 28, 2020
grin
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by 2cribz: 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
I just newly come back from 10 AD ,what time is it abeg
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by ostechno(m): 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
DenreleDave:
grin Endtime scientist.... grin

233 million years... Mad people....

Later dem go say dem see fish brain wey don use 1 billion years.. Mad Fifu grin
You just come here, comment without reading
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by shogsman(m): 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
CAPSLOCKED:


THE POST CLEARLY SAYS RECONSTRUCTED USING COMPUTERS.
And you believe everything hookline and sinker right
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Amspecial: 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
grin
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Dozie32(m): 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
Him dey mad!! How him take know how many years e dey?
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Judolisco(m): 3:28pm On Nov 28, 2020
Dem no dey even cut d lie small small.... Arbi lai mohammed dey give dem tips ni
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Kingluqman(m): 3:29pm On Nov 28, 2020
Scientists, shey you Dey play ni? grin
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Traininghub(f): 3:29pm On Nov 28, 2020
These people called scientists though!
What do I know?
Do check my siggy, I'll help you start a business with as little as 3k. Join our December online training and make this festive period a blast with little cash! No go spend big money on top wetin you fit make with shikini money
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by Ihatemumu: 3:29pm On Nov 28, 2020
sunshineV:
WHY CAN'T NIGERIANS READ?

Same questions I ask myself.
Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by goshen26: 3:29pm On Nov 28, 2020
28/11/2020

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Re: Scientists Reveal Brain Of 233-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur (Pictures) by bigfish3k: 3:30pm On Nov 28, 2020
Na wao

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