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Science/Technology / The Difference Between Bandwidth And Throughput: A Case Study Of Mikrotik by timigate(m): 2:32pm On Oct 05, 2018
Bandwidth and throughput are not the same, even though most people erroneously think otherwise and use then interchangeably. In this post, we will look at the difference between bandwidth and throughput, using a Mikrotik point-to-point as a case study.
Definition of bandwidth

According to Wikipedia, bandwidth is defined as “the rate of data transfer, bit rate or throughput, measured in bits per second (bit/s)”. As good as this definition may appear, it is somewhat confusing because it implies that bandwidth and throughput are one and the same.

From the perspective of a data communication engineer, bandwidth is not the same as throughput. Bandwidth is defined as the subscribed capacity of a link. It is the speed, measured in megabit per second, that a customer is entitled to on a wireless link. This should not be confused for the total capacity of that link.

Definition of throughput
Throughput, as defined on Wikipedia, is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed. In wireless communication, throughput is used to measure the peak performance level of a link.

The Wikipedia definition of throughput, unlike that of bandwidth, shows a clear distinction between both telecommunication terms. Throughput is used to measure the maximum data rate on a link while bandwidth is the rate configured on that link for a customer. At all times, the throughput of a link should exceed the subscribed bandwidth on that link. This will ensure that bandwidth upgrades are done effortlessly with a click of a button, and that interference, if it arises, does not reduce performance below customers’ subscribed bandwidth.

The difference between bandwidth and throughput on a Mikrotik Point-to-Point link.
Using a Mikrotik Point-to-Point link, it is easy to see the difference between bandwidth and throughput. After link installation, a bandwidth test is performed to determine the peak performance of the link. The result obtained at this stage is known as the throughput of the link.


Packets will be generated and forced through the link to ascertain the maximum data transfer rate that can be recorded on the link. Assuming that at this stage, the link records 100Mbps upload and download, this means that the throughput of the configured point-to-point link is 100 megabit per second. Is this same as bandwidth? No!

Bandwidth test comes in after queues have been configured for connected customers. Bandwidth tests are then performed from customers’ end. For a customer configured on 2Mbps, Speed of 2Mbps will be recorded, all things being equal, even though the link has a throughput of 100Mbps.

From the image above, the configured bandwidth for this client is 3Mbps upload and 2Mbps download. When a speed test is performed from the customer’s end, this is the speed that the customer is expected to see. However, the image below shows that the link has an upload throughput of up to 14Mbps. With a setup like this, upgrade to 10Mbps is only a click away. No hardware change required.

Source: https://www.timigate.com/2018/10/the-difference-between-bandwidth-and-throughput-a-case-study-of-mikrotik-point-to-point.html

Phones / Apple IOS 12 Now Availabe For Download. See How To Get It Now by timigate(m): 3:49pm On Sep 18, 2018
Apple ios 12 is finally out and available for download. Users of iPhone, iPad and Apple watchOS can now enjoy the experience that the new iOS brings.

At the launch of iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and iPhone Xr, Apple revealed that the new Apple iOS 12 will bring improved Performance, Siri Shortcuts, Memoji, Screen Time, Shared AR Experiences and more. Given the sophistication of iOS 11, one would wonder what more can possibly be expected from Apple this time.

The Apple iOS 12 is compatible with iPhone 5s and later, all iPad Air and iPad Pro models, iPad 5th generation, iPad 6th generation, iPad mini 2 and later and iPod touch 6th generation.

How to upgrade to Apple iOS 12
Upgrade to Apple iOS 12 can be done in two ways: directly from your device while connected to a WiFi or via iTunes. Because the file is 1.37 GB, Apple recommends you do it over a WiFi connection.

Direct upgrade:

Direct Apple iOS 12 upgrade can be done from your Apple device by simply following the steps listed below.

On your Apple device, open settings >> General >> Software >> Click on download and install.

Apple iOS upgrade via iTunes:

I consider the upgrade via iTunes the best because it allows you to backup and restore your device in the event that something goes wrong during the upgrade. Apple iOS 12 upgrade via iTunes is quite straight forward. Simply download iTunes to your computer, connect your Apple device to the computer using a usb cable, and follow the steps below.

>> Connect your computer to the internet
>> Connect your Apple device to your laptop using the original usb cable from Apple
>> Launch iTunes on your computer
>> Click on the icon of the plugged device
>> Backup your Apple device
>> Click on check for software update.
>> iTunes will download and install updates on your Apple device.

Source: https://www.timigate.com/2018/09/apple-ios-12-now-availabe-for-download-see-how-to-get-it-now.html

Webmasters / Re: Submit Your Website Url For Review, And Get Good Backlinks And Traffic by timigate(m): 10:37pm On Aug 27, 2017
Please help review mine www.timigate.com
Computers / A Flash Drive With 2 Terabyte Data Capacity by timigate(m): 11:55am On Jan 06, 2017
Kingston Technology, makers of computer accessories, have given a glimpse on what will be known as the word biggest flash drive. The Kingston data traveler ultimate GT which was announced earlier this week at the CES 2017 in Las Vegas, comes with a mind-boggling 2 terabyte data capacity, large enough to hold more than 160 HD quality movies, acording to the company. Who needs an external hard disk anyway. Lol


Although the price of the new flash drive is yet to be disclosed by the company, the previous version of the Kingston data traveler, the 1TB Data traveler HyperX predator, is available for purchase on Amazon for $2,730 and if that price is anything to go by, IT professionals around the world who desire to own this revolutionary piece of computer accessory will have to part with huge sums of money to have it. The new data traveler ultimate GT comes in both 1TB and 2TB.

Features of the new device include:
>> Up to 70 hours of 4k video
>> 96 average-sized PC games
>> More than 160 HD movies
>> 500,000 MP3 files
>> 256,000 24-megapixel photos
>> 5-year warranty
>> Free technical support from Kingston Technology.

The new Kingston data traveler ultimate GT will be available for order from February, this year.
Source:http://www.timigate.com/2017/01/at-2-terabyte-kingston-data-traveler-is.html#more

Education / National Open University Of Nigeria: All You Need To Know Before Buying a form by timigate(m): 12:12pm On Jan 03, 2017
The National Open University of Nigeria popularly referred to as NOUN was initially established on the 22nd of July, 1983 to provide open and distance learning opportunity for the large population of working class Nigerians. The scheme was however suspended by the government on the 25th of April, 1985, barely two years after its inauguration. In 2001, it was resuscitated by the government of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo with pioneer student enrollment of 32,400. Since then the student population of NOUN has grown to the level that it is now generally regarded as the university with the largest student population in Nigeria providing undergraduate and post graduate programmes in various disciplines.

Mode of operations

Noun was designed to make learning easy and affordable. It was meant to provide access to learning irrespective of your location. With cloud-based learning system, students can register for courses and exams, access their learning materials like e-books, video and audio materials, write and submit their continuous assessments online without the need to visit the university campus. In short, the only period a student's visit to the school campus is compulsory is during examination. Continuous assessments and examination results are made available online. School fees payments are done at the banks and the final processing done online. Everything was designed to make life easy for the ever-busy Nigerian worker but like everything done in this country, it is feasible but not always possible!


The too many wrongs of NOUN

Upon a successful registration at NOUN, one of the first signs that you are in for a lengthy period of befuddlement is the interminable wait for the release of the learning materials paid for amidst the excruciating agony of silence and rude attitude of their staff, especially those at Port Harcourt learning center. Students are made to queue outside for materials that are never available months after they have been paid for and at the end, the only option available is buy photocopied materials from business center dealers or download the e-copies from the web.

Students of NOUN studying outside Lagos always bemoan the lack of information among the staff of the institution. The lists of courses for various programmes are hardly updated. The students' handbook provides obsolete information on the courses students are to register while the school would paste notice few weeks to exams saying otherwise. In most cases, students have done their continuous assessments, read and prepared for exams only to be told that the courses they registered for are the wrongs ones. What if the portal for continuous assessment is closed? How are these students expected to go about the registration of these new courses, write their continuous assessments and prepare for exams for the new courses being registered in few weeks?

One of the most common problems students of NOUN face is missing scripts. It is so bad that a student could receive grades for only five out of ten courses written during examination. The school generally attributes this to the failure of students to write their registration numbers on every leaf of the answer booklet, although I have found this to be untrue. When this happens, the advice is for students to write the withheld courses together with the current semester courses during the next semester examination as failure to do so will result in the student waiting till eternity for those courses to be released.

Currently, the NOUN portal, www.noun.edu.ng, that provides students access to their results has been down for more than three months and the school with all the resources at its disposal has not been able to bring it up. Students have been left in the dark as regards their performance in the examination. If students can not have access to the school from a distance, I wonder what is open about the school.

When you sign up for NOUN and you reside outside Lagos, especially in Port Harcourt, Know this; you will be paying your project supervisor the sum of 50k for Pgd or 60k for Msc. I asked why students were asked to make these payments by their project supervisors and was told by one of the supervisors that it is a way of getting their money since they have not been paid for jobs done in the past. Whether the school authorities owe them or not, I do not know but what I do know is that it is totally wrong for a student to part with such a huge amount of money for project supervision after paying the recommended school charges.

The school was supposed to provide access to quality education at affordable prices but with a Pgd student spending well over two hundred thousand naira at NOUN as against the one hundred and twenty thousand naira charged at Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, for a masters degree, one begins to wonder what affordability means from the context of the National Open University of Nigeria.

The way forward

This institution can actually work as intended if the authorities involved treat it as a homogeneous entity rather than the modular units driven by the ideas and visions of their center directors, provide reliable channels for feedback from students as well as avenues through which students can report result omissions and other issues and get speedy responds, and most importantly, a complete and total overhaul of the IT team of the institution because they seem to be at lost on what to do.

This article was born out of the personal experience of the writer and that of a close friend both of whom studied at the Port Harcourt study center of the National Open University of Nigeria and two years after, are yet to have their complete results released. I heard the experience is different in Lagos.
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2017/01/national-open-university-of-nigeria-all.html#more

Computers / Re: How To Shut Down Your Laptop By Closing It. by timigate(m): 2:43pm On Nov 23, 2016
nurez305:
that is a long journey. Just long press the power button of your laptop and it wil shut down within 10 seconds
Which is longer? Having to press for 10 seconds and still close or close and throw it in the bag?
Science/Technology / My Iphone 5S Experience(error 21). by timigate(m): 2:36pm On Nov 23, 2016
This post is about my personal experience with my phone. Having researched a lot of materials on the internet, both on apple site and other tech sites, I have found that the my case was not treated. As easy as it was to resolve after a long period of looking for a solution, apple hasnt found it necessary to include it as one of the necessities when trying to update your iPhone iOS.

I got an iPone 5s some months ago and was feeling cool with it. I downloaded lots of music from iTunes and fell in love with the superb audio quality of the accompanying ear piece. On a particular Saturday, I played lots of music till the battery became completely drained. Thats when my troubles started.

The next morning, I had it plugged to my laptop for a quick charge. Few minutes later, I was asked to update my iOS. Since it went smoothly the last time I did it, I quickly clicked on the update button on iTunes. The update started and the next thing that came up was a message I spent the next one week looking for an answer to. The update stopped halfway and displayed errors 11 and 21. The phone had crashed and needed to be restored!

I immediately Googled it up on the internet and was told to observe the follows:
>>Make sure no other device is plugged into any of the USB ports on your computer.
>>Make sure your iTunes software is up to date.
>>Make sure you are using original USB cable from Apple.
>>Try plugging into another USB port.
>>Restart your computer.

Ok! My iTunes was up to date. I even uninstalled and reinstalled it. I was using the accompanying USB cable from Apple. I was plugged to the same port on which I had earlier updated the phone. Even though these conditions were met, I got same error when i tried again.
A further search turned up other recommendations:
>> Turn off anti virus.
>> Turn off system firewall.
>> Modify host files.
I did all these but the errors kept popping up. The worse thing was reading comments from people whose phones were restored after observing some of these procedures. Dont get me wrong o. I was not sad it worked for them. Only sad it didnt work for me.

Next, I was told it could be a hardware issue, and since there is no apple service center in Nigeria, I took it to a technician whom I later got to know could not tell the difference in millimeter between the four screws used on the iPhone PCB. After opening the phone, he placed the screws in the wrong holes and this caused the screen to go blue during update. At this point, he told me the board is damaged and there was nothing he could do. The only solution was to get a new PCB.
Frustrated and deeply unhappy, I took my phone home and left it unattended to for a week. One night, I decided to plug it to charge till the next morning after which i took it to my office. When I got to work, I plugged it in and started the restore and it restored and updated successfully but turned blue after booting up. At that point it dawned on me that the reason the phone was unable to update was because the battery was low. As for the blue screen, it was caused by the misplacement of the screws by the technician. I took it back to him and asked him to completely remove the screws since he could not differentiate between them.
I got back to my office, plugged my phone in and restored it via iTunes. Everything went well and the phone has been working ever since.
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/my-experience-with-iphone.html#more

Computers / Re: How To Shut Down Your Laptop By Closing It. by timigate(m): 4:05pm On Nov 19, 2016
U welcome @franky826
Computers / How To Shut Down Your Laptop By Closing It. by timigate(m): 2:08pm On Nov 18, 2016
One of the most annoying things I have experienced is having to wait for a slow system to shutdown after a tiring day's job. There you are waiting for your laptop to shutdown while your colleague is already in the car honking on you to come out. This can go on for minutes especially when the system is performing an update. I know a lot of us have experienced this. Well, there are just a few things you should have done, which I am going to show you right now, to take care of a situation like this.
I am using Windows 10 but the steps are almost the same from Windows 7 upward. To setup your laptop to shutdown when you close the lid instead of waiting for hours to pack your bag because your lap would not just shutdown, simply follow these steps below:

>>>Click on the windows button
>>>Click on control panel or alternatively, you can just type "control panel" into the search pane.
>>>Click on "power option", as shown in the image below.
>>>Click on "choose what closing the lid does" as shown in the image below.
>>>Next you have the options of setting it up for both when your system is plugged to electricity and when it is running on battery. The first is for battery while the other is for electricity. Choose the one that you would like. You can even set it for the both if you like. Under either the battery or plugged, beside "when I close the lid" click on sleep, a pull down menu will appear, choose shutdown and click on save changes.
That is it, Just close your laptop and throw it in the bag. It will shutdown on it own.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/how-to-shutdown-your-laptop-by-closing.html#more
For more tips like these click on my signature. Thanks for reading.

2 Likes

Science/Technology / A Nigerian Wins 2016 Rolex Award For Enterprise. by timigate(m): 4:16pm On Nov 17, 2016
A Nigerian innovator and software developer, Mr Oscar Ekponimo, a computer science graduate of the University of Calabar, was today announced as one of the winners of the highly coveted Rolex award for enterprise. In a Facebook post, Oscar said " Fought back the tears and emotions, as I was named a Rolex Young Laureate and winner of the Rolex Awards for Enterprise 2016 with 4 other amazing people at Dolby Theatre Los Angeles.
Never give up on your dreams and visions, they were already realities when you imagined them!
Giving glory and praise to God Almighty!"



You would recall that the 2010 edition of the Rolex award was also won by a Nigerian, Mr Nnaemeka Ekegwuonu, for inventing
a mobile radio network intended to boost the living standards of millions of Nigerian rural farmers.
Mr Ekponimo, a native of Akwa Ibom State, won the award for inventing a solution developed to address food poverty and alleviate hunger in Nigeria through a cloud-based application that monitors supermarket products approaching the end of their shelf life and generates notifications to enabled iscounted items for consumers and charities.

According to Rolex "To mark the 40th anniversary of the programme this year, Rolex decided to present Awards to five Laureates and five Young Laureates. Each winner will receive a Rolex chronometer and funding for their project (Laureates receive 100,000 Swiss francs, and Young Laureates, between 18–30 years old, 50,000 Swiss francs). They will benefit from a worldwide publicity campaign"

With good news like this coming out of Nigeria, it is certain that with focus, hardwork and dedication, we will get there. Please share and celebrate our own. If we don't, who will?
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/six-years-later-another-nigerian.html#more

1 Like

Phones / The Lenovo Moto M by timigate(m): 10:19am On Nov 08, 2016
Chinese multinational technology company, Lenovo has put a stop to talks and rumors making rounds in the past few weeks by lunching its latest smart phone, the Moto M. The device which can be purchased on Chinese e-commerce site, Tmall for $295 USD, about 93000 naira, is the latest in Lenovo product range. The company has other Moto branded products that have been lunched this year including the Moto Z which has reportedly hit a global sale of 1 million units.
The Moto M comes with the following specifications:
==>5.5-inch 1080p amored display panel
==>Octa-core CPU clocked at 2.2GHz
==>4GB RAM
==>32GB internal memory with the option of external storage (memory card)
==>3050mAh of battery power
==>Finger print scanner
==>16 megapixel primary camera with LED flash and phase detection auto-focus
==>8 megapixel secondary (front) camera for selfies, video chats and video calls.
==> Splash-proof metal unibody design that protects against splashes of liquid.
Read more here: http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/lenovo-makes-big-statement-with-moto-m.html#more

Computers / How To Stop People From Using Your Hacking Your Wifi by timigate(m): 5:21pm On Nov 07, 2016
One of the problems people face is that other people can't keep secrets. Yes, secrets! With my experience as a network engineer for one of the leading internet service providers in Nigeria, I have found out that one of the secrets that people often let out is wifi passwords. You give a colleague a wifi password on trust, he gives it to his crush who works in the same company on trust, and she in turn gives it to another of her colleagues who gives it to the driver who gives it to the chef who gives it to the security guard... It keeps going on and on until the company starts experiencing a very slow network.
So what do you do? Simple! You change the wifi password, and on it goes again. Now you will say
"what if i just log a few people who need internet on there system to work in without letting them know the password?" Just go to their systems and log them in. That way, they cant tell other people what the password is and can't connect their phones and tabs as well. That seems like a smart move until you see the image below.
The steps are easy. Right click on the wireless network icon on the taskbar, click on open network and sharing center, click on the wireless network you are connected to, click on wireless properties, click on security, finally check the box that says "show characters" Really? Yea, really. Now that the password is known, it starts going round and round again. Now what are you going to do? Mac filter to the rescue!
Wireless mac filter is a feature in a wireless routers that allows administrators to statically enter the mac addresses of wireless clients that are allowed or denied access to a wireless network. What this simply means is that you can enter a group of mac addresses belonging to devices you want to access the network. That way anybody whose mac address is not included will not be able to connect. There is no password, there is no secret to share. See the Image below to see how it is done. If you do not know how to set up your wireless router for internet, see it in the image below.
Log on to the router, click on the wireless tab, click on wireless mac filter, click on enable, and click on whether to permit or prevent wireless devices whose mac addresses are listed below to access the wireless network. Enter the mac addresses and click on save settings. It is usually best to permit because you only need to enter the mac addresses you want to give network access. Any device not listed there, has no access. Enabling this feature automatically turns of wifi password.
That is it! It is that simple to set up. Don't forget to like our page and drop a comment. Thanks for reading.
Read more at :http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/how-to-configure-mac-filtering-on-your.html#more

Computers / Coolest Way To Hack A Wifi Password! by timigate(m): 4:47pm On Nov 04, 2016
One of the challenges most people have is keeping up with their data consumption. Even with all the awoofs from Glo. For this and other reasons, smart guys are out there looking for whose wifi to break into. You dont have to wait until you are hacked, find out how strong your wifi password is by hacking into your own wifi. As much as this method can be used to hack into a neighbor's wifi, I do not encourage it.

To get this to work, you need root permission on your android device. If your phone is rooted already, you are good to go. To hack a wifi simply go to google play store and download wps wpa tester, run it. It will detect any wifi in range.
Click on anyone. The app will send information about the wifi to a cloud server that uses various algorithms to decode the password. The password will be displayed to you.
Go to wifi, scan for the wifi network you want to connect to, click on connect and enter the password generated by the app.
Its that simple!
Source:http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/coolest-way-to-hack-wifi-password-on.html#more

Phones / Why You Should Buy Your Phones At Slot by timigate(m): 10:22am On Nov 04, 2016
First all, I should point out that am not campaigning for Slot.ng. They do not know me and did not contact me to write this on their behalf. The essence of this blog is to disseminate information that guide users in making sound IT decisions. Having said that, lets look at the reasons why I believe you should locate the nearest SLOT outlet when shopping for a new phone.


INTEGRITY: SLOT was incorporated over 19 years ago and has been in the mobile phone business for fifteen years. Within these period, the company has recorded giant strides in the Nigerian technology market by being the first to announce new phones, new features, produces its own phone accessories like power bank, cases,etc. Slot has a name synonymous with quality, which makes it practically impossible for them to indulge in the nefarious business of substandard phones like some outlets do in Nigeria. If you doubt this, you can ask Dbanj, the brand ambassador for Slot.

AVAILABILITY: As at the time of writing this post, SLOT has over 60 outlets spread across Nigeria. In most Nigerian cities, you have more than three SLOT outlets fully stocked with state-of-the-art gadgets imported straight from the manufacturers. This saves you the stress of travelling a distance just to purchase a phone and also makes it very easy for you to return it in event of any malfunction. You can also order your phones online at slot.ng and have them delivered to you at your door-step. I guess that makes Slot everywhere? Yea right!. No physical cash? Don't worry, you can pay with your ATM cards or online transfer, after you have received and inspected your order, if you are one of those not comfortable with payment before delivery.

AFFORDABILITY: Most phone retailing outlets buy their phones from other retailers at retail prices. When this is done, the consumers surfer. The outlets will add their profit to the prices of goods purchased at retail prices leaving the consumers with bogus prices to pay for devices they should have purchased at affordable prices at Slot. Because Slot buys in bulk straight from the manufacturers, the goods are given to them at manufacturers' price, making it pretty easy for them to sell at prices unrivaled by any other outlet in Nigeria.

AFTER SALES SERVICE: Phones purchased at Slot come with warranty unlike most outlets in Nigeria. In the event that your phone develops faults not traceable to you within this warranty period, you are eligible for a replacement or a repair at no cost! You can also insure the screen of your phone for one year with as little as 5k. If you know how much it cost to replace the screen of an iphone, you will know why this is one of the coolest things to ever happen to you. If your screen gets damaged within this period, you get a replacement for free! Isn't that awesome?

VARIETY: Variety they say is the spice of life. Slot sells products from all leading manufacturers. From Apple, Samsung, Sony, Infinix, Techno, Google( Yes, google. Did you know that google has a flagship known as Google Pixel? If you didnt, now you do.), Blackberry,Huawie, LG, to Nokia and so on. When stepping into a Slot outlet, there is this aura of confidence that you have knowing you will definitely find what you are looking for. As for me, I hate it when I am told "sorry, we dont have it but you can buy this one" Like I didnt know B existed before coming for A. Better is never enough where best is possible.

There you have it guys. This is my opinion, you are entitled you yours. Thanks for reading and don't forget to like our page. God blessyou.
Image credit:slot.ng
Source:http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/why-you-should-buy-your-phones-at-slot.html#more

Computers / Canadian Firm To Train Over 3000 Nigerians In Animation. by timigate(m): 2:48pm On Nov 03, 2016
Nigeria's minister of information and culture, Mr Lai Mohammed disclosed on Wednesday at the opening of French, Japanese and Nigerian animated film festival in the nation's capital that a Canadian company will be training over 3000 Nigerian film makers on animation.


According to Mr Lai Mohammed, a Montreal-based company, Toon Boom, will train Nigerian youths in animation. "The firm will provide what is industry grade certification and tools so that those Nigerians can compete for global work. The firm works for Disney, Nickeledeom. It is Nigerians who will do the actual training. It’s a train the trainer and certification programme similar to what happened in India”, he said. On the whole we envisage 5,000 Nigerian youths being trained but we are starting with 3,000”, he added.
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/canadian-firm-to-train-3000-nigerians.html#more

Computers / How To Configure SNMP On A Cisco Router. by timigate(m): 11:03am On Nov 03, 2016
SNMP stands for simple network management protocol. Just like its name, it is used for network management. One of the benefits of SNMP from an ISP's point of view is in its use to generate graph of bandwidth utilization for customers. SNMP uses UDP port 161 while SNMP Trap uses UDP port 162.
SNMP is commonly used together with network monitoring tools like PRTG and Cacti to graph and display users bandwidth consumption.
SNMP has different versions ranging from version one to version three. SNNPv3 is the latest and most secured version of SNMP. SNMP v1 and v2 use the community string for authentication and does not support encryption. By simply setting your community strings on the SNMP agent and SNMP manager to the same, communication will take place. SNMP v3 comes with MD5 or SHA authentication and uses DES for encryption.
Enabling SNMP on a cisco router is quite simple. Simply type in the commands below.


timigate(config)#snmp-server community timigate RO
timigate(config)#snmp-server enable traps entity-sensor threshold

That is how you configure SNMP on a cisco router. My community string is set to "timigate" while the action is read only. It could be set to read write depending on what you want to do. I am only setting this up for graphing traffic utilization. On the SNMP manager I MUST set the community to timigate for this to work. Most administrators leave it at public. This is a bad bad practice and should not be encouraged for security reasons especially when you are not running version 3.
Source:http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/enabling-snmp-on-cisco-router.html#more
Computers / Five Reasons Not To Sign Up With Linda Ikeji Social (lis) by timigate(m): 12:10pm On Nov 02, 2016
Linda Ikeji needs no introduction in the blogging industry. When you talk about blogging in Africa, you are simply talking Linda Ikeji. She has down well for herself and by so doing, has encouraged and changed the lives of so many. Having come this far, it is expected of her to take her game to a new level, after all, Linda has never hidden her admiration for media moguls like Tyler Perry, Oprah Winfrey, etc. It is therefore no surprise when she decided to lunch lindaikejisocial (LIS).
Now, what I found surprising is the level of unpreparedness in all of these! After a critical review of the new social media platform, here are the reason why I would not encourage anyone to sign up with LIS.

The site is annoyingly slow!
02:08.16 That is the average time it takes for the home page to be displayed on LIS. 2 minutes and 8 seconds. Within this period, I was able to log on to facebook four times, youtube five times, Nairaland eight times. The most annoying part is that most of the times the site is inaccessible. Abraham Lincoln said that if you have a eight hours to cut down a tree, spend six hours sharpening your ax. While Linda said it yesterday that she has been making some noise about LIS lately, it is clear that the level of preparation put into it is nothing to write home about. This is because she and her team did not anticipate the number of traffic that would hit the server.
Security concern
Linda revealed that she contacted a web developer to start work on the development of LIS after having a meeting two women. Well, it is a known fact that Linda unlike Mark Zuckerberg or Seun Osewa is not an IT professional. Why then would anyone want to trust with sensitive information? The level of agreement entered into with the web developer is unknown. In event that there is a breach in contractual terms, users will surfer. A denial of service can occur at anytime. The developer can even hijack the site from her.
Followership
Except you are a celebrity, I dont see how you will be able to amass 50000 followers on this platform. Why would 50k people follow you when you are not a celeb? Nigerian celebs are too comfortable on there high horses either to want to delve into the followership business of LIS. If you dont have 50k followers, you dont get a bite of the advertisement money. This is just a way of Linda saying sorry, I cant share my money with you.
1k per post
This is Linda saying Though I cant share my bread with you, you can still get the crumbs! Except you you want to do it because you have been doing it for free before, I dont see how 1k can spur someone into writing lengthy posts and endangering his/her life by taking the pictures of armed police men taking bribes on the road. These is just a marketing strategy where it is announced world over that you can make money on LIS yet you cant find someone who has done such.
Nothing new
While Linda said it was born out of the need to bring Lindaikejisblog and facebook together on one platform, LIS has no new features that make her a substitute for facebook. While it is possible to make calls on facebook, it isnt on LIS.
Having said all these, LIS is just getting started and we can only hope it gets better. In the word of 9ice, "...the most incredible out of Naija" Thats what i call LIS. Long live LIS!!!
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/five-reasons-not-to-sign-up-with-linda.html#more

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Computers / How To Configure Vlans On Cisco Switches. by timigate(m): 10:55am On Nov 02, 2016
Hello everyone! Today, lets learn how to set up Vlans cross a cisco switche and configure 802.1q on the router to enable inter-vlan routing.
For this exercise, I am going to be using a cisco 2811 router and catalyst 2960 switch. Before we go into the configuration proper, we need to know why we want to create Vlans on our switch. Normally, all ports on a switch all belong to one network and thus form a big collision domain. By creating vlans, we are breaking this collision domain into smaller ones thereby improving network security by isolating sensitive traffics from the rest as well as giving users the ability to access network resources based on logical grouping and not physical locations.

To create VLANs, we have to configure the switch first. Below are what we will do on the switch:
1 create vlans on the switch
2 assign switchports to vlans
So, lets do it. We are going to create three vlans as follows
Vlan 10....name IT
Vlan 20....name sales
Vlan 30....name Engineering

Switch>en
Switch#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)#vlan 10
Switch(config-vlan)#name IT
Switch(config-vlan)#vlan 20
Switch(config-vlan)#name Sales
Switch(config-vlan)#vlan 30
Switch(config-vlan)#name Engineering
Switch(config-vlan)#exit
Switch(config)#int range f0/2 -6
Switch(config-if-range)#sw access vlan 10
Switch(config-if-range)#int range f0/7 -13
Switch(config-if-range)#sw access vlan 20
Switch(config-if-range)#int range f0/14 -21
Switch(config-if-range)#sw access vlan 30
Switch(config-if-range)#exit
Switch(config)#exit
Switch#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Switch#copy run start
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]
Switch#
That is all you need to create vlans on the switch. I should add that the port connecting to the router must be configured as a trunk while the other ports connecting end user devices must be configured as access ports .Now to enable inter-vlan routing on the 2811 router, we enter the configurations below.
Router>en
Router#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#int f0/0
Router(config-if)#no ip add
Router(config-if)#no shut
Router(config-if)#int f0/0.10
Router(config-subif)#en dot1q 10
Router(config-subif)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.224
Router(config-subif)#int f0/0.20
Router(config-subif)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0.20, changed state to up

Router(config-subif)#en dot1q 20
Router(config-subif)#ip add 192.168.1.33 255.255.255.224
Router(config-subif)#int f0/0.30
Router(config-subif)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0.30, changed state to up
Router(config-subif)#en dot1q 30
Router(config-subif)#ip add 192.168.1.65 255.255.255.224
Router(config-subif)#exit
Router(config)#exit
Router#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
copy run start
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]
Router#
Thats all you need to enable inter Vlan routing on a cisco router. It is important that the encapsulation number matches the vlan ID for which that sub-interface is being created.
Note: the block on 192.168.1.0 network was broken down into three subnets using a /27 subnet mask giving us the 192.168.1.0,192.168.1.32,192.168.1.64, etc subnets. These subnets can only provide 30 valid IPs and since we have given the first IP address in each subnet to the router's sub-interface, we are left with 29 IPs. If you need more than that number of IPs, please you use a different subnetmask.
You can configure DHCP and NAT for each vlan for this to work well.
Dont forget to drop a comment or send a mail if you need any help on this and any other topic. Thanks!
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2016/11/how-to-configure-vlan-on-cisco-router.html#more

1 Like

Computers / How To Create Mangle Rules On A Mikrotik Router by timigate(m): 11:24am On Oct 25, 2016
Mangle! One of the most dreaded topics in Mikrotik. People get chills at the mention of this topic. But frankly speaking, I see no reason for that. I can however understand the fear because I was once like them.
Today I am going to show you how easy it is to configure a mangle rule. These mangle rules are powerful tools in the hands of network engineers because they go on to use them( mangle rules) to enforce several policies on the router. You can control user traffics and downloads as well as prioritize traffics, using mangle rules.

Here, I will show you how to mark packets using mangle rules. These marked packets are used when setting up queues for bandwidth managements or when prioritizing packets.
Just look at the images below and follow the steps.
Source: http://www.timigate.com/2016/10/how-to-create-mangle-rules-on-mikrotik.html#more
Computers / How To Implement Vlan On Mikrotik by timigate(m): 2:52pm On May 31, 2016
mplementing Vlans on Mikrotik routers is quite simple and interesting. Just follow the steps below:
Step1 : Create a bridge and add your preferred trunk port to the bridge.This should be the port connected to your switch.
Continue here http://www.timigate.com/2016/05/how-to-create-vlan-on-mikrotik.html
Phones / Whatsapp Introduces End-to-end Encryption by timigate(m): 2:29pm On Apr 06, 2016
Whatsapp has enabled end-to-end encryption on its messaging app. The Facebook owned instant messaging app has taken its encryption a step further by implementing procedures that makes it harder for law enforcement agents to access communications.
WhatsApp’s founders said Tuesday that the application now implements end-to-end encryption, which means only authorized users can decrypt messages.

“The idea is simple: when you send a message, the only person who can read it is the person or group chat that you send that message to,” Jan Koum and Brian Acton wrote in a blog post. “No one can see inside that message. Not cybercriminals. Not hackers. Not oppressive regimes. Not even us.”
The move by WhatsApp comes after fierce debate over the increasing use of encryption and how it affects law enforcement investigations. WhatsApp said in February it had 1 billion users.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/04/whatsapp-enables-end-to-end-encryption.html#more

Computers / How To Invite Friends For A Group Movie On Netflix by timigate(m): 4:14pm On Mar 29, 2016
Netflix allows you to invite your friends over for a movie provided that all have valid subscriptions. With either Netflix Party or Showgoers, you can invite friends to watch any Netflix video with you. These Chrome extensions will synchronize playback among all party members, and offer a sidebar for group chat.
Unfortunately, neither extension is as powerful or immersive as the old Netflix party mode on the Xbox 360, and the only way to use them is with Google’s Chrome browser on a laptop or desktop computer. But until group VR viewing sessions become a reality, they might just be all you have.
Here’s how to set up these two Netflix party extensions:

Netflix Party
Using Google’s Chrome browser, install the Netflix Party extension from the Chrome Web Store. You should see an “NP” logo next to the address bar after installation.
Go to Netflix.com and choose the video you want to watch. The “NP” logo should turn red.
Click on the logo, then click Start the Party. Optionally, check the “Only I have control” box to prevent others from pausing, rewinding, or fast-forwarding the video.
Copy the URL on the next screen, and send it to whoever wants to join. Those users must then install the Chrome extension and paste the link into the browser. (They may also have to press the “NP” logo to begin synchronizing playback.)
Click the “NP” logo at any time to hide the chat window or exit the party.
Netflix Showgoer
Using Google’s Chrome browser, install the Showgoers extension from the Chrome Web Store. You should see a glasses logo next to the address bar after installation.
Head to Netflix.com and select the video you want to watch. A 3D glasses logo should appear inside the playback window.
Click on the logo, then click Start a Watching Party, or click Browse Parties to see if any one is hosting a public viewing session.
Optionally, uncheck “Only allow me to control the video player” on the next screen to let other viewers pause, rewind, or fast forward. You can also check “List my watching party publicly” to let strangers join the viewing session. Otherwise, click “Let’s Go.”
Copy the URL on the next screen, and send it to whoever wants to join. Those users must then install the Chrome extension and paste the link into the browser. (They may also have to press the “NP” logo to begin synchronizing playback.)

Source www.timigate.com/2016/03/how-to-invite-friends-for-movie-on.html#more

Phones / MTN Awoof. Get Free Airtime Up To 5k by timigate(m): 8:46am On Mar 21, 2016
MTN is codedly giving out free airtime up to 5k to its subscribers. I just received 2k this morning.
How does it work?

Dial *606# and reply with 3. You will receive a message notifying you of the amount that has been given to you. After 24hrs, your calls will be charged from that account.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/03/mtn-awoof-get-free-airtime-up-to-5k.html#more
Computers / Re: CCNA Tutorials by timigate(m): 2:08pm On Mar 16, 2016
If you are in Port Harcourt and want a good ccna and ccnp R+S instructor for organized classes at your convenience with live cisco routers and switches, exam preparatory software, call mike on 08068363728. Some of the topics that will be treated include VPN,Load balancing, automatic failover, path selection, port security, Vlan, VTP, HSRP,VRRP,GLBP,ipv6,subnetting, WAN( frame relay, HLDC, PPP) Etherchannel, BGP, OSPF,EIGRP, RIP1 and 2, Access-list, Route-map, Firewall, etc. Come learn from the man that has trained over 200 people among whom 51 are ccna certified and 17 went on to become CCNP!
Computers / Opera Brings You The Fastest Browser Yet. by timigate(m): 10:17am On Mar 10, 2016
Opera has fired a warning shot in the direction of other web browsers on Thursday morning by launching its latest ad-blocking web browser which it says has the capacity to speed up browsing by a whopping 90 percent. Opera became the first desktop web browser with in-built ad blocker which it encourages its users to turn on as it makes their browsing experience seamlessly easy.

Competing browsers like Chrome or Firefox assign plugins like AdBlock Plus the task of blocking ads. But with Opera’s 37.0.2162.0 developer build for Mac OS and Windows, it is baked right into the software. Opera claims that turning on the ad-blocking feature can cut page load times by a 90 percent, which has been confirmed to be true.
According to Krystian Kolondra, the senior vice president in charge of engineering for Opera, the current advertising approach is damaging users’ online experiences. “Our goal is to provide the fastest and the smoothest online experience for our users,” he said in an email. “While working on that we have discovered that a lot more time is spent on handling ads and trackers than we thought earlier.”

Now, the interesting thing is that Google is the king of online advertisement. How it goes from here is a story we all awaits patiently.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/03/opera-brings-you-fastest-browser-yet.html#more

Phones / All You Need To Know About The New Huawei G-power. by timigate(m): 6:02pm On Feb 19, 2016
The Huawei G-Power comes with a 3.0-power-saving technology, 5-megapixel front camera, 13-megapixel rear-facing camera, 1.3 GHz quad-core processor, dual sim, 5”HD IPS touch screen display with 296 PPI. It has 1GB of RAM, 8GB internal memory, and expandable SD card slot. Available in white, black and gold colours. The Huawei G-Power’s ultra snapshot function helps users capture spontaneous moments before it is too late and a 10 minutes charge supports 3-hours of talk time for consumers. The new Huawei G-Power smartphone will be available in Huawei retail partner stores in February 2016.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/02/introducing-new-huawei-g-power.html#more

Phones / A Simple Text Message Can Delete Your Phone. by timigate(m): 1:22pm On Feb 17, 2016
If you are one of those phone users in the habit of clicking on links in sms, then you need to read this. Security company Heimdal Security has discovered that hackers are randomly sending malicious text messages to Android device owners. If the user clicks on the link, the program is downloaded, allowing it to gain administrator rights to the device, the report claims.

Once the payload, known as Mazar BOT, has been unleashed, the hackers can do everything from access the Internet to send text messages. Perhaps most concerning, however, is that they can also fully erase the infected handset, Heimdal says.
Mazar BOT has been available for sale on the Dark Web, but this is the first time the company has seen it used in the wild. Interestingly, the company also found that the malware will not install on Android smartphones running Android with the Russian language switched on, suggesting a possible tie with Russian hackers.
It's unclear how many people have been affected by the hack; Heimdal says the text message has been sent out at random. The company cautioned users to never click on links in text messages, as well as turn off the security option that allows apps from unknown sources to be installed on their device.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/02/the-text-message-that-can-erase-your.html#more
Phones / Airtel Gives 3GB For 1k by timigate(m): 12:49pm On Feb 17, 2016
Airtel has introduced a data subscription plan that lets you have a whooping 3GB for one thousand naira only. This data bundle works on all devices and is different from the usual Airtel blackberry subscription. With this wave of data subscription currently blowing in the Naija telecom industry, users can only rejoice as they now have numerous options.

To subscribe for this data plan just simply dial *431# and one thousand naira will be deducted from your account. The 3GB that will be given to you is valid for 30 days.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/02/airtel-3gb-for-1k.html#more
Phones / Why You Need To Root Your Android Devices by timigate(m): 10:23am On Feb 16, 2016
1. Choose what is installed.
The first benefit of rooting your Android device is full control over the applications installed on your handset. No longer do you have to suffer from the cluttered app drawers and reduced memory space taken up by pre-installed carrier and manufacturer applications, you can instantly enhance your memory by uninstalling what you don’t need and keep only the apps that you really want.

2. Improved backup and restore options.
Yes, the cloud can back up some of your settings and app downloads, but that is not really a true backup; it’s just a list of things for the phone to download and change. Want to keep everything the way it was? You will need to root.
Titanium Backup is one of the most popular backup apps used by rooters, and this, or a similar app, is essential if you’re going to start tinkering around with Android software. But as well as acting as a safety net in case you uninstall something important, Titanium Backup can also be used to back up your user data… any and all user data.
3. Updates as they come
Manufacturers are often slow at delivering the latest Android versions even to their flagship handsets, let alone aging devices. Some are getting better at it, but this is still an ongoing issue for many users. So if you’re not a Nexus device owner, rooting opens the door to much faster Android updates, thanks to the developers who put time into porting the latest updates to various handsets.
4 .More Apps
As rooting opens up administrator type privileges on your handset you’ll instantly have access to all the core files on your handset. File browser apps can take full advantage of this, allowing you to move stuff around on your internal memory if so require.
App wise, we’ve already touched on Titanium Backup, but there are far more apps that can make use of root permissions, and simply aren’t available with a non-rooted device. Fans of custom ROMs can even use a ROM manager to install and update their operating system without the need to flash zip files from Recovery.
5. Customize to fit
Although there are options to tweak themes that don’t require rooting, usually through third part launchers such as Apex and Nova, rooting gives you access to the important files needed to make changes in folders that are usually hidden from users. Access to the /system/fonts folder allows users to install and replace custom fonts. You can also flash zip files from Recovery to install themes too. But if all that folder browsing isn’t for you, there are also some great root-only theme applications to choose from.
Source http://www.timigate.com/2016/02/best-reasons-to-root-your-android.html#more

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