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|Politics / Re: Epic Photo Of The Day: Buhari And Obasanjo As Young Soldiers by DopestepTJ(m): 5:54pm On Dec 18, 2014|
Buhari kinda looks like Sound Sultan there
|Politics / Re: #thankyoujonathan by DopestepTJ(m): 5:33pm On Dec 01, 2014|
|Politics / #thankyoujonathan by DopestepTJ(m): 5:07pm On Nov 25, 2014|
As thy Sachem, I've taken this Mantle upon my humble self, to monitor the increasing degradation of the Naira worth in comparison to the USD.
|Events / Re: Independence Day: What Would You Change If You Had The Power? by DopestepTJ(m): 5:56pm On Oct 01, 2014|
DGKN: Girls will not put on trousersShaking My Head
2 Likes 2 Shares
|Health / Re: U.S. Records First Case Of Ebola by DopestepTJ(m): 2:40am On Oct 01, 2014|
See how una dey happy, una forget say some of your Nigerian brothers dey U.S. Fact is this stuff won't spread like how it did in West Africa.
|Computers / Re: Windows 9 Is Coming. This Is What It Looks Like by DopestepTJ(m): 4:16pm On Sep 12, 2014|
I love my Windows 8.1
|Music/Radio / Where Is Olamide? by DopestepTJ(m): 5:21am On Aug 31, 2014|
Haven't heard from him in a while. Nigga went lull?
|Education / Re: 57 Escaped Chibok Girls Gain Admission In US by DopestepTJ(m): 6:16pm On Aug 25, 2014|
Na wa for some people o. There are students from countries that don't speak English studying in America. Many schools usually have language training for some students like ESL. Many Asians that can't even speak good English, take English courses before proceeding to take their various majors. Make una stop dey use "They can't speak English" as a point, I'm sure those girls can speak better English than many students from non-English speaking countries that study in the U.S.
|Education / Re: 57 Escaped Chibok Girls Gain Admission In US by DopestepTJ(m): 3:49pm On Aug 25, 2014|
panachuku: admission for girls who cannot speak english, now dat is scamSo all these Asians that gain admission to study in the U.S. can speak English abi?
|Food / Re: Why Are Healthy Food More Expensive Than 'junk Food"? by DopestepTJ(m): 5:06am On Jul 31, 2014|
|Politics / Re: If Nigeria Breaks Up, Will It Affect Africa? by DopestepTJ(m): 2:16am On Jul 26, 2014|
|Politics / If Nigeria Breaks Up, Will It Affect Africa? by DopestepTJ(m): 2:10am On Jul 26, 2014|
"Nigeria’s economy surpassed South Africa’s as the largest on the continent after the West African nation overhauled its gross domestic product data for the first time in two decades." http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-06/nigerian-economy-overtakes-south-africa-s-on-rebased-gdp.html
Nigeria is being often referred to as the "Giant of Africa" especially by Nigerians.
With the Boko Haram activities going on in the country, many Nigerians are foreseeing a break up (My Assumption).
I'm not an expert when it comes to economy and stuff, but I've been a bit curious lately. Let's assume Nigeria breaks up, do you think it will have any effect on Africa? If yes, how will you relate Nigeria's break up with Africa being affected as a whole?
|Music/Radio / Re: Hot!!! Modenine Ft Canibus - Super Human by DopestepTJ(m): 12:58am On Jan 10, 2014|
Wow nice, who got the lyrics? couldn't get some Modenine's lines.
|Music/Radio / Re: Learn How To Be A Dj by DopestepTJ(m): 7:09pm On Jan 07, 2014|
|Music/Radio / Re: Yung6ix - AGAIN [freestyle] by DopestepTJ(m): 4:15pm On Jan 07, 2014|
He wasted the beat and kept on rhyming the same words, sha maybe because he was just doing a freestyle.
|Science/Technology / Dogs Do Doo-duty In Alignment With Earth's Magnetic Field by DopestepTJ(m): 8:39am On Jan 03, 2014|
Dog owners are familiar with the sight of Spike sniffing, hovering, rotating, and then finally settling in to handle his business. It may seem like quite a production, but the pup may actually be getting into proper alignment with the Earth's magnetic field.
A team of scientists is behind a new study published in Frontiers in Zoology and titled "Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth's magnetic field." The researchers started off by observing dog behaviors such as resting and feeding, but soon zeroed in on excreting as the main focus.
The study concludes that, "Dogs preferred to excrete with the body being aligned along the North-south axis under calm MF [magnetic field] conditions." When the magnetic field isn't calm, that directional behavior evaporates and the pooches aim any which way. The Earth's magnetic field is only calm for about 20 percent of the daylight period, so you may have a hard time replicating the study's findings with your own fuzzy test subject.
The study shows a high level of dedication, with the researchers logging 1,893 dog-defecation observations using breeds ranging from beagles to mutts. The data was collected outside in open fields so dogs wouldn't be biased by routines established during regular walks. The study reads, "alignment during excreting was apparent under conditions of quiet magnet field, irrespective of the time of day or month."
If the scientists' discovery of magnetoreception (yes, it sounds like a super power) in dogs holds up, then dogs could start to play a new role in research, perhaps even in the biomedical sector, the study suggests. It may also help impatient dog owners come to a new understanding of why it takes so long for Princess Fuzzsnacks to complete her bathroom duty. Sometimes, it's all about getting into the right alignment.
|Music/Radio / Re: Should I Give Music A Shot by DopestepTJ(m): 7:30am On Dec 31, 2013|
You have a good voice for rapping but you need to work on your flow, enunciation and lyrics.
I like the hook in Me & U and prefer your flow in Vodka.
You need to step up your production.
Keep rapping and writing and try working on a project like a Mixtape.
Try and also upload your songs and lyrics on rapgenius and YouTube too.
|Music/Radio / Re: Top 10 Under-Rated Rappers In Nigeria by DopestepTJ(m): 11:19pm On Dec 14, 2013|
|Religion / How December 25 Became Christmas by DopestepTJ(m): 10:02pm On Dec 14, 2013|
On December 25, Christians around the world will gather to celebrate Jesus’ birth. Joyful carols, special liturgies, brightly wrapped gifts, festive foods—these all characterize the feast today, at least in the northern hemisphere. But just how did the Christmas festival originate? How did December 25 come to be associated with Jesus’ birthday?
The Bible offers few clues: Celebrations of Jesus’ Nativity are not mentioned in the Gospels or Acts; the date is not given, not even the time of year. The biblical reference to shepherds tending their flocks at night when they hear the news of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2: might suggest the spring lambing season; in the cold month of December, on the other hand, sheep might well have been corralled. Yet most scholars would urge caution about extracting such a precise but incidental detail from a narrative whose focus is theological rather than calendrical.
The extrabiblical evidence from the first and second century is equally spare: There is no mention of birth celebrations in the writings of early Christian writers such as Irenaeus or Tertullian. Origen of Alexandria goes so far as to mock Roman celebrations of birth anniversaries, dismissing them as “pagan” practices—a strong indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this point.
This stands in sharp contrast to the very early traditions surrounding Jesus’ last days. Each of the Four Gospels provides detailed information about the time of Jesus’ death. According to John, Jesus is crucified just as the Passover lambs are being sacrificed. This would have occurred on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Nisan, just before the Jewish holiday began at sundown (considered the beginning of the 15th day because in the Hebrew calendar, days begin at sundown). In Matthew, Mark and Luke, however, the Last Supper is held after sundown, on the beginning of the 15th. Jesus is crucified the next morning—still, the 15th.
Easter, a much earlier development than Christmas, was simply the gradual Christian reinterpretation of Passover in terms of Jesus’ Passion. Its observance could even be implied in the New Testament (1 Corinthians 5:7–8: “Our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed. Therefore let us celebrate the festival…”); it was certainly a distinctively Christian feast by the mid-second century C.E., when the apocryphal text known as the Epistle to the Apostles has Jesus instruct his disciples to “make commemoration of [his] death, that is, the Passover.”
Jesus’ ministry, miracles, Passion and Resurrection were often of most interest to first- and early-second-century C.E. Christian writers. But over time, Jesus’ origins would become of increasing concern. We can begin to see this shift already in the New Testament. The earliest writings—Paul and Mark—make no mention of Jesus’ birth. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke provide well-known but quite different accounts of the event—although neither specifies a date. In the second century C.E., further details of Jesus’ birth and childhood are related in apocryphal writings such as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas and the Proto-Gospel of James.b These texts provide everything from the names of Jesus’ grandparents to the details of his education—but not the date of his birth.
Finally, in about 200 C.E., a Christian teacher in Egypt makes reference to the date Jesus was born. According to Clement of Alexandria, several different days had been proposed by various Christian groups. Surprising as it may seem, Clement doesn’t mention December 25 at all. Clement writes: “There are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord’s birth, but also the day; and they say that it took place in the 28th year of Augustus, and in the 25th day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20 in our calendar] … And treating of His Passion, with very great accuracy, some say that it took place in the 16th year of Tiberius, on the 25th of Phamenoth [March 21]; and others on the 25th of Pharmuthi [April 21] and others say that on the 19th of Pharmuthi [April 15] the Savior suffered. Further, others say that He was born on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21]."
Clearly there was great uncertainty, but also a considerable amount of interest, in dating Jesus’ birth in the late second century. By the fourth century, however, we find references to two dates that were widely recognized—and now also celebrated—as Jesus’ birthday: December 25 in the western Roman Empire and January 6 in the East (especially in Egypt and Asia Minor). The modern Armenian church continues to celebrate Christmas on January 6; for most Christians, however, December 25 would prevail, while January 6 eventually came to be known as the Feast of the Epiphany, commemorating the arrival of the magi in Bethlehem. The period between became the holiday season later known as the 12 days of Christmas.
The earliest mention of December 25 as Jesus’ birthday comes from a mid-fourth-century Roman almanac that lists the death dates of various Christian bishops and martyrs. The first date listed, December 25, is marked: natus Christus in Betleem Judeae: “Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judea.”3 In about 400 C.E., Augustine of Hippo mentions a local dissident Christian group, the Donatists, who apparently kept Christmas festivals on December 25, but refused to celebrate the Epiphany on January 6, regarding it as an innovation. Since the Donatist group only emerged during the persecution under Diocletian in 312 C.E. and then remained stubbornly attached to the practices of that moment in time, they seem to represent an older North African Christian tradition.
In the East, January 6 was at first not associated with the magi alone, but with the Christmas story as a whole.
So, almost 300 years after Jesus was born, we finally find people observing his birth in mid-winter. But how had they settled on the dates December 25 and January 6?
There are two theories today: one extremely popular, the other less often heard outside scholarly circles (though far more ancient).4
The most loudly touted theory about the origins of the Christmas date(s) is that it was borrowed from pagan celebrations. The Romans had their mid-winter Saturnalia festival in late December; barbarian peoples of northern and western Europe kept holidays at similar times. To top it off, in 274 C.E., the Roman emperor Aurelian established a feast of the birth of Sol Invictus (the Unconquered Sun), on December 25. Christmas, the argument goes, is really a spin-off from these pagan solar festivals. According to this theory, early Christians deliberately chose these dates to encourage the spread of Christmas and Christianity throughout the Roman world: If Christmas looked like a pagan holiday, more pagans would be open to both the holiday and the God whose birth it celebrated.
Despite its popularity today, this theory of Christmas’s origins has its problems. It is not found in any ancient Christian writings, for one thing. Christian authors of the time do note a connection between the solstice and Jesus’ birth: The church father Ambrose, for example, described Christ as the true sun, who outshone the fallen gods of the old order. But early Christian writers never hint at any recent calendrical engineering; they clearly don’t think the date was chosen by the church. Rather they see the coincidence as a providential sign, as natural proof that God had selected Jesus over the false pagan gods.
It’s not until the 12th century that we find the first suggestion that Jesus’ birth celebration was deliberately set at the time of pagan feasts. A marginal note on a manuscript of the writings of the Syriac biblical commentator Dionysius bar-Salibi states that in ancient times the Christmas holiday was actually shifted from January 6 to December 25 so that it fell on the same date as the pagan Sol Invictus holiday. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Bible scholars spurred on by the new study of comparative religions latched on to this idea. They claimed that because the early Christians didn’t know when Jesus was born, they simply assimilated the pagan solstice festival for their own purposes, claiming it as the time of the Messiah’s birth and celebrating it accordingly.
More recent studies have shown that many of the holiday’s modern trappings do reflect pagan customs borrowed much later, as Christianity expanded into northern and western Europe. The Christmas tree, for example, has been linked with late medieval druidic practices. This has only encouraged modern audiences to assume that the date, too, must be pagan.
There are problems with this popular theory, however, as many scholars recognize. Most significantly, the first mention of a date for Christmas and the earliest celebrations that we know about come in a period when Christians were not borrowing heavily from pagan traditions of such an obvious character.
Granted, Christian belief and practice were not formed in isolation. Many early elements of Christian worship—including eucharistic meals, meals honoring martyrs and much early Christian funerary art—would have been quite comprehensible to pagan observers. Yet, in the first few centuries C.E., the persecuted Christian minority was greatly concerned with distancing itself from the larger, public pagan religious observances, such as sacrifices, games and holidays. This was still true as late as the violent persecutions of the Christians conducted by the Roman emperor Diocletian between 303 and 312 C.E.
This would change only after Constantine converted to Christianity. From the mid-fourth century on, we do find Christians deliberately adapting and Christianizing pagan festivals. A famous proponent of this practice was Pope Gregory the Great, who, in a letter written in 601 C.E. to a Christian missionary in Britain, recommended that local pagan temples not be destroyed but be converted into churches, and that pagan festivals be celebrated as feasts of Christian martyrs. At this late point, Christmas may well have acquired some pagan trappings. But we don’t have evidence of Christians adopting pagan festivals in the third century, at which point dates for Christmas were established. Thus, it seems unlikely that the date was simply selected to correspond with pagan solar festivals.
The December 25 feast seems to have existed before 312—before Constantine and his conversion, at least. As we have seen, the Donatist Christians in North Africa seem to have known it from before that time. Furthermore, in the mid- to late fourth century, church leaders in the eastern Empire concerned themselves not with introducing a celebration of Jesus’ birthday, but with the addition of the December date to their traditional celebration on January 6.
There is another way to account for the origins of Christmas on December 25: Strange as it may seem, the key to dating Jesus’ birth may lie in the dating of Jesus’ death at Passover. This view was first suggested to the modern world by French scholar Louis Duchesne in the early 20th century and fully developed by American Thomas Talley in more recent years. But they were certainly not the first to note a connection between the traditional date of Jesus’ death and his birth.
Around 200 C.E. Tertullian of Carthage reported the calculation that the 14th of Nisan (the day of the crucifixion according to the Gospel of John) in the year Jesus diedc was equivalent to March 25 in the Roman (solar) calendar. March 25 is, of course, nine months before December 25; it was later recognized as the Feast of the Annunciation—the commemoration of Jesus’ conception. Thus, Jesus was believed to have been conceived and crucified on the same day of the year. Exactly nine months later, Jesus was born, on December 25.
This idea appears in an anonymous Christian treatise titled On Solstices and Equinoxes, which appears to come from fourth-century North Africa. The treatise states: “Therefore our Lord was conceived on the eighth of the kalends of April in the month of March [March 25], which is the day of the passion of the Lord and of his conception. For on that day he was conceived on the same he suffered.” Based on this, the treatise dates Jesus’ birth to the winter solstice.
Augustine, too, was familiar with this association. In On the Trinity he writes: “For he [Jesus] is believed to have been conceived on the 25th of March, upon which day also he suffered; so the womb of the Virgin, in which he was conceived, where no one of mortals was begotten, corresponds to the new grave in which he was buried, wherein was never man laid, neither before him nor since. But he was born, according to tradition, upon December the 25th.”
In the East, too, the dates of Jesus’ conception and death were linked. But instead of working from the 14th of Nisan in the Hebrew calendar, the easterners used the 14th of the first spring month (Artemisios) in their local Greek calendar—April 6 to us. April 6 is, of course, exactly nine months before January 6—the eastern date for Christmas. In the East, too, we have evidence that April was associated with Jesus’ conception and crucifixion. Bishop Epiphanius of Salamis writes that on April 6, “The lamb was shut up in the spotless womb of the holy virgin, he who took away and takes away in perpetual sacrifice the sins of the world.” Even today, the Armenian Church celebrates the Annunciation in early April (on the 7th, not the 6th) and Christmas on January 6.
Thus, we have Christians in two parts of the world calculating Jesus’ birth on the basis that his death and conception took place on the same day (March 25 or April 6) and coming up with two close but different results (December 25 and January 6).
Connecting Jesus’ conception and death in this way will certainly seem odd to modern readers, but it reflects ancient and medieval understandings of the whole of salvation being bound up together. One of the most poignant expressions of this belief is found in Christian art. In numerous paintings of the angel’s Annunciation to Mary—the moment of Jesus’ conception—the baby Jesus is shown gliding down from heaven on or with a small cross a visual reminder that the conception brings the promise of salvation through Jesus’ death.
The notion that creation and redemption should occur at the same time of year is also reflected in ancient Jewish tradition, recorded in the Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud preserves a dispute between two early-second-century C.E. rabbis who share this view, but disagree on the date: Rabbi Eliezer states: “In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; on Passover Isaac was born … and in Nisan they [our ancestors] will be redeemed in time to come.” (The other rabbi, Joshua, dates these same events to the following month, Tishri.) Thus, the dates of Christmas and Epiphany may well have resulted from Christian theological reflection on such chronologies: Jesus would have been conceived on the same date he died, and born nine months later.
In the end we are left with a question: How did December 25 become Christmas? We cannot be entirely sure. Elements of the festival that developed from the fourth century until modern times may well derive from pagan traditions. Yet the actual date might really derive more from Judaism—from Jesus’ death at Passover, and from the rabbinic notion that great things might be expected, again and again, at the same time of the year—than from paganism. Then again, in this notion of cycles and the return of God’s redemption, we may perhaps also be touching upon something that the pagan Romans who celebrated Sol Invictus, and many other peoples since, would have understood and claimed for their own, too.
|Music/Radio / Re: Nairaland: So You Think You Can Sing? by DopestepTJ(m): 1:54pm On Dec 14, 2013|
DopestepTJ:Chance the rapper $ Ice prince.
|Music/Radio / Re: Nairaland: So You Think You Can Sing? by DopestepTJ(m): 10:01pm On Dec 13, 2013|
|Music/Radio / Re: Did DJ Xclusive Buy Youtube Views For His ‘pangolo’ Video? by DopestepTJ(m): 4:29pm On Dec 13, 2013|
|Music/Radio / Re: Did DJ Xclusive Buy Youtube Views For His ‘pangolo’ Video? by DopestepTJ(m): 3:42pm On Dec 13, 2013|
Lol. Went to read those comments, Strange Names. The stuff is obvious.
|Music/Radio / Re: [DOWNLOAD VIDEO] Dbanj – Why You Love Me by DopestepTJ(m): 9:01am On Dec 13, 2013|
|Music/Radio / Re: Burna Boy Ft. D'banj - Won Da Mo by DopestepTJ(m): 2:24pm On Dec 10, 2013|
Elnino4ladies: ..deevee produced it..@topic..nyc song burnalee nd banga lee...Thanks guys. The guy is good.
|Music/Radio / Re: Burna Boy Ft. D'banj - Won Da Mo by DopestepTJ(m): 2:09pm On Dec 10, 2013|
Who Produced this? I like the beat.
|Music/Radio / Re: Jesse Jagz Ft. Wizkid - Bad Girl (Video) by DopestepTJ(m): 11:02am On Dec 09, 2013|
C'mon guys Jesse Jagz music is not bad, just that this video is dull. That his album should be the best this year in Naija. His "burning bush" song is my favorite off the album and his "Redemption" song is d0pe. I've never replayed a Naija song so much like I did on burning bush. The dude is exploring the art of music and I think he's doing a good job.
|Music/Radio / Re: Jesse Jagz Ft. Wizkid - Bad Girl (Video) by DopestepTJ(m): 1:48pm On Dec 08, 2013|
A.jeez:Whatever floats his boat
|Music/Radio / Re: Jesse Jagz Ft. Wizkid - Bad Girl (Video) by DopestepTJ(m): 1:03pm On Dec 08, 2013|
They tried, couldn't watch the video to the end though. Is Jesse Jags Rastafarian? that thing on his head and I've heard a song he was talking about Haile Selassie and conquering Babylon.
|Music/Radio / Re: Childish Gambino Because The Internet Review by DopestepTJ(m): 1:03pm On Dec 07, 2013|
I rate 3005 and telegraph 10/10 they're my best songs from the album. I like bino a lot. The song he did with Chance the rapper on ACIDRAP is crazy! its my jam.
|Music/Radio / Re: Is Eminem Really The Rap God? by DopestepTJ(m): 8:33pm On Dec 04, 2013|
RSAMAN:I was expecting to see your post since, I knew you'll surely post something about R.A. The Rugged Man
|Music/Radio / Re: Is Eminem Really The Rap God? by DopestepTJ(m): 8:30pm On Dec 04, 2013|
fruityjojo:On point, Merci beaucoup Mademoiselle
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