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Sports / Russia Has Been Banned For 4 Years Both 2022 World-cup And 2020 Olympics by ifeanyipascall65(m): 8:46pm On Dec 09, 2019
Russia has been banned for four years that includes that they will not participate in 2020 Olympic and 2022 world cup. Read from the link to see shocking reason why they were banned.

Health / 8 Easy Tips On How To Get Rid Of Body Odour Naturally You Should Not Ignore by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:32pm On Dec 01, 2019
This post contain easy tips on how to get rid of body odour. Read this post from the link below if you want to get rid of body odour fast.

Health / Liverpool Midfielder Out Till Next Year After His Ankle Ligaments Damage by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:20pm On Nov 29, 2019
Liverpool midfielder fabinho will be out till next year after he suffered ankle ligaments damage from an awkwardly challenge against Napoli

Health / 8 Signs You Are Getting Sick You Should Not Ignore by ifeanyipascall65(m): 7:32pm On Nov 16, 2019


You might have caught a cold if you are experiencing these symptoms:

1. Sneezing

If you are sneezing and coughing with greater frequency than usual and you have a runny nose, and head or chest congestion, you can assume this is the beginning of the common cold unless your symptoms worsen, in which case you should see a doctor. Be sure to cover your mouth next time you sneeze because you might be passing the germs along to others with every ah-choo!

2. Runny Nose

If your nose is like a faucet and is running clear and watery, then a sore throat and congestion are not far behind. You have cold you should be in a haste and make some soothing tea.

3. Sore Throat or Coughing

At the beginning of a cold, you are typically coughing up some sort of phlegm, getting rid of an irritant in your lungs,way of healing themselves, clearing the upper airways and throat to help with infections brought on by cold or flu. Drink plenty of fluids to help, and break out that humidifier.

4. Muscle Aches And Pains

If it hurts to move, that tough gym class might not be entirely to blame. If the soreness sticks around for a few days that could be a sign of the flu. Start taking some medicine for the pain, like ibuprofen, drink plenty of fluids, reduce your stress, and get lots of sleep, and you will probably start to feel better.

5. Headache

Sometimes a cool cloth on the forehead or popping some ibuprofen just doesn’t cut it when it comes to scaring off a headache. Unfortunately, this pain can be a symptom of the cold and flu, or a sinus infection. Relaxing in a dark room can help or there is always stuffing your face with gingerbread (though not as of yet a medically proven treatment).

6. Congestion

Feeling stuffed up can slow you down big time. To clear that congestion, recommends gargling with warm water and salt as well as doing a saline rinse to clear out bacteria.

7. Decreased Appetite

A decrease in appetite can be part of our body’s inflammatory response. It may help conserve energy to fight the virus, and can also be affected by a stuffy nose lessening our smell and taste. Still, Make your meals count and be sure that you are getting the maximum amount of nutrition from everything you eat

8. Tiredness or Fatigue

Feeling tired is a great sign a sickness is lying in your body, get enough rest and drink lots of water.

If still feeling tired you consult a doctor.

Health / 8 Signs You Are Getting Sick You Should Not Ignore by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:48pm On Nov 14, 2019


You might have caught a cold if you are experiencing these symptoms:

1. Sneezing

If you are sneezing and coughing with greater frequency than usual and you have a runny nose, and head or chest congestion, you can assume this is the beginning of the common cold unless your symptoms worsen, in which case you should see a doctor. Be sure to cover your mouth next time you sneeze because you might be passing the germs along to others with every ah-choo!

2. Runny Nose

If your nose is like a faucet and is running clear and watery, then a sore throat and congestion are not far behind. You have cold you should be in a haste and make some soothing tea.

3. Sore Throat or Coughing

At the beginning of a cold, you are typically coughing up some sort of phlegm, getting rid of an irritant in your lungs,way of healing themselves, clearing the upper airways and throat to help with infections brought on by cold or flu. Drink plenty of fluids to help, and break out that humidifier.

4. Muscle Aches And Pains

If it hurts to move, that tough gym class might not be entirely to blame. If the soreness sticks around for a few days that could be a sign of the flu. Start taking some medicine for the pain, like ibuprofen, drink plenty of fluids, reduce your stress, and get lots of sleep, and you will probably start to feel better.

5. Headache

Sometimes a cool cloth on the forehead or popping some ibuprofen just doesn’t cut it when it comes to scaring off a headache. Unfortunately, this pain can be a symptom of the cold and flu, or a sinus infection. Relaxing in a dark room can help or there is always stuffing your face with gingerbread (though not as of yet a medically proven treatment).

6. Congestion

Feeling stuffed up can slow you down big time. To clear that congestion, recommends gargling with warm water and salt as well as doing a saline rinse to clear out bacteria.

7. Decreased Appetite

A decrease in appetite can be part of our body’s inflammatory response. It may help conserve energy to fight the virus, and can also be affected by a stuffy nose lessening our smell and taste. Still, Make your meals count and be sure that you are getting the maximum amount of nutrition from everything you eat

8. Tiredness or Fatigue

Feeling tired is a great sign a sickness is lying in your body, get enough rest and drink lots of water.

If still feeling tired you consult a doctor.

Health / Best Tips For Healthy Living You Should Not Ignore by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:00pm On Nov 14, 2019


No matter what age, you can take steps now towards better health and feeling great.

Here are some ways on how to improve you Healthy living ;
The five biggest changes you can make to leave a healthier, happier and longer life are:
1)quit smoking
2)be physically active everyday
3)eating healthy foods
4)limit alcohol
5)get enough sleep.

Make your healthy change now and Get ideas and help boost your healthy living

1)tools to assess your health risks (smoking, nutrition, weight, alcohol, physical activity and drugs)
2)healthy weight tips for children, adults and during pregnancy
3)tips for healthy eating and being active
4)healthy mind tips for looking after your mental wellbeing.

What’s your healthy change?

Publicly committing to make changes can help you stay motivated and get results. Sharing your healthy living changes with other can also help motivate them and create a healthier state.


Visit Healthy Weight Guide for ideas and tools for eating healthier and being active
for help with reducing your alcohol intake visit the Drug and alcohol services page or call / visit the Alcohol and Drug Information Service (ADIS)
You should also learn how to Be Active

Health / 11 Health Benefits Of Lime You Should Know by ifeanyipascall65(m): 11:19pm On Nov 13, 2019


Lime is a citric juice that is round in shape and contains citric acid to a certain level that is not harmful to human health as many people may think.
Lime is greenish or yellowish-green in colour and has a bitter taste in the juice where most of the nutrients such as calories, carbohydrates, sugar, dietary fibre, some minerals and vitamins are contained.

All these nutritional contents have lots of advantages to human health in different which are highlighted as follows:

1. Helps in Disease Prevention

Some nutrients such as antioxidants, flavonol glycosides, kaempferol, and vitamin C in lime fruit make them medicinal to treat certain diseases and reduce the risks of contracting them.
Also, these nutrients can also help in reducing the risk of getting infections by providing the immune system with the energy it needs to defend itself against such, and also help in minimizing the effect of the ones in the body have already.
The chances of getting infections are much during the cold season, which is why lime is recommended especially in such times to help fight infections and certain diseases.

2)Enhances for Weight Loss

Citric acid presence in lime fruit plays an essential role in weight reduction. It also acts as an alkalizing agent in the body that helps to reduce the level of acid in the body fluid.
There are many compounds and nutrients in lime that contributes to weight loss, such as flavonoids which is an antioxidant that helps in improving collagen on the skin, which helps in burning of fats.

It is rich in acid content, such as citric acid which helps in improving the metabolism processes in the body leading to weight loss by burning more fats.

3) Helps to Treat Scurvy

Lime is used in treating scurvy which is a deficiency that arises from lack of vitamin C in the body. Studies show that there is 48% of vitamin C content in one lime fruit and with this when taken adequately, can treat scurvy.
But in order to avoid developing sore or tooth decay which could be caused by the acidic content of lime, it is recommended to be well diluted with water before taking it.

4)Acts as an Antioxidant

Lime juice and oil contain antioxidants and exhibit the properties disinfectants and antibiotics such that when applied directly to the external parts of the body helps to clear skin diseases and wipe dead cells. These antibiotics can treat peptic ulcer as well.
The vitamin C in lime is the ascorbic acid which naturally acts as an antioxidant in the body, preventing any form of oxidation processes (free radicals) in the body which could lead to damages of the body cells and organs.

5)Acts as a Diuretic

Intake of lemon juice in combination with water or other fluid can increase the amount of fluid in the body system thereby enhancing urine production in order to flush dirt from the body and reduce urine supersaturation.
It contains antioxidants known as bioflavonoids in a high quantity, its function in the body is to make sure that the agents that cause free radicals are eliminated through waste – Urine.
Therefore, adequate intake of lime juice or water will help in detoxifying the system especially when its consumed on an empty stomach.

6)Helps in Diabetes Management

Lime fruits are known to manage diabetes just like other citrus fruits can do. This is so because of the presence of soluble fibre in the pulp, peels and juice of lime which helps to stabilize the blood glucose level.
They also have a low glycemic index which regulates the absorption of sugar in the bloodstream and helps in reducing the chances of raising the blood sugar levels.

7) Helps in Digestion

The content of acid in limes helps to maintain proper digestion by breaking the macromolecules in food easily while the flavonoid in the oil stimulates the digestive system and increase the secretion of digestive juice thereby reducing constipation.
But it is not advised to be taken much during pregnancy as it can lead to health conditions like indigestion, cramps and is as a result of their weak immune system.
For those who suffer from acid reflux which results from indigestion, it is recommended to dilute 2 teaspoons of lime in a warm water, take it 30 mins before a meal as it can help stop the symptoms.

coolHelps in Iron Absorption

There are so many fruits/food which inhibits the absorption of iron in the body or even stop the body from utilizing its iron content which can lead to weakness, heart failure and other related health conditions.
The vitamin C in lime is known as the Ascorbic acid helps in the absorption of nonheme iron (from plants) in the body but is most effective when it is taken together with the iron-rich food for easy digestion.

9)Treat Kidney Stone

Lime water is good for the kidneys, it helps in keeping it healthy as it can also prevent the risk of developing a kidney stone.
But for those who already have kidney issues, the intake has to be in moderation or supervised by your doctor as it can destabilize the body’s electrolyte, causing an imbalance which the kidney may not be able to maintain.
This is because of the content of lime, just like other citrus fruits contains potassium in a high amount which could lead to the imbalance of potassium and sodium in the body.

10)Improves the Skin

Collagen is one of the vital protein which is commonly found on the skin, and functions to help build muscles, as well burn fat, it also aids in preventing ageing thereby it is used in many cosmetic products as it can remove wrinkles, smoothen and rejuvenate the skin.

Lime is one of the fruits which can help in achieving a better-looking skin, it contains an antioxidant known as flavonoids which works to make the collagen on the skin improved in both firmness and elasticity as such reduces wrinkles and makes the skin firm.

It also contains vitamin C which also contributes a lot to improve the skin and is used in many topical health products and cosmetics.The best way to gain these nutrients is by consumption, drinking of lime water or juice.

It is advised NOT to apply the content on the body to avoid effects of LIME BURN like rashes, itchiness, phytophotodermatitis and others when exposed to the sun.

11) Promotes Heart Health

Lime naturally contains minerals like potassium and magnesium which helps in improving the heart and reducing the chances of being at risk of heart attack and stroke.

Magnesium helps in the heart and nerve muscles coordination, it helps in regulating the heartbeat, its deficiency as well can cause irregular heartbeats. While Potassium helps in enhancing blood circulation and also help to lower the pressure on the blood.

Limonins is also a compound which is believed to be in lime and helps to reduce the levels of cholesterol in the body which is good for the heart as well.

Health / First Aid : Aims,the Three Ps,key Skills And Content by ifeanyipascall65(m): 9:43pm On Nov 13, 2019


First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness or injury,with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while waiting for an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is generally performed by someone with basic medical training.


The primary goal of first aid is to prevent death or serious injury from worsening. The key aims of first aid can be summarized with the acronym of ‘the three Ps’:



The overriding aim of all medical care which includes first aid, is to save lives and minimize the threat of death


Prevent further harm also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.


First aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury,and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound.It is important to note that first aid is not medical treatment and cannot be compared with what a trained medical professional provides. First aid involves making common sense decisions in best interest of an injured person.Another set of goals for keeping a badly hurt person alive is sometimes called “ABCs”.


In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly the “ABC”s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic is used by emergency health professionals. Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency. Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary.

Assessment of circulation is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse checks may be done on less serious patients.


To save a person’s life, you need to have an open airway so it makes a clear passage where air can go through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down into the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than cool may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning.

If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.

If the choking person is an infant, the aide will give five strong blows in the infant’s upper back by placing the infant’s face down on his forearm. The aide will be taught not to provide first aid if the infant is able to cough or cry. Coughing and crying indicate the airway is open and the foreign object will likely to come out from the force the coughing or crying produces.


Altitude sickness, which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs.

Anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine.

Bone fracture, a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint.Burns, which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site.




A first aid kit consists of a strong, durable bag or transparent plastic box. They are commonly identified with a white cross on a green background. A first aid kit does not have to be bought ready-made. The advantage of ready-made first aid kits are that they have well organized compartments and familiar layouts.


Information leaflet

Medium sterile dressings

Large sterile dressings


Triangular dressings

Safety pins

Adhesive dressings

Sterile wet wipes

Microporous tape

Nitrile gloves

Face shield

Foil blanket

Burn dressings

Clothing shears

Conforming bandages

Finger dressing

Nairaland / General / 5 Quickest Ways To Get Rid Of Acne Overnight by ifeanyipascall65(m): 9:32pm On Nov 13, 2019


Acne pimples can quickly become a nightmare especially if they are common! Here are five totally natural tips to combat these imperfections.

Small pimples no more than large ones for that matter, are not welcome on our skin. To fight acne effectively, industrial products are not necessarily the most respectful of our skin. Here are five natural remedies



Tomatoes are antioxidants but they are also a shock ally to fight acne pimples that sometimes disfigure us – especially when placed on the nose or in the middle of the forehead.

For this recipe, it’s simple: cut a tomato (preferably organic) into slices and apply them to your face for twenty minutes. Rinse with lukewarm water. Your skin is healthy and clean.

If your skin is not too sensitive, opt for lemon. It cleans and acts as an antibacterial. Using a cotton swab soaked in freshly squeezed lemon juice, place a few drops on the areas to be treated.

Is it tingling a little? That’s normal. Leave to rest for a few minutes and then rinse with clear waters


Other effective and natural solutions can be found on the side of vegetable oils and essential oils. To do this, mix two drops of tea-tree essential oil with vegetable oil of jojoba, nigella or hazelnut and apply to the buds. Noble laurel essential oils, lemongrass or lavender are equally recommended. You can use them alternately.


Cider vinegar is often referred to in natural remedies or grandmothers’ recipes. Normal, it is an ideal product that cleans the area to be treated. With small cotton or compress soaked in this vinegar, place a few drops on the pimples or the area affected by acne. Let stand and rinse with lukewarm water.

The goal of the game is also to reduce or even completely remove products (gels, masks, and creams of all kinds) from the industry that will degrease, strip, de-intrude your skin too violently until it deprives it of the hydrolipidic film Protector.


Green clay powdered, crushed or ready to use is one of the classics of soft and natural medicine and has its place in your pharmacopeia. If you choose surfing clay powder, mix it with water (with a wooden spoon and not stainless steel, it’s important).

When the consistency is smooth and pasty enough, apply it to the buttons. Let stand until the clay is completely dry (the clay cracks and becomes clearer) then remove by rinsing with lukewarm water. The pores are clean and the button, dried out, will disappear shortly.


The buttons depend heavily on our lifestyle and diet. If one can treat locally, it would be even more beneficial to eradicate some bad habits to hunt acne for a long time! Try a less greasy diet: less cold cuts, months of cheeses, less chocolate (except the dark chocolate, strong in cocoa).

Cigarettes and alcohol are also not recommended if you want to put an end to acne! For beautiful skin, don’t forget to remove your make-up carefully or wash your face every night . For the night, let your skin breathe by applying a simple hydrolat (rose for example).

Nairaland / General / Steps On How To Sustain Life In Any Natural Environment by ifeanyipascall65(m): 11:58pm On Nov 11, 2019


Survival skills are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment. These techniques are meant to provide basic necessities for human life which include water, food, and shelter.

The skills also support proper knowledge and interactions with animals and plants to promote the sustaining of life over a period of time. Survival skills are often associated with the need to survive in a disaster situation.

Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilities that ancients invented and used themselves for thousands of years. Outdoor activities such as hiking, backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, and hunting all require basic wilderness survival skills, especially in handling emergency situations.

Bushcraft and primitive living are most often self-implemented, but require many of the same skills.

First aid

First aid kit

A first aid kit containing equipment to treat common injuries and illness
First aid (wilderness first aid in particular) can help a person survive and function with injuries and illnesses that would otherwise kill or incapacitate him/her. Common and dangerous injuries include:

Bites from snakes,


and other wild animals

Bone fractures




Heart attack


Hypothermia (too cold) and hyperthermia (too hot)

Infection through food, animal contact, or drinking non-potable water

Poisoning from consumption of, or contact with, poisonous plants or poisonous fungi

Sprains, particularly of the ankle


Wounds, which may become infected

The survivor may need to apply the contents of a first aid kit or, if possessing the required knowledge, naturally occurring medicinal plants, immobilize injured limbs, or even transport incapacitated comrades.


Many people who are forced into survival situations often get into serious trouble because of direct exposure to the elements. Most people in survival situations die of hypothermia, which can be easily avoided with basic survival skills.A shelter can range from a natural shelter, such as a cave, overhanging rock outcrop, or fallen-down tree, to an intermediate form of man-made shelter such as a debris hut, tree pit shelter, or snow cave, to completely man-made structures such as a tarp, tent, or longhouse.

Here are some things to think about when planning to build a shelter:

Shelter Considerations:

– Location (away from hazards, near materials)

– Insulation (from ground, rain, wind, air)

– Heat Source (body heat or fire-heated)

– Personal or Group Shelter


Making fire is recognized in the sources as significantly increasing the ability to survive physically and mentally. Lighting a fire without a lighter or matches, e.g. by using natural flint and steel with tinder, is a frequent subject of both books on survival and in survival courses. There is an emphasis placed on practicing fire-making skills before venturing into the wilderness. Producing fire under adverse conditions has been made much easier by the introduction of tools such as the solar spark lighter and the fire piston.

To start a fire one needs some sort of heat source hot enough to start a fire, kindling, and wood. Starting a fire is really all about growing a flame without putting it out in the process.

One fire starting technique involves using a black powder firearm if one is available. Proper gun safety should be used with this technique to avoid injury or death. The technique includes ramming cotton cloth or wadding down the barrel of the firearm until the cloth is against the powder charge. Next, the gun is fired upward in a safe direction, and ones runs and picks up the cloth that is projected out of the barrel, and then blows it into flame. It works better if there is a supply of tinder at hand so that the cloth can be placed against it to start the fire.

Fire is presented as a tool meeting many survival needs. The heat provided by a fire warms the body, dries wet clothes, disinfects water, and cooks food. Not to be overlooked is the psychological boost and the sense of safety and protection it gives.

In the wild, fire can provide a sensation of home, a focal point, in addition to being an essential energy source. Fire may deter wild animals from interfering with a survivor, however wild animals may be attracted to the light and heat of a fire.


A human being can survive an average of three to five days without the intake of water. The issues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary water loss by perspiration be avoided in survival situations. The need for water increases with exercise.

Since the human body is composed of up to 78% water, it should be no surprise that water is higher on the list than fire or food. Ideally, a person should drink about a gallon of water per day. Many lost persons perish due to dehydration, and/or the debilitating effects of water-born pathogens from untreated water.

A typical person will lose minimally two to maximally four liters of water per day under ordinary conditions, and more in hot, dry, or cold weather.

A lack of water causes dehydration, which may result in lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even mild dehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous in a survival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine is a diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority is typically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water and making provision to render that water as safe as possible.


Plants are some of the easiest food sources to find in the jungle, forest or desert because they are stationary and can thus be had without exerting much effort. Skills and equipment (such as bows, snares and nets) are necessary to gather animal food in the wild include animal trapping, hunting, and fishing.


Survival situations can often be resolved by finding a way to safety, or a more suitable location to wait for rescue. Types of navigation include:

Celestial navigation : using the sun and the night sky to locate the cardinal directions and to maintain course of travel
Using a map, compass or GPS receiver .

Natural navigation, using the condition of surrounding natural objects (i.e. moss on a tree, snow on a hill, direction of running water, etc.)

Nairaland / General / 5 Quickest Ways To Get Rid Of Acne by ifeanyipascall65(m): 11:47pm On Nov 11, 2019
Here you will learn the 5 secret formula to get rid of acne overnight. please subscribe to this channel ( Pascal health tips )

Nairaland / General / Sausage: Ingredients And Ways It’s Cooked by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:21pm On Nov 11, 2019


Sausage is a meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or poultry, along with salt, spices and other flavourings. Other ingredients such as grains or breadcrumbs may be included as fillers or extenders. Some sausages include other ingredients for flavour.

The word “sausage” can refer to the loose sausage meat, which can be formed into patties or stuffed into a skin. When referred to as “a sausage,” the product is usually cylindrical and encased in a skin.

Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways including :


boiling and barbecuing.

Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may then be removed.

Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying (often in association with fermentation or culturing, which can contribute to preservation), smoking, or freezing. Some cured or smoked sausages can be stored without refrigeration. Most fresh sausages must be refrigerated or frozen until they are cooked.

Sausages come in a huge range of national and regional varieties, which differ by their flavouring or spicing ingredients (garlic, peppers, wine, etc.), the meat(s) used in them and their manner of preparation.


A sausage consists of meat cut into pieces or ground, mixed with other ingredients, and filled into a casing. Ingredients may include a cheap starch filler such as breadcrumbs or grains, seasoning and flavourings such as spices, and sometimes others such as apple and leek.

The meat may be from any animal, but is often pork, beef or veal, or poultry. The lean meat-to-fat ratio depends upon the style and producer. The meat content as labelled may exceed 100%; which happens when the weight of meat exceeds the total weight of the sausage after it has been made, sometimes including a drying process which reduces water content.

In some jurisdictions foods described as sausages must meet regulations governing their content. For example, in the United States The Department of Agriculture specifies that the fat content of different defined types of sausage may not exceed 30%, 35% or 50% by weight; some sausages may contain binders or extenders.

Many traditional styles of sausage from Asia and mainland Europe use no bread-based filler and include only meat (lean meat and fat) and flavorings.

In the United Kingdom and other countries with English cuisine traditions, many sausages contain a significant proportion of bread and starch-based fillers, which may comprise 30% of ingredients.

The filler in many sausages helps them to keep their shape as they are cooked. As the meat contracts in the heat, the filler expands and absorbs moisture and fat from the meat.

Sausages are emulsion-type products. They are composed of solid fat globules, dispersed in protein solution. The proteins function by coating the fat and stabilizing them in water.

Nairaland / General / Factor Taken Into Consideration When Establishing Personal Flexibility by ifeanyipascall65(m): 10:10pm On Nov 11, 2019

Flexibility or limberness refers to the range of movement in a joint or series of joints, and length in muscles that cross the joints to induce a bending movement or motion.

Flexibility varies between individuals, particularly in terms of differences in muscle length of multi-joint muscles. Flexibility in some joints can be increased to a certain degree by exercise, with stretching a common exercise component to maintain or improve flexibility.

Quality of life is enhanced by improving and maintaining a good range of motion in the joints. Overall flexibility should be developed with specific joint range of motion needs in mind as the individual joints vary from one to another.

Loss of flexibility can be a predisposing factor for physical issues such as pain syndromes or balance disorders.

Sex, age, and genetics are important for range of motion. Exercise including :
2)and yoga often improves flexibility.
Many factors are taken into account when establishing personal flexibility:
1)joint structure
6)tissue injury
7)fat (or adipose) tissue
coolbody temperature
9)activity level
age and sex all influence an individual’s range of motion about a joint.
Individual body flexibility level is measured and calculated by performing a sit and reach test, where the result is defined as personal flexibility score.
Nairaland / General / 9 To Your Urine Say About Your Health by ifeanyipascall65(m): 9:58pm On Nov 11, 2019
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Nairaland / General / Health : Weight Management, Eating Disorder by ifeanyipascall65(m): 7:29pm On Nov 09, 2019


In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related).

Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.
Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity.


Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects.
In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are strictly vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted.


Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g. flexitarianism, pescetarianism, vegetarianism, veganism) for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect.

Raw foodism is another contemporary trend. These diets may require multivitamin supplements to meet ordinary nutritional needs.


A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight loss or weight gain. Changing a subject’s dietary intake, or “going on a diet”, can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body.

Some foods are specifically recommended, or even altered, for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. These diets are often recommended in conjunction with exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be coined as healthy diets.
The terms “healthy diet” and “diet for weight management” are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management. Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems, and will provide the body with the right balance of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.


An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive diet.


A healthy diet may improve or maintain optimal health. In developed countries, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices.
Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, and limiting alcohol intake.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition.

Nairaland / General / German Shepherd by ifeanyipascall65(m): 7:16pm On Nov 09, 2019


The German Shepherd is a breed of medium to big-sized working dog that originated in Germany. In the English language, the breed’s officially recognized name is German Shepherd Dog (sometimes abbreviated as GSD).

The breed was officially known as the Alsatian in Britain from after the First World War until 1977 when its name was changed back to German Shepherd.

Despite its primitive, wolf-like appearance the German Shepherd is a relatively modern breed of dog, with their origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since that time however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability, and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search-and-rescue, police and military roles, and acting.

The German Shepherd is the second-most registered breed by the American Kennel Club and seventh-most registered breed by The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom.

Nairaland / General / Kidney Stone Disease by ifeanyipascall65(m): 6:18pm On Nov 09, 2019


Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) develops in the urinary tract.
Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms.
If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter, resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.

A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.About half of people will have another stone within ten years.

In those who have had stones, prevention is by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate, or allopurinol may be taken.
It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided.
When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed.
Otherwise pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids.
Larger stones may be helped to pass with the medication tamsulosin or may require procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their lives.In 2015, 22.1 million cases occurred,resulting in about 16,100 deaths.


Diagram showing the typical location of renal colic, below the rib cage to just above the pelvis
The hallmark of a stone that obstructs the ureter or renal pelvis is excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the inner thigh. This pain, known as renal colic, is often described as one of the strongest pain sensations known.
Renal colic caused by kidney stones is commonly accompanied by urinary urgency, restlessness, hematuria, sweating, nausea, and vomiting.
It typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes caused by peristaltic contractions of the ureter as it attempts to expel the stone.
The embryological link between the urinary tract, the genital system, and the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the radiation of pain to the gonads, as well as the nausea and vomiting that are also common in urolithiasis.
Postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis can be observed following the obstruction of urine flow through one or both ureters.

Pain in the lower-left quadrant can sometimes be confused with diverticulitis because the sigmoid colon overlaps the ureter, and the exact location of the pain may be difficult to isolate due to the proximity of these two structures.


1)Dehydration from low fluid intake is a major factor in stone formation.Obesity is a leading risk factor as well.

2)High dietary intake of animal protein,sodium, sugars including honey, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup,oxalate, grapefruit juice, and apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.

3)Kidney stones can result from an underlying metabolic condition, such as distal renal tubular acidosis, Dent’s disease, hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria, or medullary sponge kidney. 3–20% of people who form kidney stones have medullary sponge kidney.

5)Kidney stones are more common in people with Crohn’s disease; Crohn’s disease is associated with hyperoxaluria and malabsorption of magnesium.

6)A person with recurrent kidney stones may be screened for such disorders. This is typically done with a 24-hour urine collection. The urine is analyzed for features that promote stone formation.

Nairaland / General / How To Buy A Product Through Online Shopping by ifeanyipascall65(m): 6:00pm On Nov 09, 2019


Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.

Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product’s availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smartphones.
An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular “bricks-and-mortar” retailer or shopping center; the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping.

When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm’s range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications, features and prices.

Online stores usually enable shoppers to use “search” features to find specific models, brands or items.
Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products (e.g., paperback books or clothes), the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; for digital products, such as digital audio files of songs or software, the e-tailer usually sends the file to the customer over the Internet.

The largest of these online retailing corporations are Alibaba, Amazon.com, and eBay.

Nairaland / General / Healthy Diet And It's Recommendation By The World Health Organization by ifeanyipascall65(m): 5:23pm On Nov 09, 2019

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate calories. For people who are healthy, a healthy diet is not complicated and contains mostly fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages.
The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a vegan diet. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health.
A healthy lifestyle includes getting exercise every day along with eating a healthy diet.

A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes,hypercholesterolemia​ hypertension
and cancer. There are specialized healthy diets, called medical nutrition therapy, for people with various diseases or conditions. There are also prescientific ideas about such specialized diets, as in dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine.
Recommendations World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:

1) Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using. Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats.

2) Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats. Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count).

3)A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts. Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better).

4) Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. WHO stated that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8% of deaths worldwide.

Other WHO recommendations include:

5)Ensuring that the foods chosen have sufficient vitamins and certain minerals; avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances; avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs); and replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet, which can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes.


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