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Education / How To Help A Failing Student Perform Better by uniprojectM1: 1:42pm On Jul 29
No teacher or instructor will love to see his or her students fail in their departmental examination. It is always believed that students performance have a correlation with the quality of teacher or lecturer. But there are still some situation where the teacher will be good but the students will still failing due to lots of factors such as peer group influence, family background, socio economic status of parents, poor learning environments, inadequate teachers, poor teacher-pupil relationship etc.
In educational institutions, academic performance is the outcome of educational goals that are achieved either by students or the teacher, i.e., how well a student meets standards set out by local authority or the institution itself.

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Academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. It is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper. Thus, it implies a process where a student’s success in school is measured to determine how they stand up to others in the same areas.

Home is referred to as the place from where the foundation of learning and education takes place. In order to produce good academic outcomes, it is vital for the parents, children and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For instance, when students experience problems in certain subjects, then parents are responsible for providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuitions or they themselves may teach their children. They make provision of technology and other learning materials at home to enhance the academic performance of their children. Parents play an important role in leading to operative growth and development of their children. In schools, whatever problems that children go through regarding academics and other areas, they normally communicate to their parents. Parents are sources of security, encouragement and help their children in providing solutions to their problems.


Instructional materials are those materials or resources used in any teaching exercise to promote greater understanding of the learning experience. According to her, they are used to provide the richest possible learning environment which helps the teacher and learners to achieve specific objectives. They also assist the teachers to communicate more effectively and the learners learn more meaningfully and permanently. Sharing the above view, teaching aids could be defined as things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively or better still which enables the pupils to learn more easily. In the opinion of most educators many educational technologist see instructional materials as devices and resources used in learning situation to supplement to written or spoken words in the transmission of knowledge, attitude, ideas or concept and values. Instructional materials have been defined as things or objects brought into play to emphasize, clarify, strengthen, vitalize the teachers instruction. Instructional materials can also been seen as teaching-learning materials that constitute an integral component of classroom instructional process which are utilized in delivering educational information to the learner. Sp providing adequate instructional materials to the students can help him or her cover more ground and have a better understanding of his course of study.


It is not wrong to become a study coach to a failing student; provided you are not giving him or her answers to the main examination or test exercise. As a study coach, you are not to write the examination for the student but you can help them solve problems from past questions. A study coach will pay more attention to you and make sure you get it right in all step of the way until you finish course module you are studying.


Another most important factor that can influence students’ performance is self belief. There is always a correlation between self belief and students’ performance. Numerous studies have reported significant influence of self belief on academic performance. A typical example of items that are used to assess self belief and academic performance include: “I am proud of myself,” “exams will not be challenging for me.” In general, this studies show that self belief influences students’ academic performance. One study observed the downward comparison (in which an individual look at those less fortunate or accomplished than him, this raise his self belief), and upward comparison (can lower it). Thus, how good a student is, studies suggest that, will be based on the social comparison you make. Similarly, self belief theory also holds that feeling positive about oneself has numerous social outcome including academic performance. Another study maintained that, an ideal-self person always admires the successes of others and aspires to attain similar height. Such heroes become standard for their admirers, who attempt to reach such standards. Such aspirations in learning can be very effective in enhancing academic performance. It is therefore not surprising that many researchers had conducted studies on self belief to establish its relationship with academic performance in general. A teacher can make the student develop sense of self belief by maybe telling them how they passed through the same situation as the student but with hard work and perseverance they manage to succeed.


Study Time means time allowed off from normal duties granted on full pay to staff members who are studying in approved part-time courses. Study Time means the time allowed off from normal duties on full pay to a staff member who is studying in a part time course which is of relevance to the department. When you improve your study time; chances are that you performance in your examination will increase. If a teacher is interested in helping a failing student, he or she will ask the student few questions concerning their study time; although some students hardly have time to study because of domestic chores. So when the student tells the teacher his or her best study time; the teacher will work towards improving it.


Like most people will say examination is not the true test of knowledge but the situation here is different. The teacher or instructor gives his or her student test and assignment to assess their level of understanding of the course module given to the student.


In conclusion improved study time, availability of learning materials, the influence of study coach, self belief and test assignment can improve students’ academic performance
Education / Simple Hacks To Improving Memory Of Undergraduate Students by uniprojectM1: 2:01pm On Jul 24
Is it truly conceivable to work on your memory? In the event that you've at any point gotten yourself failing to remember where you left your keys or blanking out data on significant tests then you have most likely wanted that your memory was a bit better. Luckily, there are a lot of things that you can never really work on your memory. Clearly, using a type of update framework can help. Setting up an online schedule that sends suggestions to your telephone assists you with monitoring that load of arrangements and gatherings. Making every day daily agendas can guarantee that you remember significant undertakings that should be finished. Yet, what might be said about all the significant data that you need to really solidify into your drawn out memory? It will require some exertion and even include tweaking or drastically changing your typical examination schedule, however there are various methodologies you can use to get more out of your memory. Prior to your next huge test, make certain to look at a portion of these attempted and tried strategies for further developing memory.
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These examination demonstrated procedures can adequately further develop memory, improve review, and increment maintenance of data.
Consideration is one of the significant segments of memory. With the goal for data to move from your transient memory into your drawn out memory, you need to effectively take care of this data. Attempt to concentrate in a spot liberated from interruptions like TV, music, and different redirections. Disposing of interruptions may be a test, particularly in case you are encircled by rambunctious flat mates or uproarious kids. Put away a brief timeframe to be separated from everyone else. Request that your flat mates give you some space or request that your accomplice take the children for an hour so you can zero in on your work.
Try not to Cram
Examining materials over various meetings gives you the time you need to satisfactorily handle data. Examination has consistently shown that understudies who concentrate routinely recall the material obviously better than the individuals who do the entirety of their concentrating in one long distance race session.
Arrange data to further develop memory
Specialists have discovered that data is coordinated in memory in related clusters. You can exploit this by organizing a lot the materials you're examining. Have a go at gathering comparative ideas and terms, or make a diagram of your notes and course book readings to assist with gathering related ideas.
Use Mnemonic Devices
Memory aides are a method regularly utilized by understudies to help in review. A mental aide is essentially a memorable approach data. For instance, you may relate a term you need to recall with a typical thing that you are exceptionally acquainted with. The best mental helpers are those that use positive symbolism, humor, or oddity.
Expand and Rehearse
To review data, you need to encode what you are concentrating into long haul memory. Perhaps the best encoding strategies is known as elaborative practice. An illustration of this procedure is perused the meaning of a key term, study the meaning of that term, and afterward read a more itemized portrayal of what that term implies. In the wake of rehashing this interaction a couple of times, you'll likely notification that reviewing the data is a lot simpler.
Envision Concepts
Numerous individuals’ advantage extraordinarily from picturing the data they study. Focus on the photos, outlines, and different designs in your course books. In the event that you don't have viewable signs to help, take a stab at making your own. Attract graphs or figures the edges of your notes or use highlighters or pens in various tones to bunch related thoughts in your composed investigation materials. Now and again even making cheat sheets of different terms you need to recall can assist with solidifying data in your brain.
Relate New Information to Things You Already Know
At the point when you're considering new material, set aside the effort to consider how this data identifies with what you definitely know. By building up connections between groundbreaking thoughts and beforehand existing recollections, you can drastically improve the probability of reviewing the as of late scholarly data.
Recite Out Loud
Examination distributed in 2017 proposes that reciting materials so anyone can hear fundamentally improves your memory of the material. Instructors and therapists have likewise found that having understudies really show new ideas to others upgrades comprehension and review. Utilize this methodology in your own investigations by showing new ideas and data to a companion or study accomplice.
Give Extra Consideration to Difficult Information
Analysts have tracked down that the request for data can assume a part in review, which is known as the sequential position impact. While reviewing center data can be troublesome, you can conquer this issue by investing additional energy practicing this data. Another procedure is to have a go at rebuilding what you have realized so it will be simpler to recall. At the point when you go over a particularly troublesome idea, commit some additional chance to remembering the data.
Change Your Study Routine
Another extraordinary method to expand your review is to sometimes change your examination schedule. In case you're acquainted with concentrating in one explicit area, take a stab at moving to an alternate spot during your next investigation meeting. In the event that you concentrate in the evening, take a stab at putting in no time flat every early daytime assessing the data you examined the earlier evening. By adding a component of oddity to your examination meetings, you can build the viability of your endeavors and altogether work on your drawn out review.
Get Some Sleep
Scientists have since quite a while ago realized that rest is significant for memory and learning. Examination has shown that sleeping after you discover some new information can really assist you with learning and recollect better. Indeed, one investigation distributed in 2014 tracked down that dozing subsequent to gaining some new useful knowledge really prompts actual changes in the cerebrum. Sleepless mice experienced less dendritic development following a learning task than all around rested mice.

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Education / Fatigue And Student Reading Comprehension by uniprojectM1: 9:26pm On Jul 20
Fatigue is a universal phenomenon experienced by both healthy and sick people. It is a subjective, multi-factorial and multidimensional phenomenon. It is considered an unpleasant physical sensation, with cognitive and emotional components, described as tiredness that is not relieved with common strategies to restore energy. Its duration and intensity vary and it reduces, to different extents, the ability to perform usual activities.
Cognitive fatigue, an increasingly common human condition that results from sustained cognitive engagement that taxes people’s mental resources. Persistent cognitive fatigue has been shown to lead to burnout at work, lower motivation, increased distractibility, and poor information processing. In addition, cognitive fatigue is detrimental to individuals’ judgments and decisions, even those of experts.

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On the other hand, comprehension is the main goal when reading. For many students, reading is a skill that eludes them for a variety of reasons. Cognitive processes such as working memory and phonological processing can account for some of the variability in reading comprehension. These processes allow the reader to not only decode words but access memory “stores” to understand written text. Readers also rely on lexical knowledge and reading strategies to comprehend the specific words they have read.
Additionally, a reader’s motivation too can influence reading comprehension. Reading is essential not only to school success but for other reasons as these (e.g., getting a job or further studies). Understanding which factors are most important to reading comprehension is vital to inform instructional practices so that students are able to make academic progress that will ensure they have avenues for academic success.
Fatigue is extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness. It is also the weakness in metal or other materials caused by repeated variations of stress. Fatigue is a feeling of constant tiredness or weakness and can be physical, mental or a combination of both. It can affect anyone, and most adults will experience fatigue at some point in their life.
Overall, fatigue is a term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. It isn’t the same as simply feeling drowsy or sleepy. When you’re fatigued, you have no motivation and no energy. Being sleepy may be a symptom of fatigue, but it’s not the same thing.
Fatigue is a common symptom of many medical conditions that range in severity from mild to serious. It’s also a natural result of some lifestyle choices, such as lack of exercise or poor diet. If your fatigue doesn’t resolve with proper rest and nutrition, or you suspect it’s caused by an underlying physical or mental health condition, see your doctor. They can help diagnose the cause of your fatigue and work with you to treat it.
Physical fatigue concerns the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected. It may be an overall tiredness of the whole body, or be confined to particular muscle groups. Physical fatigue most commonly results from physical exercise or loss of sleep. Physical fatigue often leads to mental fatigue.
Mental fatigue, which may include sleepiness, concerns a general decrease of attention and ability to perform complex, or even quite simple tasks with customary efficiency. Mental fatigue often results from loss or interruption of the normal sleep pattern. Sleep patterns are naturally associated with the body's circadian rhythms. Shift patterns and transit across time zones can interrupt circadian rhythms.
 Chronic tiredness or sleepiness.
 Headache.
 Dizziness.
 Sore or aching muscles.
 Muscle weakness.
 Slowed reflexes and responses.
 Impaired decision-making and judgment.
 Moodiness, such as irritability.
Fatigue can have causes that aren't due to underlying disease. Examples include lack of sleep, heavy exertion, jet lag, a large meal or ageing. The wide ranges of causes that can trigger fatigue include:
Medical causes – unrelenting exhaustion may be a sign of an underlying illness, such as a thyroid disorder, heart disease or diabetes.
Lifestyle-related causes – alcohol or drugs or lack of regular exercise can lead to feelings of fatigue.
Workplace-related causes – workplace stress can lead to feelings of fatigue
Emotional concerns and stress – fatigue is a common symptom of mental health problems, such as depression and grief, and may be accompanied by other signs and symptoms, including irritability and lack of motivation. Fatigue can also be caused by a number of factors working in combination.
There are a number of diseases and disorders which trigger fatigue. If you experience prolonged bouts of fatigue, consult your doctor.
Common lifestyle factors that can cause fatigue include:
Lack of sleep – typically adults need about eight hours of sleep each night. Some people try to get by on fewer hours of sleep.
Too much sleep – adults sleeping more than 11 hours per night can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness.
Alcohol and drugs – alcohol is a depressant drug that slows the nervous system and disturbs normal sleep patterns. Other drugs, such as cigarettes and caffeine, stimulate the nervous system and can cause insomnia.
Sleep disturbances – disturbed sleep may occur for a number of reasons, for example, noisy neighbors, young children who wake in the night, a snoring partner, or an uncomfortable sleeping environment such as a stuffy bedroom.
Lack of regular exercise and sedentary behaviour – physical activity is known to improve fitness, health and wellbeing, reduce stress, and boost energy levels. It also helps you sleep.
Poor diet –low carbohydrate diets or high energy foods that are nutritionally poor don’t provide the body with enough fuel or nutrients to function at its best. Quick fix foods, such as chocolate bars or caffeinated drinks, only offer a temporary energy boost that quickly wears off and worsens fatigue.
Individual factors – personal illness or injury, illnesses or injuries in the family, too many commitments (for example, working two jobs) or financial problems can cause fatigue.
Common workplace issues that can cause fatigue include:
Shift work – the human body is designed to sleep during the night. This pattern is set by a small part of the brain known as the circadian clock. A shift worker confuses their circadian clock by working when their body is programmed to be asleep.
Poor workplace practices – can add to a person’s level of fatigue. These may include long work hours, hard physical labour, irregular working hours (such as rotating shifts), a stressful work environment (such as excessive noise or temperature extremes), boredom, working alone with little or no interaction with others, or fixed concentration on a repetitive task.
Workplace stress – can be caused by a wide range of factors including job dissatisfaction, heavy workload, conflicts with bosses or colleagues, bullying, constant change, or threats to job security.
Burnout – can be described as striving too hard in one area of life while neglecting everything else. ‘Workaholics’, for example, put all their energies into their career, which puts their family life, social life and personal interests out of balance.
Unemployment – financial pressures, feelings of failure or guilt, and the emotional exhaustion of prolonged job hunting can lead to stress, anxiety, depression and fatigue.
Depression – this illness is characterized by severe and prolonged feelings of sadness, dejection and hopelessness. People who are depressed commonly experience chronic fatigue.
Anxiety and stress – a person who is chronically anxious or stressed keeps their body in overdrive. The constant flooding of adrenaline exhausts the body, and fatigue sets in.
Grief – losing a loved one causes a wide range of emotions including shock, guilt, depression, despair and loneliness.
There are three types of fatigue: transient, cumulative, and circadian:
Transient fatigue is acute fatigue brought on by extreme sleep restriction or extended hours awake within 1 or 2 days.
Cumulative fatigue is fatigue brought on by repeated mild sleep restriction or extended hours awake across a series of days.
Circadian fatigue refers to the reduced performance during nighttime hours, particularly during an individual’s “window of circadian low” (WOCL) (typically between 2:00 a.m. and 05:59 a.m.).
Reading comprehension is the process by which we understand the texts we read. It is the purpose of reading, why we teach it, and why we care about it. It is also the prerequisite for meaningful learning from text.
Comprehension is the understanding and interpretation of what is read. Readers who have strong comprehension are able to draw conclusions about what they read, what is important, what is a fact, what caused an event to happen, which characters are funny and so on
Reading comprehension is also the process of creating meaning from text. The purpose is to get an understanding of the text rather than to acquire meaning from individual words or sentences. The outcome of reading comprehension is the mental representation of a text meaning that is combined with the readers’ previous knowledge.
Fatigue is a term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. It isn’t the same as simply feeling drowsy or sleepy. When you’re fatigued, you have no motivation and no energy. Being sleepy may be a symptom of fatigue, but it’s not the same thing.
However, at some point in school student begins to feel tired or fatigued while reading, comprehension recall goes down immensely. The extra load imposed on cognitive processing systems causes the reader to be more focused on their fatigue than the reading material.
This syndrome is marked by symptoms of eyestrain, headaches, dry eyes, and neck pain. “When reading paper text, the haptic modality might offload some cognitive demands onto the visual modality, thereby alleviating visual fatigue”. When a reader is less focused on their fatigue, more cognitive ability is allotted to understanding the text.
Therefore, when student feel fatigued, it becomes difficult to comprehend while reading and when comprehension is not attained while reading, is a total waste of time.
In conclusion, it is important that students study their body and know when they are fatigued so as to take the appropriate rest or seek medical attention. Since paying less attention to your body when fatigued can lead to some underlying illnesses and consequences inclusive of reading comprehension difficulty.
Education / 4 Studying Hacks That Can Improve Academic Performance Of Undergraduates by uniprojectM1: 7:11pm On Jul 17
Every student desires to come top of their class but do not know how to go about becoming the best in their class. In most tertiary institutions in Nigeria some students tend to perform better than other even when they have the same study time and in the same learning. This article will explain the four studying hacks that can help improve students’ performance if all conditions remains constant.
Peer Tutoring
Peer tutoring is a broad learning strategy. It covers a wide range of activities through which people learn through different techniques. These activities ranged from a traditional proctor model in schools to the more innovative learning groups in colleges and universities. In proctor model the senior students act as tutors and junior students as tutees. On the other hand in innovative learning groups students of the same age group or same level help each other by forming partnerships. There are some other models which include discussions, seminars, private study groups, counseling, peer-assessment schemes, collaborative project or laboratory work, workplace mentoring and community activities. As peer learning involves a large range of activities but here the study analyzes a two-way, reciprocal learning activity. Peer learning should have mutual benefits and involve the sharing of knowledge, ideas and experience between the participants.
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Peer learning can be termed as a technique of moving beyond independent to interdependent or mutual learning. Students usually learn effectively through peer learning especially at a time when university resources are insufficient and the demand of staff is higher. Peer learning creates the opportunity for the students to learn from each other by utilizing their own skills. It enables students to have more practice than traditional teaching. Students take more responsibility in peer learning and learn how to learn effectively
Study Coach
Last but not the least is getting a project coach. It is not wrong to get a study coach as an undergraduate student especially when you don’t have knowledge of your project topic or even what an entire undergraduate project research is all about. A study coach is not to write the project research for you, he/she is there is guide you, educate you and supervise you as well aside your project supervisor assigned to you in the department. A study coach will pay more attention to you and make sure you get it right in all step of the way until you finish your research project. So, if you are among undergraduate students who have little or no knowledge their project topics, you can as well hire the services of a project coach.
Study Time
Study Time means time allowed off from normal duties granted on full pay to staff members who are studying in approved part-time courses. Study Time means the time allowed off from normal duties on full pay to a staff member who is studying in a part time course which is of relevance to the department.
The use of past questions and answers
The use of past questions and answer is one of the best study hacks for students that really want grade A in their examination, test assignment etc. Using past papers to study gives undergraduate students insights of what to expect from their examiners or course lecturers. The use of past papers also helps study cover more ground and summarize their lecture note better for examination purposes. Sometimes when you are studying for A-levels, your teacher or tutor may give you practice papers. These are papers similar to what you’ll be handed in an exam. They will have example questions in an exam format for you to practise answering. Past papers are ones that have been used in actual exams in previous years. They have got questions that students before you actually had to answer in an exam setting! Qualifications you study for and the exams set for them can change over time, but doing past papers is still a great way to prepare for the real thing.
Academic performance
Academic performance is an issue that deeply concerns students, parents, teachers and authorities not only in our country, but also in many other Latin American countries and continents. The complexity of the academic performance starts from its conceptualization. Sometimes it is known as school readiness, academic achievement and school performance, but generally the difference in concepts is only explained by semantics as they are used as synonyms. Conventionally, it has been agreed that academic performance should be used in university populations and school performance in regular and alternative basic education populations. We will point out just a few because there is a diversity of definitions. Several authors agree that academic performance is the result of learning, prompted by the teaching activity by the teacher and produced by the student. Academic performance is “the product given by the students and it is usually expressed through school grades”. Academic performance as a measure of the indicative and responsive abilities that express, in an estimated way, what a person has learned as a result of a process of education or training. Academic performance involves meeting goals, achievements and objectives set in the program or course that a student attends. These are expressed through grades which are the result of an assessment that involves passing or not certain tests, subjects or courses. Academic performance also can be seen as the level of knowledge shown in an area or subject compared to the norm, and it is generally measured using the grade point average.
In conclusion the four study hacks such as peer tutoring, the use of past questions & answer, study coach and study time are all very effective in improving students’ performance. They do not only benefit the students in academically but also helps the students in developing their communication and interpersonal skills. Students can enhance their confidence level and they become self motivated. Study coaching is a two way process and it is equally beneficial for the tutors and the learners.
Education / How Academic Performance Can Influence Career Choice Among Undergraduates by uniprojectM1: 8:12am On Jul 12
The importance of education in the society cannot be overemphasized; it is one of the most important thing that every undergraduate students most experience. Without education the world will still be stagnant. Education and career work hand in hand; this is seen in students’ academic performance and career aspirations. Career is the sequence of occupations, jobs, and positions occupied during the course of a person’s working life. Career choice plays an important role in shaping the attitude of students towards any chosen discipline and in the subsequent achievement attained in the field. Many students fail because of an apparently unsuitable selection of the course of study. This may largely be due to the fact that a child’s attitude is likely to be affected by his interest in a particular discipline and which in turn may affect his performance.
Academic performance is an issue that deeply concerns students, parents, teachers and authorities not only in our country, but also in many other Latin American countries and continents. The complexity of the academic performance starts from its conceptualization. Sometimes it is known as school readiness, academic achievement and school performance, but generally the difference in concepts is only explained by semantics as they are used as synonyms. Conventionally, it has been agreed that academic performance should be used in university populations and school performance in regular and alternative basic education populations. We will point out just a few because there is a diversity of definitions. Several authors agree that academic performance is the result of learning, prompted by the teaching activity by the teacher and produced by the student. Academic performance is “the product given by the students and it is usually expressed through school grades”. Academic performance as a measure of the indicative and responsive abilities that express, in an estimated way, what a person has learned as a result of a process of education or training. Academic performance involves meeting goals, achievements and objectives set in the program or course that a student attends. These are expressed through grades which are the result of an assessment that involves passing or not certain tests, subjects or courses. Academic performance also can be seen as the level of knowledge shown in an area or subject compared to the norm, and it is generally measured using the grade point average.
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The purpose of the school or academic performance is to achieve an educational goal, learning. In this regard there are several components of the complex unit called performance. They are learning processes promoted by the school that involve the transformation of a given state, into a new state, and they are achieved with the integrity in a different unit with cognitive and structural elements. Performance varies according to circumstances, organic and environmental conditions that determine skills and experiences. The academic performance involves factors such as the intellectual level, personality, motivation, skills, interests, study habits, self-esteem or the teacher-student relationship. When a gap between the academic performance and the student’s expected performance occurs, it refers to a diverging performance. An unsatisfactory academic performance is the one that is below the expected performance. Sometimes it can be related to teaching methods
The influence of career choice has a lasting impact on an individual. It serves to be a predictor and determinant of their prospective level of income, nature of work and consequently leaves a mark on the personality, demeanour and outlook of an individual. Thus one wrong decision can change the fate of an individual. It is difficult for everyone to make a decision regarding their career. This individual action is manifested on a larger scale in the economic prosperity of a nation. Individuals who are misfits in their workplace tend to be less productive and efficient, and therefore are unable to achieve their goals. occupation as a means of living, which has the power to change personalities, determine social status, predict expected earnings, determine social groups etc. Thus its importance cannot be undermined. Given its complexity, it is then a point to ponder upon as to how career decisions are made.
Career choice is one of the biggest dilemma and challenge in any student’s life. It involves interplay of many factors which are intricately intertwined. It is not a straightforward task and involves a difficult process of decision making. This issue is not confined to Nigeria only but is universal in nature. An individual’s environment, talents, skills, and academic achievement exert an influence on career choice. In case of a wrong choice, it may lead to resultant failure and disappointment. Research shows homes, schools and the social setup influence an individual’s career choice. Financial prospects influence the career choice of men as they have to meet household expenses, whereas women show more concern for social values and utility. Other factors such as aptitude, life circumstances, and academic achievement have also been proven as determinants of career choice. Educational level of parents, their profession and income are also identified as very important factors. Every student at a certain juncture in their life has to make a choice regarding their career. Unfortunately, career choices are made with little awareness of the real world. Students make crucial decisions at a stage when they may not be fully informed of their choices, or else unavoidable circumstances prevent them from pursuing their goals. Thus counsellors can play a positive role in guiding them to make informed choices. Being interested in a particular profession is very important in decision making. If a student is forced into a career, he may exhibit low self-esteem and poor performance.
Academic performance can influence career choice in a whole lot of ways; every undergraduate student have a particular career in mind before even gaining admission into tertiary institution with hope of making good grades so as to enable them get their dream job. There was a case of an undergraduate student wished to be retained by the school after graduation but he ended up not making first class and the school did not retain him. There are some job that will specify they want candidate with second class upper to first class; graduates that did not get second class or first class end up losing that opportunity. It is usually very important that you make good grades so as to not have a limitation as regard your career choice.
Education / Teachers’ Belief, Teaching Techniques And Classroom Management by uniprojectM1: 9:00pm On Jul 08
Teacher belief is a two way thing; some teachers have positive belief about them and their students while some believe that they cannot handle some irregularities in their classroom. One of the most tasking duties of any teacher is to manage their classrooms effectively; there may be a correlation between teachers’ belief, teaching techniques and classroom management.
Teachers’ beliefs and teaching practices should be related in a meaningful way, as is the case for other teaching tasks, such as student assessment, in which conceptions of assessment and assessment practices are significantly associated. Teachers’ main argument for using such practices is their efficiency: They offer a readily and easy-touse applicable solution to react to misbehavior. Furthermore, this gives the teacher a feeling of keeping students under control. At the opposite end of the spectrum, practices such as complimenting and private verbal encouragement are believed to be not very useful as teachers say that such practice cannot work with the teachers’ own students.
Teaching techniques are the activities or practices and refinements of teaching which a teacher adopts to make teaching more lively and effective when employing a specific teaching method. For instance, a teacher may employ a specific direction to explain and show how a switch should be held and how a person should stand as the person performs the operation of installing the switch in order to identify the positive (life) and the negative (neutral) terminals. The specific direction, now held, and standing posture are the teaching techniques employed by good technical teacher to demonstrate how fire outbreak or electric shock could be avoided during installation of a point of light.
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Holding the t-square in a special manner to demonstrate how to slide it on the drawing board is a technique. Applying certain technical words to amuse the class while instruction is going on is also a teaching technique. This technique keeps the students at alert and makes the class lively too.
Several studies have shown that classroom management beliefs and practices are related to the level of teacher self-efficacy beliefs, that is, the “teacher’s belief in his or her capability to organize and execute courses of action required to successfully accomplish a specific teaching task in a particular context”. The threefold conceptualization of teacher self-efficacy includes two dimensions that relate to classroom management practices: self-efficacy for classroom management (e.g., maintaining order, discipline, keeping students quiet) and self-efficacy for student engagement (e.g., motivating uninterested students, helping students understand the value of learning). Studies converge toward the conclusion that less self-efficacious teachers have a pessimistic view of students, tend to adopt controlling practices (such as punishment), and strive to maintain strong discipline. At the opposite, teachers who feel highly confident in their abilities tend to sustain their students’ autonomy and to respond quickly to misbehavior without feeling threatened. Note that other studies did not find any significant association between teacher self-efficacy beliefs (for classroom management and for student engagement) and the quality of student–teacher interactions.
Teachers generally see student motivation as a stable trait that can be influenced mainly by factors external to the school such as parents. Teachers believe that their own influence is limited, except in trying to create interesting activities. These beliefs discourage teachers from trying motivational strategies. Teachers are aware of the importance of student motivation and its implications for student engagement, and recognize that it can lead to classroom management issues. Thus, teachers’ beliefs about student motivation constitute a possible source of instructional practices. These beliefs could take multiple forms and differ depending on students’ characteristics such as their achievement levels. However, these beliefs fall into two broad categories: beliefs in using intrinsic forms of motivation.
Classroom management is one of the most challenging tasks that teachers have to deal with. Although teachers usually receive pre- and in-service training on this challenging task, studies show that their classroom management decisions and practices are significantly affected by their attitudes and beliefs concerning classroom management. Teachers’ classroom management approaches are, to a great extent, based on their understanding of appropriate and inappropriate behaviours and ways of controlling them. The Inventory measures teacher views across three dimensions: classroom management as instructional management, people management and behavioural management. A successful classroom manager also tends to student socialization, which includes personal and social attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Methods of tending to socialization include communicating expectations, reinforcing acceptable behavior among students, and working with students who demonstrate poor academic or social outcomes. Disciplinary interventions refer to how the teacher responds to students who fail to conform to teacher expectations, especially when a student’s behavior disrupts the classroom system. Teachers who lack consistency between their classroom management and educational beliefs are more likely to feel inadequate, take student problem behaviors personally, and believe in students not being able to learn. The knowledge and beliefs held by new teachers may contrast with the knowledge and beliefs held by veteran teachers, as the beliefs held are constantly changing based on the range of experience held by each individual teacher. People entering the teaching profession in general feel prepared about the fundamental knowledge of the content they will be teaching, but many teachers are confused by the requirements necessary to facilitate classroom instruction.
Teachers’ belief is very important for classroom management. While it is important to recognize that teachers have different viewpoints regarding classroom management, it is possible for all teachers to grow in creating connections with students. Teachers who create balance with the students in their classroom are building trust and respect and acknowledging their students as people. More importantly, working with school administration and other school personnel to help facilitate growth and community between teachers and their classrooms is key to helping build positive relationships with students
Education / Student Characteristics And Distance Education by uniprojectM1: 7:08pm On Jul 05
student characteristics is used in the sciences of learning and cognition to designate a target group of students and define those aspects of their personal, academic, social or cognitive self that may influence how and what they learn. Student characteristics are important for instructional designers as they allow them to design and create tailored instructions for a target group.
It is the expected that by taking account of the characteristics of students, more efficient, effective and/or motivating instructional materials can be designed and developed. Student characteristics can be personal, academic, social/emotional and/or cognitive in nature.
Personal characteristics
Personal characteristics often relate to demographic information such as age, gender, maturation, language, social economic status, cultural background, and specific needs of a student group such as particular skills and disabilities for and/or impairments to learning. Academic characteristics are more education and/or learning related such as learning goals (of an individual or a group), prior knowledge, educational type, and educational level. Social/emotional characteristics relate to the group or to the individual with respect to the group. Examples of social/emotional characteristics are group structure, place of the individual within a group, sociability, self-image, mood, et cetera.
Cognitive Characteristics
Cognitive characteristics relate to such things as attention span, memory, mental procedures, and intellectual skills which determine how the learner perceives, remembers, thinks, solves problems, organizes and represents information in her/his brain. With respect to learner characteristics, there are often large differences between the characteristics of different learners and groups of learners such as children, students, professionals, adults, older people and disabled persons. These groups differ in their motivation, prior knowledge, expertise level, study time, and physical abilities. The differences within the learner characteristics have an impact on the structure of the instruction and the degree of support and guidance of the learning process
Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in institutional environment, especially in school, colleges and university; the importance of academic performance in not only psychological and educational researches but also morale and self reflection. Large-scale scholastic achievement assessments such as PISA provide an overview of the current state of research on academic performance. Academic performance especially in the subject like science and mathematics are considered to be of utmost relevance by the society as it is believed to mirror the intellectual capacity of the person.
Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via mail. Today, it involves online education.
Distance learning, also called e-learning, and online learning, is a form of education in which the main elements include physical separation of teachers and students during instruction and the use of various technologies to facilitate student-teacher and student-student communication.
Distance education is different from the traditional education. Distance education is that educational information and instruction taught to learners who are physically distant from the source of that information and instruction. Distance education, also called distance learning, provides learning chances to people who could not afford time or money for traditional classes or who lived in remote areas far from schools. Because of the expansion of the Internet in recent years, the Internet has become the most important tool for delivering distance education.
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Distance learning occurs when there is a separation between the teacher and the student, usually due to geographical or time concerns that prevent the student from attending an on-campus course. Often, electronic means are used to bridge this gap and distribute educational material though distance learning programs using printed and mailed materials have existed for well over a hundred years. These programs have usually been specially designed to help best meet the needs and requirements that arise when learning is taking place outside of a traditional classroom setting. The majority of distance education today takes place using the Internet, now readily accessible for the vast majority of students whether in their own homes or at facilities such as local libraries. These electronic means are used to distribute the learning material, keep students in touch with teachers, and provide access to communication between students.
1. You can pursue a job along with studies: A major chunk of students who actually opt for distance education are those who don't want to give up their jobs but want a higher education, too. Distance education comes as a blessing for such students. You can study on the weekends, when you're back from work or even in the middle of the night. You get to learn while you earn.
2. You can save money: For any given program, the fee of a distance education degree (online or otherwise) may be much more affordable than the fee of a regular on-campus degree. Students who are looking for economically viable options can go for a distance learning program.
3. You save time: There's no time wasted in going to and from college, no time wasted waiting for a bus or train. In a distance learning program, your classroom is right in your bedroom - the study material on your desk or the e-material on your computer. Students who don't have enough time on their hands can turn to distance education as an option and pursue it from the comfort of their homes.
4. You can learn at your own pace: the prospect of going back to classroom education can be intimidating for many of us. Asking a question or revealing that you are unable to grasp a concept in class can e quite embarrassing for many students. Distance education comes to your rescue here.
If you are self-disciplined and self-motivated, the best benefit of distance education is that you can learn at your own pace. It's a known fact that different people learn in different ways and at different speeds. In a classroom, when everyone is being taught together, it is often difficult to have every student on the same page. Some students are too shy to raise their doubts in class. This is where distance education has an advantage over a regular campus program. Since you are given all course work beforehand, you can study as much or as little as you want every day, as long as you complete your study material within the stipulated time. If you've doubts or queries, there are discussion forums, chat facilities with faculty and complete support from the distance education provider.
5. You can study whenever, wherever: Except in scenarios where you have to attend an online tutorial at a given time or a lecture through videoconferencing, you can pretty much study whenever you want to, wherever you choose to. You need not be stuck in a classroom, but can go study in your garden, on your living room couch or in the comfort of your own bed. Irrespective of whether you're a morning lark or a night owl, you can choose an optimum time to study whenever you're at your productive best.
6. Gaining recognition among employers: Distance education over the years has finally found some acceptance and recognition among employers, which is an encouraging sign. As long as the distance learning program is accredited, you need not be worried
There has been many works performed on student characteristics of distance education. Student characteristics like motivation, learning styles, gender, and, learning strategies played a very important role in academic achievement. There are some factors that motivate undergraduate students to choose online or traditional course formats. Students, who chose distance learning, control over Face and timing of learning was more important; for students who chose face-to-face (FTF) course, interaction with instructor and students was paramount. There are gender differences in motivational and behavioral learning strategies in the Internet-based cyber-learning environment and found highly significant gender differences in the category of textual encoding strategies, in which males showed stronger behavioral and motivational learning strategies. As well as these student characteristics mentioned above, self-efficacy studies are also very popular for distance education. The effect of student motivation on performance in Web-based instruction (WBI) and found that student’s self-efficacy for self-regulated learning positively related to his/her academic self-efficacy, strategy use, and Internet self-efficacy. In a work aiming to form a model that can predict the satisfaction of Web based adult distant learners and their intention to join again in the distance education courses to be presented through Web in the future. Self efficacy in computer knowledge was the only statistically significant variable that can help predict the achievement.
Education / School Environment And Listening Comprehension Among Undergraduates by uniprojectM1: 2:07pm On Jul 03
Listening is a skill that is quite influenced in the mastery of the English language, because listening is a receptive language skill that makes users understand the language in depth, making it easy and precise in producing language. Students must understand d that listening is not a passive skill but an active one because we need to be receptive to others, which include paying attention to explanations, questions, and opinions. Thus listening is considered to be a skill that is a very essential to be learned and mastered.
However, the status quo of the students’ experience in listening comprehension shows that listening is the most difficult skill to be mastered. The various difficulties that commonly occur in the listening comprehension such as; making prediction, guessing unknown words, recognizing the main point and many other such difficulties are still encountered by the students in the listening comprehension subject.
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However the school environment affects students listening comprehension in such ways as having an unconducive environment, noisy environment, over populated class size, unfavorable weather etc. all these can pose as a hindrance to listening comprehension.
School Environment means the extent to which school settings promote student safety and student health, which may include topics such as the physical plant, the academic environment, available physical and mental health supports and services, and the fairness and adequacy of disciplinary procedures, as supported by relevant research and an assessment of validity. School environment refers to set of relationships that occur among members of a school community that are determined b y structural, personal, and functional factors of the educational institution, which provide distinctiveness to school. A school environment is broadly characterized by its facilities, classrooms, school-based health supports, and disciplinary policies and practices. It sets the stage for the external factors that affect students.
Listening comprehension is explained as the process when the listeners understand the oral input from sound discrimination, prior knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical structures, stress, and intonation. It also involves linguistic knowledge and world knowledge which interact to create a mental representation and achieve comprehension.
Listening comprehension is the ability of one individual perceiving another via sense, (specifically oral) organs, assigning a meaning to the message and comprehending it.
Listening however, is the most important skill for language learning because it can be mostly used in normal daily life and develops faster than the other language skill which indicates that it makes easy the development of the other language skills.
The School environment is a very crucial factor to consider when talking about students listening comprehension. For students to listen and comprehend what is been taught, the school environment and learning environment must be conducive to allow for a free flow of teaching and learning which of course involves attentive listening and comprehension.
In classroom environments, the ideal form of listening is active listening. Unlike passive listeners who seek solely to retain ideas in their minds, active listeners both produce thoughts and share those thoughts by expressing them in verbal and nonverbal ways. The observable external signs of active listening include physically displaying emotion, cooperating with members of the group of listeners, physically expressing approval or disapproval of what is said, exhibiting behaviors directed toward listening, asking questions about what is being said, and contributing appropriate explanations and comments.
As part of their learning experiences throughout the processes of education, each individual develops listening strategies that are cognitive, psychomotor-based, or affective in nature. While implementing cognitive listening strategies, individuals compare and classify information in their minds, make inferences, formulize what they have learned, generate associations, reason, take notes, and make generalizations all for the purpose of achieving more effective and permanent learning. At the same time, listening strategies that reflect listener emotions expressed via body language while listening, including facial expressions, gestures, and sitting position, significantly demonstrate how listeners feel in the environment and what stance they take on what is said. By turns, listeners sympathize, empathize, and may even feel excited, scared, or stressed. Since all of these states influence an individual’s listening reflexes and habits, their effective and strategic use of these actions can help to more fully realize communication, learning, thinking, hearing, and telling. Furthermore, stating that auxiliary strategies need to be used to facilitate understanding.
There are a lot of difficulties that learners may encounter in the listening comprehension processes and the purpose is to be aware of these problems and try to solve them. Some of these problems are as follows:
Quality of Recorded Materials
In some classes, teachers use some recorded materials that do not have high quality. The quality of sound system can impact the comprehending of learners’ listening.
Cultural Differences
Learners should be familiar with the cultural knowledge of language that has a significant effect on the learners’ understanding. If the listening task involves completely different cultural materials then the learners may have critical problems in their comprehension. It is the responsibility of teachers to give background knowledge about the listening activities in advance.
Too many accented speech can lead to an important reduction in comprehension. A speaker’s accent is one of the most significant factors that affect listener comprehension. Unfamiliar accents both native and non-native can cause serious problems in listening comprehension and familiarity with an accent helps learners’ listening comprehension. When listeners hear an unfamiliar accent such as Indian English for the first time after studying only American English will encounter critical difficulties in listening. This will certainly interrupt the whole listening comprehension process and at the same time an unfamiliar accent makes comprehension impossible for the listeners.
Unfamiliar Vocabulary
When text contain known words it would be very easy for students to learn them. If students know the meaning of words this can arouse their interest and motivation and can have a positive impact on the students’ listening comprehension ability. A lot of words have more than one meaning and if they are not used appropriately in their appropriate contexts students will get confused.
Length and Speed of Listening
The level of students can have a significant role when they listen to long parts and keep all information in their mind. It is very difficult for lower level students to listen more than three minutes long and complete the listening tasks. Short listening passages make easy listening comprehension for learners and reduce their tiredness. Speed can make listening passage difficult. If the speakers speak too fast students may have serious problems to understand L2 words. In this situation, listeners are not able to control the speed of speakers and this can create critical problems with listening comprehension.
Listening comprehension is a complex process. The strategies of listening comprehension must be used simultaneously. We must understand the text as we listen to it, keep the information in memory, combine it with what follows and adjust our comprehending of what we hear through previous knowledge and next information. Teachers should teach the students suitable listening strategies. There is no an ideal method that fits all types of teaching and learning classes. Listening activities should be arranged from basic to more complex as the learners gain. There are factors that caused some serious problems for learners’ listening comprehension and also offered some useful suggestions for teachers and students to improve their listening comprehension ability. The school management must also ensure that the school environment is a conducive one to enhance listening comprehension.
Education / Mathematics Anxiety And Students Performance In Mathematics by uniprojectM1: 12:54pm On Jun 26
Mathematics as a subject is one of the most interesting subjects in secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. There is a correlation between mathematics and other science subjects such as physics, chemistry and biology and some social science subjects such as economics, accounting and banking and finance. Mathematics is very popular among science students; however most students shy away from mathematics; they tend to develop a kind of anxiety towards mathematics. The anxiety students develop for mathematics might because by several factors; it could be as a result of teachers experience, student-teacher relationship, poor mathematics background, experiences from past students etc. It could also be as a result of lack of adequate mathematics instructions and materials for teaching and learning. This article will try to establish a correlation between mathematics anxiety and students performance in mathematics. This anxiety is also seen in their undergraduate projects research topics choices and departmental assignments and seminars.
Anxiety is one of the most common mental health conditions in the Nigeria and is estimated to affect 10.2 million people at any one time. Anxiety disorders are associated with a substantial degree of impairment to an individual’s mental and physical health, high use of healthcare services and, due to their effect on work attendance rates, significant economic burden for wider society. Anxiety can occur when we are worried, uneasy or fearful about events that are about to happen or may happen in the future. Although anxiety about perceived threats is a natural human response that most people experience, if such thoughts start to have a negative impact on an individual’s daily life, they may be a sign of an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders can affect a person’s quality of life significantly and are associated with: Impaired social and occupational functioning; Comorbidity with other disorders; an increased risk of suicide.
There is a number of different anxiety disorders, but they can be difficult to diagnose and, in some cases, difficult to distinguish from other mental health conditions, including depression (Baxter et al, 2014). The most common disorder to present in primary care is generalised anxiety disorder (GAD); this is characterised by chronic anxiety, worry and tension experienced without a direct environmental stimulus, such as an experience that induces fear. GAD can carry with it a significant degree of comorbidity and impairment to daily functioning, and patients
Mathematics anxiety is a consequence of “an inability to handle frustration, excessive school absences, poor self-concept, internalized negative parental and teacher attitudes toward mathematics, and an emphasis on learning mathematics through drill without “real” understanding”. Environmental variables include negative experiences in class or in family contexts, teacher and parent characteristics, as well as extrinsic expectations. Intellectual variables include the child’s level of more general cognitive abilities, while personality variables comprise concepts such as self-esteem, self-concept, attitude, confidence and learning behavior.
It has been shown repeatedly that there is a significant relationship between levels of [url=https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00508/full#:~:text=Mathematics%20anxiety%20has%20been%20defined,Richardson%20and%20Suinn%2C%201972)]mathematics anxiety[/url] and performance as assessed by standardized tests. Nevertheless, the question whether mathematics anxiety is the cause or rather consequence of poor performance is not settled. In general, achievement scores in standardized mathematical performance tests tend to be lower the higher the mathematics anxiety level of an individual is. Studies focusing on mathematics anxiety in earlier years of schooling do not always find such an effect at all. Trying to reconcile such contradictory findings for younger as compared to older students some authors have challenged their own designs. However, the missing correlation between achievement and mathematics anxiety in younger populations may indicate that mathematics anxiety cannot be fully explained by a failure to perform, and may, thus, not be a consequence of poor mathematical ability. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and achievement may actually be age and gender dependent, i.e. getting more pronounced with increasing age and longer schooling. Mathematics anxious individuals tend to avoid mathematics-associated situations and as a result, develop poorer mathematical abilities than their non-anxious peers.
Summarizing the current state of research on mathematics anxiety, the main message is that more systematic research also integrating neurocognitive methods is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the critical factors that determine the development of mathematics anxiety, of its dynamics over time, and its effect for the individual and its cognitive and emotional development. On the one hand, there is not enough data on the prevalence and manifestations of mathematics anxiety in younger populations, on how the different variables that were previously identified to be related to mathematics anxiety interact in the course of development, and on the longitudinal effects of mathematics anxiety. On the other hand, intervention studies should be implemented in order to evaluate different remedial approaches and their effectiveness for different age groups. The only way to gain deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms of the development of mathematics anxiety will be through longitudinal investigations that compare anxious and non-anxious individuals over an adequate period of time, i.e. starting as early as possible, ideally at pre-school age, and ending only after completion of formal schooling. In order to work out possible causal links between the relevant factors identified by previous studies, the collected data should range from information regarding an individual’s social and cultural background to the data on his or her domain-general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Additionally, future research should guard against the collection of potentially biased data (e.g. self-reports). Thus, assessment in the context of research on mathematics anxiety should be made more objective by including (psycho-) physiological or even neuroimaging methods into the study designs. In conclusion, future studies on mathematics anxiety that combine multi-method research designs with longitudinal approaches may help to generate more complex models of the dynamics of mathematics anxiety over time, its determining factors, and its detrimental effects for the individual and development.
Education / Why Instructional Delivery Is Vital To Student Performance by uniprojectM1: 2:12pm On Jun 22
Instructional delivery models on are methods, strategies, approaches or even techniques that a teacher employ to deliver his/her subject matter of a lesson to the learners. It can as well be regarded as a representation of a pattern in which a lesson is to be presented. The process of instructional delivery must be based on stated objectives of the lesson, it is based on this that when the process of instructional delivery is over, then the opportunity to determine if the aim of the lesson has been achieved or not comes, which is the evaluation act that will tell if the lesson met stated objectives. Instructional delivery has been seen as the process showing every activity the teacher and the learner does in a classroom setting. So every effort that the teacher makes in order to have a fruitful time with the students by exposing the contents, employing methods, strategies, the pupils interaction with the environment, resources available and even the evaluation process sums up to mean instructional delivery. When a teacher consciously utilizes his training, knowledge, skills and value and relays it in order to change the behavioral position of the learner, he is carrying out instructional delivery.
The essence of the use of different instructional delivery models is to enable the instructor (teacher) surmount the challenges on the organization and passage of the instruction to students who are assumed to have come from different backgrounds, therefore, possess different learning styles, pace and understanding the lessons based on their previous knowledge. From the foregoing, it is clear to us that one model of instruction will not be able to bring about an effective instructional delivery that can produce the kind of result desired from the learners. The nature of the subject will demand for the teacher to employ numerous models, methods, strategies, approaches or techniques to ensure that the learners learn indeed after every instruction.
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So because it has been established that instructional delivery is a deliberate interface between the learner and the learning activities, therefore, it is from this interaction process that learning actually takes place. This interface is the implementation stage of the curriculum. Here, the teacher, the learner and the learning activities are on stage. The teacher who is the leader on this stage is free at this point to modify the plan of action based on the reaction of the learners to the learning activities in order to promote learning and improve academic performance.
Academic performance refers to different levels of measurable and observable behavior of learners after an instructional process. Academic performance is all the observable and/or measurable behavior of a person after an academic exercise. This can only be measured or observed when a performance test like a mental test is administered to the learner in a situation whereby the person involved will be expected to do something instead of saying something. So at any point in time when a student’s observable and measurable behavior assessment is done, then what is taking place is academic performance assessment. Academic performance consists of the scores obtained at any particular time from a teacher-made assessment test. So when a student performs a behavior expected for an educational intention, the outcome so referred to is academic performance.
Instructional Delivery refers to the interaction among the student, the teacher, the content, and the knowledge/skills/dispositions students will need for learning and collaborating with others in a diverse society and rapidly changing world. The process of instructional delivery involves applying a repertoire.
Instructional delivery can also be defined as the knowledge of teaching techniques and their application for learning to take place in such a flexible manner that would not distort the original intent of the teacher for being in the classroom.
Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement. The students' academic performance depends on a number of socio-economic factors like students' attendance in the class, family income, mother's and father's education, teacher-student ratio, presence of trained teacher in school, sex of the student, and distance of schools.
Students taught with instructional materials performed significantly better than those taught without instructional materials and also that the use of instructional materials generally improved students' understanding of concepts and led to high academic achievements. Whatever is the case, teaching method refers to the structuring of educational materials to achieve an effective teaching-learning process. However, there is no one best teaching method for instruction in technical and vocational education programs. One method may be more desirable to use in a lecture or tutorial class while another is more appropriate in team teaching. This implies that teaching has ever been struggling through a transitional period so replete with cross-currents and uncertainties of which instructional techniques and methods must be adopted to yield better results among students during conventional class and practical class instruction.
In the present time, survival of education in Nigeria depends on effective use of new teaching and learning technologies for instruction. This premise is more evident today because the public is demanding accountability. Moreover, educators are advancing competency-based instruction as their reaction to the stage challenge; a stage in which many academic institutions in Nigeria perceive their traditional methods of instruction as obsolete with the introduction of electronic and other sophisticated methods of instruction. The essence of the use of different instructional delivery models is to enable the instructor (teacher) surmount the challenges on the organization and passage of the instruction to students who are assumed to have come from different backgrounds, therefore, possess different learning styles, pace and understanding the lessons based on their previous knowledge. From the foregoing, it is clear to us that one model of instruction will not be able to bring about an effective instructional delivery that can produce the kind of result desired from the learners. The nature of the subject will demand for the teacher to employ numerous models, methods, strategies, approaches or techniques to ensure that the learners learn indeed after every instruction.
Conclusively, it is very important for teachers to have the mastery of the use of instructional delivery. It is one thing to have instructional materials, it is another to know how to deliver it in such a way that students can comprehend, assimilate and perform excellently academically. Knowing the type of method or strategies to apply in teaching and learning will enable a teacher pass the message clearly to students which eventually will lead to an improved academic performance. However, poor academic performance result among students is majorly an indication of the use of poor or wrong methodologies for instructional delivery and advised that more studies be done on instructional delivery strategies that can enhance students’ academic performance.
Education / Self Handicapping And Behavioural Pattern Among Undergraduates by uniprojectM1: 9:16am On Jun 19
Self-handicapping is creating or claiming obstacles to successful performance in order to protect the sense of self-competence. Self-handicapping behaviors decrease the probability of success; however, they enable individuals to cover up their failures by creating handy excuses instead of facing the real cause, which is the lack of ability. Specific failure is related with a given task, but global failure is related with intellect or personality. For self-handicappers, avoiding global failure is more important than avoiding specific failure. If a self-handicapper performs poorly in an evaluative situation, she/he can explain the poor performance by using the impediment rather than incompetence. If she/he performs successfully despite the impediment, her/his competence is enhanced. For example, a student goes to a cinema the night before the exam rather than studying. If he does not do well in the exam, he can present the cause as lack of studying. In this way, he obscures the lack of ability or intelligence. If he performs well, he may infer that he is intelligent or has ability because he succeeds in the exam without studying.
Self-handicapping is defined in diverse ways by numerous research scholars, majority of them concured that self-handicapping includes generating obstructions to auspicious task performance that the learner thinks prominent. Self-handicapping provides the chance to individual to protect his frail image by internalize triumph and externalize defeat. Mostly, the impediment is considered as external, but sometime as internal to the self-handicapper, not including their potentialities and capabilities. Self-handicapping includes generating inhibitions/ hindrances to performance for enhancing or securing one’s perceived potentialities. Self-handicapping consists of actions that happen before or concurrently with the task of achievement, not afterwards the task has happened. Illustrations of academic self-handicapping comprise procrastinating, asserting illness or test anxiety and effort withdrawal
Managing student behaviour in an online course isn’t that different from a faceto-face classroom. As the instructor, you have a major role to play in setting the appropriate tone. An online course tends to be less instructor-dominated than traditional classrooms and the dynamics and interaction can be very exciting. However, even online, problems can develop from the inappropriate behaviour of an individual, or the lack of planning on the part of the instructor. Starting the course with an introduction exercise is an excellent way to set the tone for the course and allow learners to get to know each other in a non-stressful forum. Ask each learner to post a short bio to the discussion forum, giving a little of their personal backgrounds, what they want to get out of the course, what their previous studies were and some of their recent work history, if appropriate. Then ask each learner to respond to one other learner’s introduction. This short exercise will be of significant benefit when you set up groups for group assignments.
Self-handicapping emerges in various ways. It can be behavioral (waiting until the very last minute to perform a task) or verbal (saying that the health problems have affected the performance). Behavioral strategies generate a far greater risk of failure than do verbal strategies. Self-handicapping affects the performance in the end. Individuals posit an excuse before the tasks, or in advance of the performance at that point. They may also make informed explanations for their behaviors. Self-handicapping is much related to academic performance and to the learning types of students. A positive correlation was determined between self-handicapping and negative variables such as depression and anxiety, a low feeling of self-determination and low self-esteem, low performance tendencies, low academic success, the external locus of control and academic procrastination. As an instructor I conducted an experiment on self handicapping among my students before their undergraduate projects research exercise; this was how I did it. At the beginning of the term, I evaluated the undergraduates in terms of attribution types and personal differences in self-evaluation. Before the first exam, I allowed the students to express the factors that could handicap their performances in the exam. As a result, a relationship between self-handicapping and gender was determined. Male students stated that they were handicapped before the exam by their high levels of self-handicapping and after their poor performances in the exam, and receiving feedback; they attributed the failure to external reasons. The relationship between a self-handicapping tendency and posing excuses/obstacles and the performance attributes for the female students was lower when compared with that of the male students.
Self-handicapping is one of the most recurring phenomenon among undergraduate students in Nigeria. Self handicapping affect both behavioural pattern and performance of undergraduate students. Let us use this for quick illustration. Some group of students went for a football tournament organized by a neighboring university; the tournament lasted for 2 weeks; after the tournament the students have just 3 days to prepare for their departmental examination. Most of the students were exhausted from fatigue incurred from the tournament. One of the student ended not reading at all. After the examination, the student passed. This made the students feel they can always pass their examination even without studying much. They begin to develop negative attitude towards their studies. Their behavioural pattern was believed to have negative effect on other student.
Education / Self Concept, Teachers’ Morale And Academic Achievement by uniprojectM1: 6:55pm On Jun 17
The main purpose of education is the progress of physical, social, emotional and wisdom of student. The adequate education makes good quality human resources for a rapidly developing country. According to this reason, many countries have been trying to develop the educational quality in the national policy and strategy to enhance effective implementation. This idea prevails in the Nigerian people. The major content emphasizes the development of many functions of Nigeria educational system. The student’s academic achievement problem in seminar presentation, undergraduate research projects, assignments and test are not only occurring in Nigeria but it also in many countries around the world. Some country have been trying to solve this problem by educational staff development, teaching processes, and parent and community cooperation and some country have been looking backward to student inner character by depicting causal relationship influencing to academic achievement. The result of studies revealed some important factor strongly related with academic achievement is “self-concept and teachers’ morale.
Self concept
Over the last decades, the conceptualization of the self-concept has experienced a tremendous transformation. First viewed as a unitary and stable entity, the self-concept now holds a multidimensional, multifaceted, and dynamic structure that controls and guides how people process self-relevant information in all aspects of their lives. More precisely, self-concepts harbor a person’s knowledge on who or what he or she is (i.e., one’s self-related beliefs) and a person’s evaluation on how to feel about oneself; an evaluation in which people link valences to their self-beliefs (i.e., form positive or negative self-evaluations). Self-concepts persist over time and while for the person itself, his or her self-concept appears stable, it is malleable and fluid construed and shaped by a person’s self views, experiences, and contexts over time. Specifically, people’s life experiences and self concepts act reciprocal Self-concepts develop through people’s unique experiences yet are also constantly partially formed by existent social expectations and power structures in the environment, mediating the link between social contexts and individual behavior.
Teachers’ Morale
Each of the five constructs measured as a part of teacher morale showed a significant, positive relationship with the overall measure of teacher morale. Teacher time, including workloads inside and outside of school, directly affect the levels of teacher morale. The construct of facilities and resources is directly addressed by the teacher morale research that teacher morale is influenced by external factors, including the physical facilities and available instructional resources and training. Teacher morale and community involvement are linked because teachers are more likely to remain in their jobs when there is a shared vision and supportive relationship with parents and the wider community. The continual issues in teachers’ perceptions of student conduct policies and how that influences teachers. Teacher empowerment and decision-making are strongly correlated with teacher morale
Academic achievement
Academic achievement as the extent to which a learner is profiting from instructions in the given area of learning i.e. achievement is reflected by the level to which skill and knowledge has been imparted to him. Academic achievement also indicates the knowledge attained and skill developed in the school subject, generally designated by test scores. Achievement is influenced by the personality, opportunities, motivation, training and education. The other factors which influence the academic achievement of student are self-concept, study habit, parental encouragement, socio economic status, intelligence etc.
School achievement may be affected by different factors like study habits, intelligence and attitudes of learners towards school, socio economic status and different aspects of their personality etc. In our society academic achievement is considered as a key principle to judge one’s total capacities and potentialities. Hence academic achievement possesses a very imperative place in education as well as in the learning process.
Teachers’ Moral And Academic Achievement
Teachers’ morale have been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students. Education is the key towards success for every country. It helps to boost the economy and beneficial for the society. Nigerian’s primary schools and junior secondary schools should aim at developing the right citizenship as a basis for effective participation in contribution to the life of the society, developing in the child the ability to adopt to his changing environment, inculcating character and moral training and the development of sound mind, develop sense of respect and tolerance of the opinions of others even in disagreement, and develop willingness to accept necessary changes. Considering governments’ huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students has been observed to be unequal with government expenditure. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools one wonders if the high failure rates and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools. In other words the ineffectiveness of teachers in classroom interaction with the students could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students in undergraduate projects and research topics identification and departmental examination and the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria. A warm and positive atmosphere can help improve children’s motivation to learn. An empathetic teacher does not only help protect the student’s image of themselves as student, but it also helps prevent social exclusion by classmates. Teacher burnout can lead to a downfall in motivation and the students can be affected by the teacher’s anxiety symptoms and job stress
Education / Class Size, Behavioral Pattern And Student Performance by uniprojectM1: 12:02pm On Jun 13
Schooling is an intrinsically social enterprise. Student behavior is shaped by and exhibited and interpreted in a social context that involves multiple actors viz. teachers, students, school staff etc. It includes multiple settings like classrooms, corridors, common areas, laboratories, lunch room, and playground. Schools are institutions with multiple goals like enhancing academic performance, encouraging a holistic development of the student. Positive behavior is more likely to thrive when relationships at all levels are trusting and supportive and reflect a shared commitment to establish a healthy school and community. Problem behavior of students not only interrupts teacher’s lesson plans but also disturbs other student’s learning process. Such students test teacher’s patience as a result many feeling overwhelmed, helpless and make teaching as one of the most difficult aspects of a teacher's job. The most common problem behaviors in the classroom teachers notice are a student's lack of focus, and the inability to sit/stand for an appropriate length of time required for effectively learning.
The increase in population in a school affects the class sizes, the performances of students become an issue. Class size refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom, specifically either the number of students being taught by individual teachers in a course or classroom or the average number of students being taught by teachers in a school or educational system. The term may also be the number of students participating in learning experience. Class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school. There are large and small sizes in school. The smaller the class, the greater the likelihood is that a teacher will spend more time with individual pupils.

Read Up Samples Of Undergraduate Projects And Researches On Class Size

Student’s behavior reflects the interaction of their temperament and inherited personality, the history of their experiences, and the particular nature of each situation. In most circumstances it is impossible to determine what proportion each of these elements contributes to a given manifestation. It also differ in proportions which vary from student to student and even from situation to situation for a single student. Although it is difficult to modify personality of a student having problem behavior, it is possible to modify behavior by identifying and correcting adverse situations in the environment and by introducing appropriate interventions. If adverse environmental conditions are corrected at an early stage, there is a greater possibility of preventing or diminishing their impact on behavioral pattern of student in question
Class size refers to the number of students listed in a regular teacher’s class or class section attendance list and for whom the teacher is responsible. It is an educational tool that can be described as an average number of students per class in a school. it is described as the number of students per teacher in a class.
Students learn behaviors through the feedback and consequences they receive at home or school. Sometimes feedback or consequences unintentionally reinforce negative behaviors. For example, a teacher responds to a student who frequently calls out in class by giving him more attention, which is what he wants.
Student’s behavior reflects the interaction of their temperament and inherited personality, the history of their experiences, and the particular nature of each situation. In most circumstances it is impossible to determine what proportion each of these elements contributes to a given manifestation. It also differ in proportions which vary from student to student and even from situation to situation for a single student. Although it is difficult to modify personality of a student having problem behavior, it is possible to modify behavior by identifying and correcting adverse situations in the environment and by introducing appropriate interventions. If adverse environmental conditions are corrected at an early stage, there is a greater possibility of preventing or diminishing their impact on behavioral pattern of student in question
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.
Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.
Academic achievement is important for the successful development of young people in society. Students who do well in school are better able to make the transition into adulthood and to achieve occupational and economic success. Academics are also important because it directly decides the positive outcomes of students after graduating, or helps someone get a new and better job as they move up higher and higher in their job.
The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, class size and behavioral pattern.
Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.
Large classes present more challenges for classroom management, pupil control, and marking, planning, and assessment. Teachers are put under more strain when faced with large classes. In smaller classes, it can be easier for teachers to spot problems and give feedback, identify specific needs and gear teaching to meet them, and set individual targets for pupils. Teachers also experience better relationships with, and have more knowledge of individual pupils. However, in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. The increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size.
Therefore, effective teaching seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75, 100 or more. Few students per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Reason why the higher the class-size, the lower the cost of education. However, most classrooms are over-crowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education and academic performance. One of the pillars of a successful implementation of effective education progamme is the availability and adequacy of teaching and learning resources.
The learner is the focal point in the classroom and what he/she is gaining from the educational experience is of great importance towards the achievements of a good academic performance. However, the acquisition of skills and competencies require a well conducive learning atmosphere. Under learning, psychologists view learning as a process. Learning is a process by which one acquire and retained attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills and capabilities that cannot be attributed to inherited behavior pattern. Learning is the act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Knowledge or skills can be gained through schooling or studying. Learning is an act of gaining knowledge. Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
In conclusion, Class size is thought to influence students teaching and learning and their overall academic performance. Large class-size affects the academic achievement of students. Large class size makes teaching and learning difficult and it does not promote seriousness among students in tertiary institution. Effective teaching in a well conducive atmosphere gives individuals the skills to live, learn and work as a productive citizen in a global society. It contributes greatly to the economic development of any nation and a tool for development. Quality teaching must be given during the training, so as to give the students the best that will make them fit in into the world of work.
Education / How Seminar Presentation Can Boost Your Confidence During Project Defense by uniprojectM1: 5:08pm On Jun 10
Confidence is not something we are born with. It is shaped by experiences in childhood, early adolescence and adulthood. Confidence is more than just a state of mind or a skill that can be enhanced over time. It is a barometer of how you perceive yourself. The good news is that you can build up this belief in yourself over time. Confidence is a constantly evolving state of being. We can feel amazingly confident carrying out some tasks and have a crippling fear of others.
Self-confidence is considered one of the most influential motivators and regulators of behavior in people's everyday lives. A growing body of evidence suggests that one's perception of ability or self-confidence is the central mediating construct of achievement strivings. Therefore, the major influence in the acquisition of expert performance is the confidence and motivation to persist in deliberate practice.
Self-confidence is not a motivational perspective by itself. It is a judgment about capabilities for accomplishment of some goal.
The undergraduate project is often the first major piece of independent research that a student will undertake. We are today in knowledge driven world where knowledge assets rather than physical assets and natural assets are considered more relevant in creating competitive and differential advantages. This means that students’ project work in their undergraduate curriculum is aimed at meeting the knowledge needs of the students, society and the world at the level and stage when the body and mind are willing and receptive to knowledge. However, one of the things you might be asked to do on your university course is to give an oral presentation during a seminar. Formal speaking in front of an audience can be challenging if you have not done this before, and plenty of preparation beforehand can help to increase your confidence if you are asked to do this.
Project work at the undergraduate level is an undertaking usually at the last lap of a journey of four or five years programme depending on the choice of course or academic pursuit/career. It is therefore a point where and when a student leaves a statement as a foot print on the part that he/she traversed over a period of time. The statement or the content of the project may be a building block for the future students or humanity at large. When students are at the point of entry into the university they ought to know that they will leave a footprint by way of project, for this, they ought to read widely and get focused early enough. Therefore, one of the ways to boost your confidence even before your project defense is seminar presentation. Seminar presentation is the building block or perhaps a clue to what is expected of you during project defense. You must also understand that no one can build your confidence for you, so if you want to change, you must be willing to give it a go.
A seminar presentation is a short informal talk giving the results of your researches into a topic on the course. You are sharing your ideas or discoveries in a way that gives seminar participants an opportunity for discussion.
A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate. Seminars are an important part of many academic programmes and provide an opportunity for a group of students to discuss and analyze a range of new material, ideas and concepts together with the tutor. In some schools such classes are referred to as seminars and in other they are called tutorials.
The range of resources and materials used in seminars and tutorials is as considerable as tutors' expectations about what students will have to do. The accessibility of teaching materials such as PowerPoint and overhead projector slides is as important in seminars and tutorials as it is in lectures. A possible difference is that in seminars and tutorials, displays on screens are often less distant from students than they may be in a lecture theatre.
Project defense can be very easy once you completely understand your research work and are prepared for the questions. During the defense, the panel of assessors will ask your questions to test your knowledge of the research subject matter, depth of your work, the results and conclusions you arrived at. A defense however, presents evidence for a thesis. It’s important to keep in mind that if you go into a defense with the right attitude and preparation, failing is nearly impossible. The committee wants to see how well you know your subject and your research. Nerves may get the better of you as you face unknown questions, but as with a job interview, practicing ahead of time will lead to a successful defense.
See samples of Undergraduate project research materials in pdf and Doc
Facing a defense can be stressful, but think of it as an opportunity to share what you’ve learned. Remember that you aren’t arguing points when you defend your work. Instead, a proper thesis defense gives you and your faculty advisers the chance to discuss your topic and research in greater detail.
Undergraduate research project is an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline. Undergraduate project is an academic assignment (or research) undertaken by a student towards the completion of his/her academic pursuit of a first degree as stated in his first degree curriculum.
Undergraduate research projects can be designed to fit a variety of class constructs and to promote student learning at all levels of undergraduate education. It is also a task undertaken by student(s) within a given period of time in a given subject area aimed at making the student have independent capacity for inquiries and to supplement and as well complement formal teaching in his area of study. This enables the student hone-in the theoretical course work in the university. There is no doubt that the exercise will reveal to the lecturer who is assigned to supervise the student, the student’s area of strength and weaknesses. When these weaknesses are corrected during lecturer – student interaction, the student comes out to be the pride of the university – the alma mater.
Undergraduate research projects can be student or faculty initiated, and students can either participate in a work in progress or enter a project at its start. Undergraduate research is the exploration of a specific topic within a field by an undergraduate student that makes an original contribution to the discipline.
A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate.
Seminars are an important part of many academic programmes and provide an opportunity for a group of students to discuss and analyze a range of new material, ideas and concepts together with the tutor. In some schools such classes are referred to as seminars and in other they are called tutorials.
As an undergraduate seeking for an advanced degree, you must complete your research work and then defend it orally before the committee (external supervisors). The dissertation defense comes after the long and laborious work of writing the dissertation and can be the source of anxiety for the student. Therefore, with the experience you’ve had from seminar presentation, it is expected that the outcome of your undergraduate project defense will be nothing less than excellent.
In conclusion, the act of building your confidence can seem daunting. However, the freedom you will feel when you have deep-rooted self-assurance will be exhilarating. Having confidence doesn’t mean you will never feel fearful, but it allows you to work through your fears and enjoy the process of moving out of your comfort zone. This, in turn, builds even more confidence.
Therefore, the most important foundation for building confidence is to remember that you don’t need to, and must not aspire to, change overnight. It takes time to become confident, both internally and to others. It is not about being outside of your comfort zone and entering the ‘panic zone’. It is about working hard to make that comfort zone bigger.
Education / How Burnout Can Affect Students’ Performance by uniprojectM1: 4:13pm On Jun 08
Around the world, education is an essential stepping stone towards any societal development. Academic achievement, which comes as a result of formal education offered in any society, is of utmost importance for the wealth of a nation and its prosperity. This is because academic achievement is used as a pointer to one’s ability, a prerequisite to university entrants, and a determinant of one’s career and job placements in society. For this reason, therefore, learners are under constant pressure for good academic grades.
However, when a lot of pressure is exerted on learners without adequate supportive mechanisms, they become susceptible to academic burnout. Academic burnout is defined as a feeling of exhaustion due to high academic requirements and demands which make learners develop negative attitudes and pessimistic feelings about assignments.
See Some Samples Of Education Project Topics And Research Materials
Academic burnout comprises of three main sub-categories: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic inefficacy. Emotional exhaustion is a condition that arises from the academic pressure exerted upon the students for academic excellence. Cynicism emerges when learners are not able to excel as expected, and as such, they tend to become indifferent and develop a negative attitude towards academic work. Academic inefficacy which comes as the last phase of academic burnout refers to a feeling of inadequacy and a diminished feeling of competence leading to low academic achievement.
students who experience academic burnout exhibit characteristics such as negative perceptions of the learning environment, high levels of perceived workload, lack of enthusiasm in subjects of study, inability to constantly attend classes, lack of participation in classroom activities, and meaninglessness in academic activities, resulting in poor academic achievement.
Burnout is defined as a physical, emotional and psychological disorder and illness that can occur when work is psychologically very challenging and also requires continuing efforts, participation and contribution from a particular person.
Burnout is also seen as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that occurs frequently among individuals who do ‘people-work’ of some kind.
Academic burnout can be defined as a negative emotional, physical and mental reaction to prolonged study that results in exhaustion, frustration, lack of motivation and reduced ability in school. It is rather more of a chronic condition from long-term study or school work.
Therefore, Students experiencing frequent burnout symptoms will, therefore, be unable and unwilling to expend effort on study-related tasks. Accordingly, this lack of effort is likely to inhibit academic achievement.
Academic burnout comprises of three main sub-categories: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic inefficacy.
Emotional Exhaustion
Exhaustion related to stress that a person experiences, exhaustion reduces the physical and emotional resources of that person subsequently. It is the major element of burnout. Emotional exhaustion is the demand of work situation or environment that lowers the ability of a person to work with other people. Emotional exhaustion reduces the ability of a person (like student, employees, teachers) to interact with other people and to fulfill their desires and demands. Burnout syndrome begins with emotional exhaustion, it is the first component of burnout and then it leads to depersonalization and then due to exhausted people businesses do not succeed and fail. The people who usually try to accomplish the demands and responsibilities of their families face fatigue, tiredness and exhaustion at their work.
Cynicism occurs when people behave immorally in the society and this behavior considers as a normal behavior. In other words cynicism arises when people show negative behavior towards their tasks, work, jobs, society and people, so, it is a negative term. Therefore, become negative, distrustful, cynical and unenthusiastic for other people and objects is cynicism, as it is showing negative attitude towards institute or organization therefore it unable the people and institutes to achieve their objectives and goals. Cynicism directly effects on the academic satisfaction of students and indirectly effects on their academic achievement and overall performance.
Academic self-inefficacy
Academic efficacy could be describe as, with the help of motivation and engagement, students’ abilities to discover the opportunities and to find out barriers in the way of getting those opportunities. The academic efficacy increases academic performance in the presence of academic engagement. self efficacy of teachers have an influential result on the students, when teachers provide comfortable environment then students have more confidence and show positive attitude towards their studies which leads to high academic performance and achievement.
Student’s academic performance in terms of education can be define as, the measureable, assessable and observable actions of students in a specific condition like students’ scores in examination.
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.
Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.
Students are the essential part of institutes and the progress of institutes depends on them, similarly, they mainly contribute in the prosperity of the country. But now-a-days students are suffering from many problems in their institutes, due to the burden of work and technological changes they are getting stressed and facing burnout syndrome. Performance here is the sum of abilities, motivation and opportunities.
Academic performance is described as the academic grades and performance of students in exams. So, Performance reduces when students faced burnout syndrome. people who are facing the burnout problems are more likely to engage in absenteeism, less self confidence, low satisfaction to their work and turnover intentions. So, the burnout syndrome has become a critical issue for students and institutes because it directly affects the well-being of students and then as well their performance.
Students who experience academic burnout usually demonstrate symptoms such as: lack of participation in classroom activities, inability to maintain a steady presence in classroom and learning, and lack of interested to lessons. Individuals suffering from burnout feel exhausted, uninterested, and ineffective; instead of feeling energized, interested, and efficacious. Academic burnout may disrupt students’ enthusiasm to pursue learning and may have negative effect on academic performance
Learners experience academic burnout and this adds to the evidence that academic burnout is a warning signal to academic achievement. It is therefore recommended that an approach geared towards exploitation of students’ talents be adopted to enhance the acquisition of prerequisite competences for the 21st century skills, as opposed to an examination-oriented curriculum that creates academic pressure on learners.
It can be conclusively said that when academic burnout increases then motivation level decreases in students which automatically leads to poor academic performance of students.
Education / Street Hawking: Girl Child Education And Academic Achievement by uniprojectM1: 9:06am On Jun 05
Street hawking is one of the fastest growing events in Nigeria; in every street, there are children both boys and girls hawking just to make a living. Street hawking started as a result of poor socio economic status or background of parents; it could also be the issue of child trafficking or death of one’s parents. But from the findings from most undergraduate projects, street hawking tend to have a correlation with the socio-economic status of parents or guidance.
Street hawking
Street hawking is seen as a form of child labor that is caused by greed- the quest to get riches propels young boys and girls into doing a lot of things they are not supposed to do all in the pursuit of livelihood instead of employing their youthful strength on farming to produce enough food for the family. Street hawking is also exposed to a lot of risk and dangers, like in most city centers, traders could easily be knocked down by moving vehicles. Beside, street hawking has denied many children of school despite their ripe age of going to school. Teenage pregnancy is very common among street hawkers in terms of girl-child; teenage girls who hawk are gradually introduced to some anti-social vices; street hawking among young school students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behavior, juvenile delinquent behavior, which takes most of the student school time that necessitated the poor academic performance and drop-out syndrome noticed among young school students. The children who work suffer from fatigue, irregular attendance at school, lack of comprehension and motivation, improper socialization, exposure to risk of sexual abuse and high likelihood of being involved in crime. During hawking, children reached the most interior part of every street in urban setting thereby exposing them to dangers. She further went on to say that the consequences street hawking has on the family and society are that this children that hawk may have dubious character especially the boys as they come in contact with other children or adult with questionable characters in areas like motor parks, stadiums and in uncompleted buildings in the town. Sexually transmitted diseases are on the increase as these teenage hawkers want to be on the reigning fashion will embark into prostitution in other to make money. As they engage in this pre-marital sex, they count all on their gains without counting on the after effect. As these children who are still growing continue to carry goods on their head though the day and some of these loads may be too heavy for their ability, this can affect their growth which could result to stuntedness.
Girl child education
Girl child education is an act of training the female folks, intellectually, morally and physically, so that they can fit into the present day society. Education is the most valuable possession and the best legacy any parent can give to his or her daughter. Girl child education is that education given to female children at different stages and ways it is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities to become effective participants of a given society group. Girl child education is the process that brings about well esteem, which helps in promoting participants that reflects in the society at large. Girl child education is the development of skills, knowledge, ability and character by the female child through teaching, study or experience in a formal place of acquiring knowledge. Girl child education as the gradual acquisition of what is worthwhile from birth till death by the female children; therefore, girl child education in a nutshell is the skills, knowledge and values acquired both informal and non formal ways by the female folks that enables them contribute meaningfully to the development of the society at large.
Academic achievement
Academic achievement is often referred and debated in educational policies and discourses. A deep and empirically tested knowledge about the factors that lay on the basis of school learning processes and which impact its development, but mainly about the learning processes difficulties. Both national and international researchers talk about academic achievement but also about educational attainment, giving to these expressions different meanings. Academic achievement is often linked with successful student’s individual capacities and abilities and is defined as the student’s school results, i.e., a student who being in the school system, public or private, with the convenient age, finishes a high school degree or equivalent, successfully, without neither interruptions nor failings”. Educational attainment is a wider concept when compared with academic achievement, as it also embraces other complex variables that are linked with the process of progressing through all schooling levels. Through a literature review, several factors contributing to academic achievement and educational attainment were identified. Collaborative work between qualified full time teacher librarians and curriculum teachers also impact students’ literacy, learning and problem solving. The work developed by school librarians could be an important predictor of students’ academic achievement and / or educational attainment as they can provide access to information, instruct students on information literacy competencies and build a stronger relationship with the whole educational community.
Street Hawking, Girl Child Education And Academic Achievement
Street hawking has a negative effect on the level of education attained, school attendance, school grades, literacy, and overall human capital formation. It is also found to results in low school enrolment with developmental and performance implications. In Africa, and particularly in rural Nigeria, it has been observed that child labourers generally have lower school attendance. When will the children have time to go school when they are busy making money for their parents are guardian who sent them out to the street? In fact, attending school is history for most street children as their parent or guardian are only interested in the money they make. Furthermore, those that are opportune to attend schools lose concentration. During school hours, they sleep in the classroom due to exhaustion and after school hours, they take to the street to engage in their trade. This results in poor grades and lack of interest in furthering their education.
Street hawking is highly detrimental to children’s physical, mental, psychological and social development which cannot be over looked. However, in Nigeria, it appears that child development is grossly abused through the increasing display of hawking in almost all the streets in Nigerian towns. In fact, the proportion of hawking and its attendant consequences has uncontrollably assumed an alarming stage as children between 6-15 years are seen everywhere in the cities hawking wares
Education / Accounting Education: Instructional Materials And Students Performance by uniprojectM1: 2:42pm On Jun 01
In the modern world today, functional education provides the basic instrument for gainful employment, personality progress, economic prosperity, and development moral built up, and positive interpersonal relationships; while lack of its signifies ignorance, underdevelopment, maladjustment, crime, poverty, frustration, among others. Effective teaching may be unavoidable without functional instructional materials to enhance innovative production in modern fields such as science and technology, among others.
Education is the focal point to a country genuine growth and development for every Nigerian child in whatever moral, mental, emotional, psychological and general condition of health. The teachers are also expected to use a wide range and quality instructional materials for effective and efficient teaching and learning classroom activities.
Instructional materials are essential tools in learning every subject in the school curriculum. They allow the students to interact with words, symbols and ideas in ways that develop their abilities in reading, listening, solving, viewing, thinking, speaking, writing, using media and technology. Instructional materials are also print and non-print items that are designed to impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as prints, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, slides, pictures, workbooks, electronic media, among others.
Accounting is the process of recording, classifying, selecting, measuring, interpreting, summarizing and reporting financial data of an organization to the users for objective assessment and decision-making. Accounting is the knowledge and skills acquired to record, analyze, interpret and summarize financial data in any business establishment.
Accounting education can be considered as experience, as practice in learning to learn, and as part of education for business. The aim of accounting education is to help students learn to learn to become professional accountants.
Instructional materials are the content or information conveyed within a course. These include the lectures, readings, textbooks, multimedia components, and other resources in a course.
instructional material is "any device with instructional content or function that is used for teaching purpose, including books, supplementary reading materials, audio-visual and other sensory materials, scripts for radio and television instrumentation programs for computer management packaged sets of materials for construction or manipulation. Instructional material is anything that can be profitably employed to facilitate teaching learning process. Therefore, class without learning material can lead to student's poor academic performance.
Instructional materials support learning content, allow students to engage in the application of concepts and provide an opportunity for evaluation. They are developed to facilitate learner understanding. These materials provide a wealth of knowledge in all topics, offering in-depth information based on facts.
Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives. Instructional materials may aid a student in concretizing a learning experience so as to make learning more exciting, interesting and interactive which in turn improves students’ academic performance. They are tools used in instructional activities, which include active learning and assessment. The term encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor might use to implement instruction and facilitate students’ achievement of instructional objectives.
See project topic on instructional materials for learning accounting education
More so, instructional technology is a systematic way of designing and evaluating the total process of teaching-learning in terms of specific objectives based upon reach in human, communication learning and combine both human and non human resources to bring about effective instruction. Therefore, it is expected to use accurate instructional aids in disseminating knowledge to improve student performance in accounting. A textbook on accounting present information rules and principles, methodology that are used as the basis for the subjects being taught and acts as a guideline for effective teaching. Although, well organized curriculum and good teaching methods are important, effective teaching in accounting depends on accurate supply and use of instructional materials. Instructional materials are very good assets in the teaching learning situation. However, most setbacks for accounting education in Nigeria are being caused by poor prescription or selection of appropriate textbook and teaching aids.
Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching-learning process the availabilities of textbook, appropriate chalkboard, Mathematics kits, Science kit, teaching guide, science guide, audio-visual aids, overhead projector, among others are the important instructional materials
Therefore, the use of instructional materials will assist in teaching and arouse the interest of the learners. A well designed instructional material and available teaching aids may be necessary in improving the quality of teaching because lack of relevant modern textbook written by well read educational personnel on accounting subject has a barrier to effective teaching of the subject.
Education / Early Childhood Education And Self-confidence Level Among Undergraduate Students by uniprojectM1: 10:16pm On May 27
The early childhood environment provides an opportunity to ensure that all children begin school “ready to learn “. In this regard, kindergarten teachers and pre-school teachers are trained to listen for speech language defects, problems, stuttering, articulation disorders and slurred speech. The child is then referred to a speech language pathologist or an audiologist for screening and evaluation. It is well documented that early intervention assists in the child’s growth and development. Thus, the sooner the child can receive services the better the prognosis. In many cities and states, graduate students in speech language pathology and audiology conduct routine screenings of all children enrolled in a pre-school environment. This enables these graduate students to receive some supervision and training in early childhood assessment and enhances their consultation and collaboration skills and prepares them for later practice. Many of these individuals assess both expressive and receptive language skills and do preliminary screening of speech and language as well as an examination of the oral cavity. This early documentation provides a foundational baseline for ascertaining if the child is improving in their vocabulary and language skills and if intervention has been fruitful
The Need For Early Childhood Education
The importance of pre-primary education cannot be overemphasized; it enables children to improve on their self-confidence since they are given opportunity to interact with their peers and adults too. Pre-primary education enhances independence and helps curb the tendency of children that are highly aggressive during group activities. Children’s interactions with their peers and adults help to widen their scope of understanding and they also gain mastery of the world around them. Pre-primary education is vital to the child, parents and society because it permits smooth transition from home to school, because it enables the child to feel free to interact with other people outside his immediate family members. The pre-primary school helps to sharpen the children’s cognitive domain through learning rhymes and songs; while playing on the slides and swings help in physical development and build their muscles. Structured play with building blocks and puzzles, baby dolls, and teddy bears helps in emotional development of the children. At the pre-primary school stage, children learn to share and co-operate with others instead of developing the selfish tendencies. Exposure to pre-primary education goes a long way to teach each child how to understand and manage their emotions. The provision of pre-primary education assists working class parents who have no relation or house help to take care of their children while they are at work. The children will be exposed to reading and writing. Statistical research has shown that children who have experienced early childhood or pre-primary programs are more likely than other children to remain in primary school and achieve good results.
Self-Confidence Level Among Students
Self-confidence is an attitude and students with self-confident believe on their abilities, they are goal-directed, they believe that they will reach their goals and expectations. Self-confidence is not the same in all areas of a person’s life. It is possible that an individual be very confident in one area of life and less confident in some other areas of life.
Self-confidence refers to as someone's power and abilities to perform a task (Merriam-Webster). It involves someone’s feelings, thoughts and courage in improving themselves in performing tasks and activities that the teachers required to perform. It is also their belief on hoe to perform their tasks successfully without any hesitation. While performance tasks are different activities that teachers might required the students to perform and complete. However, performances tasks don not only refer to activities that needs to perform but also assignments, project and quizzes. Self-confidence is a problem that baffles many students. They were having a hard time to cope with that particular problem. Studying self-confidence and performance tasks may aid students an understanding on how important to know the correlation between the two given variables. In performing different activities it does not only require intelligence and creativity. Conducting this study is important, most especially to every student, to know the correlation between students level of self-confidence and performance tasks. Performance task can be classified as the different activities that require to performed and demonstrate. It needs knowledge, skills and creativity in order to accomplish the given tasks. However, performance tasks also refers to Academic requirements that need to submit like quizzes, assignments, project and other things that need to pass on time.
Self Confidence And Academic Performance
It is consistently demonstrated that self-regulated learners outperform their non-reflective counterparts in academic performance measures. However, there is evidence regarding the link between the trait of self-confidence and a real-life academic achievement is scarce. In fact, education research projects examining the predictive power of self-confidence on any psychological and educational factors is limited. Consequently, just as the predictive factors influencing levels of self-confidence in children are unknown, so too is the predictive nature of the Self-Confidence factor itself. The present study examined the predictive nature of the Self-Confidence factor on real-life, school-based achievements. It was hypothesised that students with high levels of self-confidence will have greater school achievement outcomes. However, this relationship should be approached with caution, as it is also possible that good academic achievements result in having more self-confidence. In fact, it is quite possible that both of these relationships co-exist. While causal links may not be determined in the present study (in fact, this study focuses on predictions only), for purposes of data analyses it was hypothesised that higher levels of self-confidence predict greater school achievement levels, and not vice-versa. This is expected due to the time precedence of development of the Self-Confidence factor to current school achievement marks
Early Childhood Education And Undergraduate Students Confidence Level
Knowing the limits of one’s own knowledge and being able to regulate that knowledge, are two essential components of self-regulated and successful learning. If students are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses and can apply such knowledge to their learning, they have the means to improve their cognitive achievements. For example, if a student knows of being weak in a particular subject area, he/she could plan to spend more time studying it. In a test-taking situation, if a student is unsure that an answer is correct, he/ she knows to come back and check it if time permits. In the realm of education, students who are aware of, control, and reflect about their own thinking, are referred to as self-regulated learners.
Education / Mass Communication: Adult Literacy Programme On Radio And Rural Development by uniprojectM1: 5:19pm On May 22
Over the years there have always being a kind of correlation between mass communication, adult literacy programme on radio and rural development. There is advancement in adult literacy programme in Nigeria. The purpose of the implementation of adult literacy programme is to improve rural development. The adult literacy programme kick started via various radio programme.
Mass Communication
Mass Communication is defined as ‘any mechanical device that multiples messages and takes it to a large number of people simultaneously’. Face to face conversation is called interpersonal communication, a college lecture or a public speech will be examples of group communication, when we are involved in thinking process, and it is intra-personal communication. In addition to all these types of communication we also indulge in yet another level of communication when we read newspapers, magazines or books, listen to radio or watch TV. As the message is communicated to a very large number of people or to a mass of people, it is called Mass communication.
See Samples Of Mass Communication Research Projects And Materials
Mass communication is unique and different from interpersonal communication as it is a special kind of communication in which the nature of the audience and the feedback is different from that of interpersonal communication. Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. Both mass communication and mass media are generally considered synonymous for the sake of convenience. The media through which messages are being transmitted include radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, films, records, tape recorders, video cassette recorders, internet, etc. and require large organizations and electronic devices to put across the message. Mass communication is a special kind of communication in which the nature of the audience and the feedback is different from that of interpersonal communication. Mass communication can also be defined as ‘a process whereby mass produced messages are transmitted to large, anonymous and heterogeneous masses of receivers’. By ‘mass produced’ we mean putting the content or message of mass communication in a form suitable to be distributed to large masses of people. ‘Heterogeneous’ means that the individual members of the mass are from a wide variety of classes of the society. ‘Anonymous’ means the individuals in the mass do not know each other. The source or sender of message in mass communication does not know the individual members of the mass. Also the receivers in mass communication are physically separated from each other and share no physical proximity. Finally, the individual members forming a mass are not united. They have no social organization and no customs and traditions, no established sets of rules, no structure or status role and no established leadership.
Adult Literacy Programme
The adult literacy programme that would ensure functionality has the following components:
 Reading; i.e., ability to read up to a particular grade level;
 Writing; i.e., the ability to write clearly and reasonably in a particular language;
 Mathematics: “Numeracy” or the ability to perform basic mathematical operations needed in daily life.
 English as a second or other language (ESOL):
 The teaching of English speaking, listening, reading and writing skills to those for whom it not a native language.
 Cultural literacy: Familiarity with the background knowledge of the cultural heritage of one’s society.
Adult literacy programme can be categorized into two: basic adult literacy and functional adult literacy programmes. The Basic Adult Literacy Programme is mainly designed to arm or furnish the students with the rudimentary skills of reading, writing and computation through the use of the local languages, especially in the mother tongue. The objective here is to equip the learners with basic skills of communication and understanding of their environment. On the other hand, functional adult literacy programmes combine both the teaching of literacy, numeracy and vocational skills. The objective is to equip recipients with skills and knowledge that could make them employable and useful in other spheres of life on completion of training. For this reason, adult literacy learning programmes should take place in the context of development or livelihood activities. Literacy can best be learned by adults through a highly contextual, even individualised programme in which the literacy learners are engaged in doing their own daily life literacy activities “learning by doing” rather than “learning in preparation for doing”, or… “breaking out of the education silo into …” a “literacy second” model, a programme starting with a developmental activity and including informal literacy learning within it”. This type of adult literacy makes the participants useful to themselves as well as to the larger society. In effect, adult literacy programme should not take a single model, rather it should be diversified. It could be argued that a “one-size-fitsall programme” can be a recipe for failure.
Rural Development
The rural, beyond being defined as that which is not urban, is a contested space from a definitional standpoint. Rural can be taken to mean from or of open areas – those outside cities. Rural has a common strand of meaning with country or countryside but is more frequently encountered with such nomenclature in public policy. Rural, as a word, is also endowed with other sorts of value: it is associated with agriculture and farming and people from outside city areas. Connections are made between people from rural areas and the land itself. While a contrasting relationship might be supposed between rural and urban, more properly, a continuum exists between the two as definitions of rural and agriculture are altered due to the forces of modern living and ultimately bear less resemblance to historical identities. Nevertheless, rural areas have a rich history and identity of their own, even while they share some aspects in common with urban areas. Rural development, for purposes of this entry, encompasses efforts that are economic and social in nature, intended to encourage growth or expansion in areas outside cities. This entry considers rural development from a variety of perspectives, including economic aspects, infrastructure and service considerations, socio-cultural factors, and the role of stakeholders
The Importance Of Adult Literacy Programme To Rural Development
Literacy which involves the skills of teaching, writing, and computing, is the bedrock of any meaningful development of any country. No nation can develop beyond it’s literacy level. The human capital resources of a country can function only within the limit of their literacy level. Illiteracy has been recognized as a world problem that hamper development projects especially in developing countries of Africa of which Nigeria is a part. The high level of illiteracy in Nigeria has been a major source of concern for Nigerian government over the years. The awful illiteracy level in Nigeria especially among the women could have informed the giant stride taken by the president towards the eradication of illiteracy by launching Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 1999. UBE Programme aims at combating illiteracy among children; youths and adults by providing free and compulsory education. There is high level of school enrollment as a result of the introduction of UBE. There has been high level of sensitization among illiterate adults, especially women on the need to enroll in adult literacy classes. However, literacy is not acquired for its own sake. It is a means to an end. For adult literacy programme to be meaningful in the lives of the recipients, it has to be functional. Functionality is the ability to transfer knowledge gained from scholarship to solve ones or societal problems. Functional literacy is an intellectual equipment for the individual to enable him/her become not only literate but perform other tasks that are of benefit to him/her and to the society in which he/she lives. Functional literacy is work-oriented, career, or occupation oriented literacy. Women in Africa countries are generally impoverished, live in servitude and relegated to the background due to illiteracy. Therefore literacy programme for the women should not be limited to just teaching of reading, writing and computing. Adult literacy programme for the women should be functional, treating the women participants in a group context within an environment or occupation with a view to satisfying their collective and individual needs in order to make them functional members of their society
The study delved into the functional impacts of Adult Literacy Programme in the family life, trades, and community development roles of the rural women. It was however concluded that some aspects of family and community life of the rural women have not been positively affected by the programme. The areas include: cookery, family planning, and need for peace in their communities. These are vital issues that need to be tackled through functional literacy in order to create enabling environment for meaningful development in the country. The radio programmes on adult literacy has improve the level of enrollment for adult education programmes in most of the rural areas in Nigeria
Education / Why Every Undergraduate Students Need Computer Education by uniprojectM1: 2:15pm On May 16
Even with the advancement in level of technology in the world, some undergraduate students still do not know how to use computer. Most of the student understand their smart phones more than their computer. There are so many reasons why most undergraduate students are not computer literate; it could be as a result of lack of fund to acquire a computer system or go attend a computer training class, it could also be lack of interest and procrastination to learn the use of computer.
Computer Education
In recent times, the world has witnessed a rapid increase in technological innovations. This era ushered in the advent of the electronic computer system among other modern technologies. At present the computer technology has permeated nearly all aspects of human organizational roles and education. Computer encompasses almost all facets of human endeavours. So much has been written on it and its relatedness to all areas of human disciplines, which include computer/information technology, engineering, agriculture etc. However, much work has not been done on computer and its application and relevance to education.
See samples of Research project topics on computer science education
Development in science and technology has brought into lime light the indispensable roles of computer in the area of information technology. It is a new instructional system. Computer has become the ‘nowology’ in our society and possibly futuristic years ahead. In schools, computers are widely used; and the need for computer technology and literacy in the educational system has become more relevant. Computer has been found to be an effective device for presenting an instructional programme.
Computer illiteracy Among Undergraduate Students
To understand the term computer illiteracy, you have to understand what it means to be computer literate. Computer literacy in this context simply means an undergraduate student being able to complete tasks on a computer without assistance. Being able to understand the basic functions of software. As well as how to solve common problems when they arise. Even most beginners can figure out how to turn on a computer. They understand from watching others how a mouse and keyboard work. They may even know how to use a word processor. Anything above that and they get lost. People with moderate computer literacy may understand a few programs commonly used at work. They may understand the basics of things like a virus. But they are lacking in skills that are still basic. For example, they may not understand how to install software of use hot keys. An expert can handle most problems and are capable of using commonly available software. Even most experts in one area are lacking in knowledge of other basic skills. There really is not a question anymore about the role computers will play in our lives. They have rapidly taken over and it will only get worse. Basic computer skills are no longer an option, they are mandatory. You use them for school, work and even in our personal lives. We shop with them, we communicate with them.
In today’s modern world, you can no longer walk into a department store and pick up a job application. You have to go to the website. We do not order merchandise from a catalog anymore, we buy it online. When it comes to just about any type of employment at nearly any level, you will probably be using a computer for at least part of the day. Anything from writing reports, sending emails or tracking inventory everything in the workplace now requires computer skills.
Academic performance
Academic performance is a multidimensional construct composed of the skills, attitudes, and behaviors of a learner that contribute to academic success in the classroom. It is a satisfactory and superior level of performance of students as they progress through and complete their school experience. The implication of this definition is underscored by research which repeatedly demonstrates that the vast majority of students who withdraw from school do so for no reason other than poor academic performance.
Academic performance by students has always been a subject of interest to every educational institution. Whereas there is a consensus that schools should play a major role in this process, there seems to be disagreement about what exactly that role should be. While some believe that the primary focus of schools should be the academic preparation of students. Others however believe that efforts of schools should be integrated with other social institutions such as family and community towards educating children.
Academic instruction is arguably the primary business of education. To this end, schools are expected to influence students’ learning, socialisation, and even vocational preparedness. Despite the attention paid to a broad definition of educational outcomes, however, academic performance remains central. Students’ academic performance is a term that appears frequently married in higher education discourse.
The benefits of computer education to undergraduate students
The world is advancing at a rapid rate. Events have moved to the electronic stage with the computer at the center. This development has brought a lot of innovation and revolution into teaching and learning. The 3R’s which forms the nucleus of the old system of education has witnessed series of literacy reforms. The world is now in the age of information technology or computers age, hence, there is a need to keep abreast of time. One of the ways of achieving this is through the introduction of computer education in our institutions of learning. Computer education is the effort or the ability to make the generality of the people computer literate. Computer literacy means ability to tell the computer what you want it to do and understand what the computer says. To be computer literate amounts to be able to read, write and speak the language of the computer. Computer education encapsulates computer literacy, Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), and Computer Appreciation. Among the terms used to describe computer in a learning environment are Computer-Based Education (CBE), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Computer Supported Learning (CSL), Computer Assisted Learning (CAL), Computerized Instruction (CI), Computer Assisted Teacher (CAI) and the like. In addition, the need for computer education in Nigerian secondary schools lies in the potentials of computer instructional purposes and its utility value. The computer is a tireless, relentless, evaluating teacher which has several modes of instruction at its disposal such as sound, sight and tough. A computer can present words to be spelled, sound to be made, instructions to be followed, images and symbols to be responded to by touching. Computer can be used to evaluate student’s performance and direct student backward, forward and sideways for appropriate learning activities. Its patience, memory and endless capacity for details are assets that defy competition from ordinary teacher. The computer can present diagnostic test, provide branched progrmames to accommodate individual needs, and furnish prescriptive assignments that might refer the student to a textbook, a laboratory experiment or a consultation with the instructor. The computer is diligent and consistent in its mode of operation, as it does not suffer from tiredness or lack of concentration like human beings. Computer performs multi-functional roles in teaching and learning processes at all levels. At the primary and secondary levels of education students can explore and generate learning through computer programme. At the tertiary level, computer can be used to store the daily or weekly observation of experiments in science. It can be used to mix colour, separate colours, scan, draw, design various things and create charts and graphs for instructional purposes.
Education / Equality And Diversity Promotion Can Improve Students’ Performance In Research by uniprojectM1: 1:12pm On May 13
Equality and diversity variation is usually seen mostly in the Nigeria tertiary institution. The discrimination the female students go through from their primary to tertiary institution affect their performance academically even in their choice of undergraduate project topics. Most of the female students end up choosing topics that are less tedious; because they feel is a kind of masculine topic to work on. This is because of the effect of the society and family background on them; most of these female students are usually not encouraged to do better than the male students although there are some female students that still do better. The habits developed by most undergraduate female students started from their primary education to secondary education; this followed these students to their university lives. Equality promotion at the primary education of female students can help boost their performance and their choice of project topic.
Equality & Divcersity Promotion
Against a backdrop of understanding equality and diversity of students in higher education, access to higher education has become a major policy concern for some institutions. Throughout this chapter, the term perceived discrimination would be used to refer to an individual’s perception that he or she is treated differently or unfairly because of that person’s membership. Perceived discrimination against students can be damaging to a university’s name through negative-word of-mouth and decrease in enrollments. Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of discrimination that comes in many forms depending on the perceptions of the individuals affected. International students often experience discrimination in their interactions with faculty, staff, other students, and the community. This discrimination may have an impact on international students’ reluctance to revisit their institution if they feel discriminated against. The continued racial inequality might lead students to internalize negative and racist ideology regarding one’s racial group and identity. In view of all that has been mentioned so far, one may suppose that this internalization in turn may affect the self-efficacy, perceived control, and outcome expectations of some students. One unanticipated finding was that Higher Education can lead to greater, and often more prestigious, career opportunities to all students irrespective of their diversity. Despite changes and challenges experienced by students in higher education, few argue philosophically against an increased openness and diversity within higher education. Most laud the dramatic expansion of university access as commensurate with principles of distributive justice, equal opportunity, and improved social mobility. At the level of individual institutions, each university’s philosophy serves as an integral guiding factor for establishing fair and equitable admissions. An interrogation of their mission statements can offer a lens through which one can view how organizational cultures affect the delivery of student supports on campus, which then influence student equality, diversity, and success
Academic Performance
Performance is defined as the observable or measurable behaviour of a person an animal in a particular situation usually experimental situation. This means that performance measures the aspect of behaviour that can be observed at a specific period. To determine performance, a performance test is conducted. Performance can also be seen as a the type of mental test in which the subject is asked to do something rather than to say something. Performance test is the type of test which throws light on the ability to deal with things rather than symbols. In relation to educational research, academic performance of a student can be regarded as the observable and measurable behaviour of a student in a particular situation. For example, the academic performance of a student in social studies includes observable and measurable behaviour of a student at any point in time during a course. In social studies students' academic performance consists of his scores at any particular time obtained from a teacher- made test. Therefore, we can equate academic performance with the observed behaviour or expectation of achieving a specific statement of or statement of educational intention in a research. Academic performance of students consists of scores obtained from teacher-made test, first term examination, mid-semester test.
Achievement is defined as measurable behaviour in a standardised series of tests. Achievement test is usually constructed and standardised to measure proficiency in school subjects. In most cases, according to them. "accomplishment" is sometimes used in place of "achievement". Educational achievement is measured by standardised achievement test developed for school subjects. What this means is that academic achievement is measured in relation to what is attained at the end of a course, since it is the accomplishment of medium or long term objective of education. What is important is that the test should be a standardised test to meet national norm. For a test to be standardised, it must be valid for over a period of time.
The Need For Equality & Diversity Promotion
 Makes female students feel valued
 Enhances recruitment of students more advanced departments
 Ensures female students have the opportunity to achieve their potential
 Helps to recognise female student’s strengths
 Promotes inclusivity (a sense of belonging)
 Reflects the college community
 Helps to raise standards (academics)
 Promotes social cohesion and good public relations
 Fulfills the College mission and Ofsted requirements
 Encourages tolerance
 Gives female students shared core values
 Makes a better/nicer environment to work/study in
 Helps to create a harmonious, welcoming and safe environment
 Sets standards on how female students should behave
 Broadens students learning experiences
 Promotes a culture a mutual respect and acceptance of others
 Creates an atmosphere in which every female students feels valued
How Equality And Diversity Promotion Can Improve Female Student Performance In Research Projects
Putting an end to discrimination of any form can help boost the confidence of students not only in their academic performance but also in their career choices. Promoting equality and diversity in work place, in primary, secondary and tertiary institution is very important to a healthy working and learning environments for students workers etc. In the area of research projects, the evidence is also there. Promoting equality and diversity among students will improve their relationship with their peers. There will not be any form of discrimination among them and they will feel free to collaborate with each other irrespective of their gender to source for information and materials for their research projects.
Education / Pedagogy In Teacher Education: Effective Teaching And Learning Process by uniprojectM1: 12:50pm On May 09
What constitutes pedagogy is complex and not easily defined. Even the definition of pedagogy appears to be somewhat obscure. Pedagogy can also be defined as any conscious activity by one person designed to enhance the learning of another. Pedagogy is the act of teaching together with its attendant discourse. It is what one needs to know, and the skills one needs to command in order to make and justify the many different kinds of decisions of which teaching is constituted. Pedagogy can also be understood by describing a Pedagogical Setting as the practice that a teacher, together with a particular group of learners creates, enacts and experiences. In doing so they suggest that pedagogy is a joint activity in which the learner has an active role. This offers a different perspective from previous definitions offered and draws in the social interaction between teachers and learners. The variables which help in understanding teachers’ pedagogy are complex and suggest there are many factors that affect practice. Teachers bring far more than just the latest government thinking on how they should teach into the classroom. Practice may be affected, for example by the school environment, a teacher’s position in the school, previous teaching experience, teacher training and a teacher’s own experience of learning.
The Artistry of pegadogy
Based on the notion that pedagogic action is reflexive and based on a normative consideration of the formative growth of another, pedagogy by definition is a creative endeavor. Requiring knowledge about subject matter, students, and self; pedagogy is shaped by deliberative and oftentimes, immediate reasoning. If education is going to live up to its profession, it must be seen as a work of art which requires the same qualities of personal enthusiasm and imagination as are required by the musician, painter, or artist. Much like the artist who turns pigments, clumps of clay or text into artwork, the pedagogue shapes the abilities of her or his students through pedagogic choices. The artistry of teaching is found in how teachers craft action the rhetorical features of language, the skill displayed in guiding interaction, or the selection of an appropriate description of an apt example. In these moments, the artistry of pedagogy is expressed. Pedagogues also share aesthetic concern with artists. In the same manner that an artist carves a piece of wood or strokes a canvas in a certain direction, pedagogues are bound by virtue of the pedagogical relationship to shape the environment for the good of students. Pedagogic action should imbue a sense of love and care for students based on the pedagogue’s commitment to the academic and personal growth of students. Like the artist who “embodies himself in the attitude of the perceiver while he works”. Pedagogues shape their action based on their students’ point of view. Another example is like the jazz musician who knows how to improvise by evaluating chord progressions and the cues of the rhythm section, teachers must also improvise the curriculum pedagogically by responding and acting in the best interests of students. Thus pedagogy is more than method or technique. Pedagogy is the constant production of an experience with students, an artistic expression framed by a normative concern for growth.
Academic Achievement
Academic achievement is therefore a yard stick for ascertaining the capabilities of a student from which his overt, covert and inherent or unrevealed abilities could be inferred. Academic performance is generally used to determine how well an individual is able to assimilate, retain, recall and communicate his knowledge of what has been learnt be it in their undergraduate projects, seminars, paper and other departmental activities. Academic performance is the demonstrated achievement of learning as opposed to the potential for learning. It is knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects usually designated by scores in formal tests or examinations. Academic achievement refers to the observed and measured aspect of a student‘s mastery of skills and subject contents as measured with valid and reliable tests. It suggests that academic performance is different from the academic potentials of an individual. It is the measured relatively permanent changes in an individual‘s behaviour due to experiences acquired. A student‘s academic performance is usually measured by teacher-made tests or standardized tests which in most cases are referred to as external examinations like the Senior School. Academic attainment as measured by the examinations of the traditional kind involves most of the capacity to express oneself in a written form. It requires the capacity to retain propositional knowledge, to select from such knowledge appropriately in response to a specified request and to do so without reference to possible sources of information. The capacity to memorize and organise materials is particularly important. It is quite possible to have a high ability coupled with a low attainment, achievement or performance. Academic achievement is the present attainment or learning of a particular skill or knowledge demonstrated by evidence of some kind, including performance in test. Academic performance is the achievement of a student in terms of aggregate obtained in a test or examination in specific subjects that cover a given academic programme.
The Importance Of Pedagogy In Teacher Education
Pedagogy in educational vernacular has gained currency as a substitute for methods of instruction or techniques of teaching. Based in part on the misperception that teaching is a technical activity, this instrumental understanding of pedagogy rationalizes and reduces the work of teaching to a universally applicable skill set. As a result, the scientific pursuit of pedagogy often excludes the intimate choices and interactions that ultimately constitute instruction. However, considering that teaching is a situated and reflexive activity requiring teachers’ judgment in apprehending events of practice, why curricular and instructional decisions are made are as much a part of pedagogy as the outwardly visible method or approach ultimately taken. Returning to the etymological roots of pedagogue, one finds that the term refers not to a teacher, but a slave who cared for and accompanied a student to and from school. From this perspective, pedagogy as the actions of pedagogues implies an inter-individual relationship, based on the concern of one for another. Moving this relational understanding of pedagogy into the realm of education, teachers stand in pedagogical relation to students. Placed in a position to lead students toward academic and personal growth, the very nature of teaching and pedagogic action is animated by continuous discernment and constant determination. In this sense, the “why” and “what” of pedagogy are fused together by the nature of the relationship between a teacher and student.
In conclusion considering that the nature of the pedagogical relationship between teacher educator and student demands a commitment to the growth of that student, pedagogy demands artistry. However, in the pursuit of pedagogy, positivist conceptions of scientific research in education have muted the deeper and implicit understandings of the interactive and deliberative nature of pedagogic action. Yet, in transcribing and finalizing the artistry of pedagogy into instrumental approaches and strategies the only value free conceptions of pedagogy possible education research stifles access to the moments and deliberations that in many ways are the essence of pedagogy. For teacher education research, self-study provides portraits of pedagogy that are vital in constructing an understanding the dynamism of teaching teachers. In capturing the phenomenon of pedagogical moments or interrogating pedagogic acts, self-study research provides a needed glimpse into the veiled pedagogical understandings of teacher educators.
Education / Agricultural Output In Nigeria: The Need For Government Funding by uniprojectM1: 2:45pm On May 01
Agriculture is always among the major contributors to the economy of any nation (developed or developing). In Nigeria today, there federal government has almost shift completely from agriculture to the oil sector. This made the agriculture sector to remit low revenue to the Nigeria economy.
The major agricultural activities in Nigeria are usually from the rural areas; but lack of government funding to the agricultural sector especially the rural area tend to impede the growth and development of the agricultural sector and the result of this outcome is seen in steady decline of availability of agricultural products.
The growth and development of any nation depend to a large extent, on the development of agriculture. Most of the world active but poor people live in rural areas and are primarily engaged in agriculture. Nigeria is a vast agricultural country, endowed with substantial natural resources which include: 68 million hectares of arable land, fresh water resources covering about 12.6 million hectares, 960 km of coastline and an ecological diversity which enables the country to produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, forestry and fishery products. Despite the articulation of government policies, strategies and programmes and the commitment of Government and donors to the broader framework of sustainable agriculture and pro-poor rural development, the rural communities in Nigeria remain underdeveloped and many complex issues regarding the design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation remain unresolved.
See a recent research project on government funding on agricultural output in Nigeria
The role of agriculture in reforming both the social and economic framework of an economy cannot be over-emphasized. It is a source of food and raw materials for the industrial sector. It is also essential for the expansion of employment opportunity, for reduction of poverty and improvement of income contribution, for speeding up industrialization and easing the pressure on balance of payment.
Agriculture in Nigeria has been neglected for many reasons, but three stands out as critical: poor commitment and capacities in partner countries, international interest in rural issues, and poor commitment and weak past performance in the bank. Actions to address these causes of poor commitment represent the key components of this rural sector strategy. Yet, despite the importance of the rural areas, they have been neglected for long. Usually, there is absence of infrastructures (water, electricity supply and motor able roads) which improve quality of life. The rural areas have low purchasing power. Indeed, the ongoing neglect of rural areas continues to widen the gaps between the rural and urban areas regarding the levels of social and economic opportunities, physical development and available infrastructural services. countries in Africa frequently assign low priority to agricultural growth and rural development because; they view agriculture as a declining sector; as countries develop the share of the rural and agricultural sectors in production (GDP) and employment shrinks relative to the industrial and service sectors. Many developing countries have focused resources on the urban and industrial sectors, often at the expense of the rural sector. They failed to recognize the critical importance of productivity improvements and growth in the rural sector in the long transition from an agrarian to an urban-industrial society. Falling real food prices over the last two decades have led to complacency toward the agricultural sector. Over the past two decades real cereal prices have declined, reducing the returns to irrigation and other investments in agriculture. While much of the decline in prices has been due to technological improvements, some of it results from the protectionist agricultural policies pursued in Nigeria. The rural poor have little political power. Because rural populations are geographically dispersed, and because rural communications and transportation infrastructure is often poor, rural people have great difficulty organizing and expressing their preferences through political processes. The rural poor, women in particular, have little political voice. Urban elites pursue policies that disadvantage the agricultural sector. These policies include excessive taxation through overvalued exchange rates, industrial protection, export taxes, and low urban food price policies. This policy set, often identified as urban bias, has been pervasive in many countries. Rural elites are often able to obtain some compensation, but this amount is insufficient to offset urban bias, and often aggravates the impacts of urban bias on the rural poor.
Agriculture is said to an art of crop growing and livestock production in one hand and scientific way of processing crops and livestock in medium and large quantity via modern bio-technology on the other hand. Agricultural practice is as old as man himself, which stands as mean of livelihood since the ancient time till the present day. Interestingly, over the years, agricultural practice had gone through diverse transformation in terms, scope, form that dictate the type of crop(s) to be cultivated, livestock management and down to processing and marketing. Agriculture plays central role in economic emancipation of any developing economy and Nigeria is not exceptional from this. Government expenditure means the expended funds from the fiscal allocation, mostly on yearly basis across the whole sectors of the economy towards achieving growth objectives. While government expenditure on agriculture growth is said to be the total allocative resources set assign from the annual budgetary allocation specifically meant for enhance agricultural output through crop and seedling development, procurement of fertilizer and mechanized tools, agricultural research and development among others, so as to attained economic growth objectives. It is worthy to note that Rostow’s growth theory posit five stages of economic growth thus; firstly, the traditional society that emphasis more acquisition of land for cultivation so as to expand the volume of trade, which could rise general income level; secondly, the pre-condition to take off analysis the transition period that is characterized by inventions and innovations. Thirdly, the takeoff era predominantly characterized by new discoveries that bring an end to feudalism, which consequently give rise to discoveries and inventions and consequently the rise to bourgeoisies and emergence of new mercantile cities. Fourthly, the drive to maturity mainly addresses deficient high mass production to sufficient production via the needed transformation. Fifthly, the era of high mass consumption which is basically explain migration, use of automobile, where society is faced diverse production needs of the consumers
In conclusion, government funding will improve the agricultural sector and enhance intentions towards farming especially in the rural areas in Nigeria.
Education / Mergers And Acquisition: How They Affect Business Growth by uniprojectM1: 6:17pm On Apr 28
Business Organizations are established to achieve certain corporate objectives including corporate growth and increases in profitability. Growth is a major yardstick by which the success of a business firm is measured. Given that business organizations operate in a dynamic macroeconomic environment such growth is threatened in periods of volatile economic instabilities. The resultant effect of the recent world economic meltdown is a financial crisis among corporate organizations. One strategy open to corporate organizations during the periods of economic crisis is Merger and Acquisition. Companies have been combining in various configurations since the early days of business. Nevertheless, joining two companies is a complex process because it involves every aspect of both companies. For instance, executives have to agree on how the combination will be financed and how power will be transferred and shared. Also the companies must deal with layoffs, transfers, changes in job titles and work assignments etc. The most popular forms of business combination are mergers, acquisition and consolidations. Merger and acquisition is at its infancy stage in Nigeria compared with other developed countries. Merger and Acquisition is an important concept that contributes to the growth of a national economy through increase in productivity and profitability. More so, mergers and acquisitions can make companies stronger by expanding their consumer base, reducing marketplace competition and creating value that is greater than each company offers individually.
A merger refers to the combination of two or more organizations into one larger organization. Such actions are commonly voluntary and often result in a new organization name (often combing the names of the original organizations). A Merger can also be said to be a transaction involving two or more companies in which shares are exchanged but in which only on company survives. A merger entails the coming together of two or more firms to become one big firm. Thus, one can conveniently refer to a merger as the mixing of entities resources for growth and renovation.
See project material on mergers and acquisition and business growth
Acquisition is the purchase of one organization by another. Such actions can be hostile or friendly and the acquiree maintains control over the acquired firm. Acquisition is the purchase of a company that is completely absorbed as an operating subsidiary or division of the acquiring company.
Acquisition is the taking over or purchase of small firm by a big firm, both of which are pursuing similar motives. Acquisition is an act of acquiring effective control by one company over assets or management of another company without any combination of companies. Thus, in acquisition two or more companies may remain separate legal entities but the control of companies resides in one place.
i. Income Enhancement: A firm may discover that despite all effort on its side a strong sustainable and profitable competitive position cannot be produced without a change in the share of the market. A fundamental reason for acquisition is the desire to enhance income. A combined company may generate greater income than two separate companies. Increased income may come from improved marketing, strategic advantage, monopoly power and increased market share. As regards to marketing, a merger can bring about a significant improvement in previously ineffective media programming and advertising efforts , a weak existing distribution network and an imbalance product mix.
ii. Improve the value of Securities: Large growing firms have earnings capitalized at lower rates, which produces higher market values. The stock has better marketability, thus reducing risk and allowing for higher price earnings ratio.
iii. Synergy: This is yet another reason for merging. This is a situation where the product of the merger is in the excess of the value of the aggregated value of the entire firm considered together. This is often referred to as the two plus-two equals five effect. It also implies when a firm acquires another firm in the same industry, a lot of duplicated activities in the marketing research, purchasing and administrative areas. For example financial benefits can be achieved in a merger between airlines by eliminating the duplication of existing facilities and runs. In an industrial organization, synergism can occur not only with elimination of duplicated operations but also with a rounding out of the product line in the hopes of increasing the total demand for the product of both companies.
iv. Economic of scale: The concept of economics of scale can be defined as being realized when the firm is operating at or close to the minimum point of its average cost curve. Similarly, economics of scale occur when average cost declines with increase in volume. Economics of scale are possible not only in production, but also in marketing, purchasing, distribution, accounting even finance the idea is to concentrate a greater volume of activity with a given facility into a given number of people into a given distribution system etc. that is increase in volume permits a more efficient utilization of resources.
v. Use Excess cash: A company might find itself with more cash than it requires presently in business operations. It then looks for another business to buy. This is necessary because cash in sterile and its proper use is not made of such excess cash, the company might find itself over capitalized. It is widely argued that the only true justification for a merge is to achieve operating economics when the objective of the firm is to maximize the wealth of the shareholders.
In the world of business, merger and acquisition constitute a powerful growth tool used by companies to achieve long term growth and increased revenue or profitability. Synergy created by related merger and acquisition positively influences the profit streams of the firms. It is believed that profit of firms tend to increase in relation to the degree of relatedness of companies in merger and acquisition activities. Mergers and acquisition fail to make positive contribution in respect of return on capital employed. Corporate acquisitions are the effect of good performance rather than the cause. However, acquisition also drives performance and growth. Merger and acquisition provide the faster ways to achieve growth or capitalize the firms accumulated assets in order to attain critical mass and strategic positioning. In making its entry decision, a profit- oriented firm would always compare the desirably of entry by internal means and entry by acquisition and then choose the means consistent with its corporate objectives of sustaining organization/business growth.
In conclusion, when two firms merge together as one it will lead to lowest cost of capital, for instance, a big name is perceived by investors as financially balanced, may raise funds at lowest cost as a result of merging, the size will give the opportunity for rational diversification for the purpose of risk reduction. Whenever two firms merged together as one such merging will lead to a large firm since large firm have a greater degree of market influence than small ones, hence this larger firm will have monopoly power. Large scale production may lead to elimination of competition leading to increase sales. The good will of the company acquired can be enjoyed by the new owner; this will also lead to savings in the amount of money spent on fixed assets (capital expenditure).
Education / How To Write Undergraduate Projects With Recent Citations by uniprojectM1: 5:20pm On Apr 25
Research project writing is the final test of academic achievement among undergraduate students in Nigeria. Project writing is very technical especially when a format or instruction is given by your project supervisor. There are some project topics that have limited materials to work with and some supervisors will still demand that student give them a research work with recent citations. Some student end up changing their topics; some even battle with the project till they carry it over to next semester.
Citations are used to show your reader(s) where the information in your paper was originally published. Citations are important because they show your reader(s):
 when the information was published
 who the author of the information is
 which journal or group published the information
 which version the information was published in (usually just for literature)
All of this information about the information you cite in your papers is important because it not only keeps you from plagiarizing1 other people’s ideas, but it also helps you prove to your reader(s) that you know your topic. Many of us might see information on television, the radio, the internet, or social media that is not cited. Usually, we then ask ourselves, “how does this person know this?” or “where did he or she get his/her information?” By using citations, our readers are more likely to trust us and what we write.
Different scholarly and professional organizations have established their own ways of citing information. The most common citation styles that you will encounter in college were developed by the APA (The American Psychological Association) and the MLA (Modern Language Association). Other citation styles include Chicago (published by the University of Chicago), CSE (Council of Science Editors), and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).
It is important to use the citation style that is used in the field you are writing for. For example, many social scientists use the APA citation style for their papers. APA in-text citations include years, but years are not included in other citation styles’ in-text citations. For social scientists, the year that research was conducted is important since research could be conducted various times over multiple years; therefore, if the reader does not know which year the research came from, she or he might not fully understand the paper. Each citation style has details that are important for that field, so be sure to use the citation style that your instructor suggests.
In academic writing, it is important to cite your information two ways: with in-text citations and a bibliography (i.e., works cited page or references page).
In-text citations
In-text citations are citations that are inserted in the main text of your paper. The purpose of these citations is to let your reader know from where a specific piece of information came. If you do not include in-text citations, your readers will be more likely to distrust your credibility as an author and you are in danger of plagiarizing. To avoid plagiarism, you must cite all information that is from another source. That means that even if you put someone else’s ideas in your own words, it still must be cited. You must cite all information that you quote directly from another source, paraphrase, or summarize using in-text citations. There are two ways to include in-text citations in your paper: using a signal phrase or using parentheses.
Signal phrase
An effective way to include in-text citations is by introducing the author’s name in a signal phrase and adding the page number at the end of the quotation or paraphrase. A signal phrase is simply a phrase that signals to your reader that a citation is coming soon in your paper. In the examples below, the signal phrase is in bold text. Use signal phrases to cite information the first time it appears in your paper. After that, you can use the parenthetical citations
Parenthetical citations
Parenthetical citations use parentheses to show from where the information you are using came. Inside the parentheses, you will include the author’s last name, and in some cases the year and page number.
Bibliographies are called different things depending on which citation style you are using. In MLA, for example, it is called the Works Cited page, and in APA, it is called the References page. The bibliography shows your reader all relevant information regarding your sources. In your bibliography, you typically need to include the following information for each source.
 The author’s name
 The title of the source
 Publication information
 Date of publication
When you list electronic sources in your bibliography, you often need to include the following.
 Website publication information
 The date you accessed the information
Different citation styles require that you include different information, so be sure to consult reliable citation style resources to ensure that you are including the correct information. For examples of bibliographies from different citation styles, visit the Mary Stangler Center for Academic Success, or see the Resources section on the next page.
Undergraduate research is an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline. Undergraduate project is an academic assignment (or research) undertaken by a student towards the completion of his/her academic pursuit of a first degree as stated in his first degree curriculum.
See samples of Undergraduate Project Topics In Pdf And Doc
Undergraduate research projects can be designed to fit a variety of class constructs and to promote student learning at all levels of undergraduate education. It is also a task undertaken by student(s) within a given period of time in a given subject area aimed at making the student have independent capacity for inquiries and to supplement and as well complement formal teaching in his area of study. This enables the student hone-in the theoretical course work in the university. There is no doubt that the exercise will reveal to the lecturer who is assigned to supervise the student, the student’s area of strength and weaknesses. When these weaknesses are corrected during lecturer – student interaction, the student comes out to be the pride of the university – the alma mater.
Undergraduate research projects can be student or faculty initiated, and students can either participate in a work in progress or enter a project at its start. Undergraduate research is the exploration of a specific topic within a field by an undergraduate student that makes an original contribution to the discipline.
Writing projects with recent citation is usually difficult for undergraduate students who have not writing projects before. Well I’m writing this article to educate as much undergraduate students I can on how to write projects with recent citations. On a normal basis a student will type his/her undergraduate project topic on google and attach pdf at the end; this will display results of journals in pdf form. If you want to write your projects with recent citations, or you need to do is to types you the variables in your topic one after the other; at the end of each variable you typed on google attach pdf and the year you want google to display for you.
For example: Effect of monetary incentive on workers productivity pdf 2010
You will observe that most of the results are showing journals with recent citations. Any year you want your citation to begin with, you simple put that year at the end of the variable you types on google.
In conclusion writing project with recent citation is very interesting; the act of typing a topic on google and adding pdf and the year you want your citations to start from tend be effective in giving student a good research work.
Education / Anxiety Or Gad; Which Do Students Suffer The Most? by uniprojectM1: 12:58pm On Apr 18
Anxiety is a normal emotional reaction to stress, which is a biological response to a threat. Anxiety helps us get out of harm’s way and prepare for important events, and it warns us when we need to take action. When anxiety is persistent, excessive, seemingly uncontrollable, overwhelming, and disabling or when it interferes with daily activities, you may have an anxiety disorder.
When worrying goes on every day, possibly all day, generalized anxiety disorder can disrupt social activities and interfere with work, school, family, relationships, and your general sense of well-being. GAD is also a risk factor for depression; these two disorders frequently occur together.
GAD is characterized by excessive worry and symptoms of physiological arousal such as restlessness, insomnia, and muscle tension. Anxiety is a basic human emotion that consists of fear and uncertainty and usually it occurs when an individual believes that the event is a threat to self or self-esteem. Anxiety can also be state or trait depending on its duration. Anxiety blocks the normal thought processes. It favors a passive approach to material rather than interaction with it. Anxiety is the human emotion that everyone experiences. Students experience problems during their studies, and feel anxious when taking exams or making significant life decisions.
Undergraduate students have a great deal to create anxiety, especially in study process. These are like difficulty of subjects, new roommates, identity crises, cultural shock, and relationship problems in increase the anxiety. Anxiety disorders are rising among students. But keep feeling anxiety could be interrupt students’ performance. Individuals in high anxiety levels have experience symptom age during university years.
Anxiety is a basic human emotion consisting of fear and uncertainty that typically appears when an individual perceives an event as being a threat to the ego or self esteem. Anxiety is defined as an emotional state consisting of feeling, tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry with activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system, these are differentiated as state and trait anxiety. Individuals with high levels of anxiety generally hold heightened levels of trait anxiety, but in evaluative situations, the state anxiety also elevates.
See project topics for undergraduates on axiety and gad
Anxiety is also an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure. People with anxiety disorders usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns. They may avoid certain situations out of worry.
Anxiety is a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of worry, anxiety or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one's daily activities. Examples of anxiety disorders include panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Symptoms include stress that's out of proportion to the impact of the event, inability to set aside a worry and restlessness.
Treatment includes counseling or medication, including antidepressants.
Although early exposure to stress and the experience of trauma are important risk factors for anxiety disorders, evidence also highlights biological causes, such as issues with the regulation of neurotransmitters and heritable genetic causes.
Stress – and particularly continued exposure to stress has been linked to anxiety, as well as having a negative impact on the body’s immune, cardiovascular, neuro-endocrine and central nervous systems.
Physical health problems -can also cause or perpetuate anxiety disorders. In patients with a malignant disease, for example, a response of anxiety is understandable; however, in some patients, anxiety may increase to a level that is disproportionately high and that, if it does not improve, can lead to functional impairments.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about events or activities. Worry often interferes with daily functioning, and sufferers are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health, finances, death, family, relationship concerns, or work difficulties. Symptoms may include excessive worry, restlessness, trouble sleeping, exhaustion, irritability, sweating, and trembling.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. Individuals with GAD find it difficult to control their worry. They may worry more than seems warranted about actual events or may expect the worst even when there is no apparent reason for concern.
Generalized anxiety disorder can occur at any age. The condition has symptoms similar to panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other types of anxiety. These symptoms include constant worry, restlessness and trouble with concentration. Treatment may include counseling and medication, such as antidepressants.

Undergraduate studies are a challenging time for students to adapt to the multi-functional roles and responsibilities of a university life. Studying as an undergraduate in a university requires a strong commitment and dedication from a student. It comes at a cost of living away from the comfort of home and family and taking responsibilities of an adult. Student experience anxiety during semester examination and undergraduate projects defence.
Although anxiety is a common undeniable phenomenon in human being’s life that affect their performance and effectiveness in different situations, an average level of anxiety is useful in keeping people hardworking and responsible of what they have to do, and also helpful for people in having a more sustainable and prosperous life. High level of anxiety threatens individuals' mental and physical health and has a negative effect on their personal, social, familial, occupational, and educational performance. One of the broadest research areas in recent years has been test anxiety and its dimensions.
It can be concluded that anxiety is manifest by disturbances of mood, thinking, behavior, and physiological activity and accompanying disturbances of sleep, concentration, social and/or occupational functioning. Also, it is associated with restlessness, feeling keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty in concentrating or mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, and irritability. And all of these can make one lose his/her self confidence in anything which may or may not turn out excellently well.
Education / Lecture And Demonstration Method Of Teaching: What Is The Difference? by uniprojectM1: 6:21pm On Apr 10
In the field of teaching-learning, it is necessary for teachers to be familiar with and knowhow of using great many materials techniques, ideas and special skills which is referred to as teaching methods. The teacher should adopt method that would enable the students to understand whatever concepts or topics or principles that are being taught. There are varieties of methods for teaching-learning such as inquiry, problem-solving, case studies, field trips and demonstration. All these methods rely on various forms of teacher students activities; however, some have more activities than others.
See Samples Of Undergraduate Projects And Research On Teaching Methods
Demonstration method (DM) has been recommended for teaching the contents in school curriculum. This approach utilizes several senses; students can see, hear and possibly experience an actual event, it stimulate interest, present ideas and concepts more clearly, provide direct experiences and reinforce learning. It requires pre-preparation or it may limit student’s participation.
Lecture Method (LM) on the other hand save time and energy of the teacher, as teacher can say one thing to the whole students at the same time. It helps the students to develop and improve the ability to listen attentively to the teacher but it kills students. It has been observed that female student prefers seeing them than hearing while on the other hand; male students prefer hearing them than seeing in teaching-learning process. Methods for teaching and learning should therefore be made stimulating and attractive to students in addition to being the means of preparing and selecting the next generations of students of higher education who in turn become the nation’s professional teachers or leaders. In the same vein, it has been discovered that prevailing teaching methods predominantly employed by school teachers at all level in Nigeria is teacher-centered, involving showing, telling and observing. Ideally, an effective method of teaching must integrate the nature of the subject into it, with the mode of inquiry, strength of the knowledge, theory, practice, and models used. By this, students are made to participate both mentally and practically in the teaching and learning activities in the class or laboratory as the case may be.
Lecture method of teaching is the oldest teaching method applied in educational institution. This teaching method is one way channel of communication of information. Students’ involvement in this teaching method is just to listen and sometimes pen down some notes if necessary during the lecture, combine the information and organized it. However, one of the problems in this method is to grab the attention of students in class room. Another big problem is that many students in the class cannot follow the theme. Learning has a strong influence on method of teaching. More so, lecture method is the oldest method of teaching. It is based on the philosophy of idealism. This method refers to the explanation of the topic to the students. The emphasis is on the presentation of the content. The teacher clarifies the content matter to the students by using gestures, simple devices, by changing voice, change in position and facial expressions. Teachers are more active and students are passive but the teacher also asks questions to keep the students attentive. This method is economical and can be used among large number of students. It saves time and also covers syllabus. It is the simplest method for teachers and does not require any arrangements. It gives the students training in listening. It provides an opportunity an opportunity for better clarification of the topics and lying stress on significant ideas. It brings a personal contact and touch to impress or influence the pupils. This method is useful in large classes, but it also has some limitations. This method makes the students passive listeners. There is very little scope for pupil activity. It is against the principle of learning by doing. It does not take into consideration individual differences. It does not develop power of rezoning of the students. It becomes monotonous to the students. Though this method has much limitation but still it is the most used method. The lecture method can be made effective by using following points matter should be arranged properly. Teacher should have process in between the lesson. These should be abundant repetition of the topic. The teacher should encourage the students to ask questions teaching aids should also be used to make the lecture effective. The content of the lecture should be logical and according to the standard of the students. Furthermore, lecture method is most convenient and inexpensive method of teaching any subject. It hardly requires the use of scientific apparatus, experiment, and aids materials except for the black board. Lecture method is teacher controlled and information centered approach in which teacher works as a role resource in classroom instruction. In this method, the only teacher does the talking and the student is passive listens. This creates dullness in the classrooms as the interaction between the pupil and teacher ceases to occur.
In the field of education, lecture method is used very frequently. This method is used in order to acquire knowledge and concept. Lecture method mainly focuses on cognitive objectives. The main emphasis of this strategy is the presentation of the content. In this method teachers plans and controls the whole teaching – learning process. To make the lecture interesting, the teacher can take the help of audio -visual aids.
A method demonstration is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a step-by-step process.
A method demonstration is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a step-by-step process. As you show how, you “tell” what you are doing. A demonstration always has a finished product. The key to a good demonstration is for the audience to be able to go home and do what you have taught them how to do.
Demonstration method of teaching may enable learners to evoke the “wow” experience. This consequently can increase their curiosity and enhance their reasoning abilities. In addition, it may have an impact on students’ achievements. Moreover, there are occasions in which teachers' demonstrations are educationally more effective than are students' own experimentations. Demonstrations encourage generalization because they promote active participation on the part of the students. Demonstrations in use as a teaching strategy may prove beneficial for students with different or special learning needs. It is assumed that, when combined with traditional methods, demonstrations can be effective for low-achieving students with high visual and spatial intelligence but with limited cognitive abilities.
In teaching through demonstration, students are set up to potentially conceptualize class material more effectively as shown in a study which specifically focuses on chemistry demonstrations presented by teachers. Demonstrations often occur when students have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories.
Lecture method is the oldest method of teaching. It is based on the philosophy of idealism. This method refers to the explanation of the topic to the students. The emphasis is on the presentation of the content. The teacher clarifies the content matter to the students by using gestures, simple devices, by changing voice, change in position and facial expressions. Teachers are more active and students are passive but the teacher also asks questions to keep the students attentive.
While demonstration method is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a step-by-step process. A method demonstration is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a step-by-step process. As you show how, you “tell” what you are doing. A demonstration always has a finished product. A demonstration always has a finished product. The key to a good demonstration is for the audience to be able to go home and do what you have taught them how to do.
Demonstrations can serve as an effective platform for enhancing students’ understanding of certain teaching concepts as well as increase their motivation and interest to learn. But in lecture method, the emphasis is on the presentation of the content. The most important thing is for teachers to identify which method suits each subject as well as students performance.
Education / Mind Wandering Among Undergraduate; How To Avoid It by uniprojectM1: 9:28pm On Mar 29
It is unreasonable to expect students to continuously pay attention while listening to a lecture, reading a textbook, or studying for a test. The mind naturally wanders, shifting attention from the primary learning task at hand to internal, personally relevant thoughts. Many of the activities that take place in schools and colleges require that students attend to the classroom environment for a sustained period. In many of these environments, it is common to catch our minds wandering and to notice that instead of paying attention to lectures, seminar or experiment for undergraduate projects and other learning activities our awareness will be directed elsewhere.
Mind-wandering is one of the most ubiquitous of all mental activities. Estimates suggest that the tendency for the mind to stray from the here and now in favor of thoughts unrelated to current external events constitutes as much as 50% of our waking hours. Notably, these incessant mental meanderings come at quite a cost, significantly disrupting performance on a great range of activities ranging from the banal to the most demanding. This is because most of our activities occur in interaction with the external environment, and mind-wandering is characterized specifically by a decoupling of attention from an immediate task context toward unrelated concerns.
This experience of having our thoughts wander from a task we are engaged in to our internal thoughts or feelings is a universally experienced phenomenon commonly referred to as mind wandering. Mind-wandering is a common everyday experience in which attention becomes disengaged from the immediate external environment and focused on internal trains of thought.
Mind-wandering is the experience of thoughts not remaining on a single topic for a long period of time, particularly when people are engaged in an attention-demanding task. Mind-wandering tends to occur when one is driving.
Mind wandering is also a condition in which thoughts do not remain focused on the task at hand but range widely and spontaneously across other topics. It tends to occur during tasks that do not require sustained attention. Mind wandering cannot be scientifically quantified but has been studied using thought sampling and questionnaires.
Mind wandering without noticing it is a quintessential example of temporal dissociation meta-awareness. The pervasive phenomenon of mind wandering occurs when attention is decoupled from the task an individual intended it be directed toward. In many situations, mind wandering may be quite adaptive or at least, harmless. For example, when one is walking to work, it may be helpful to think about what one needs to do that day, rather than devoting all attention to the non-demanding task of walking down the sidewalk.
The fact that individuals mind wander even when engaged in tasks that they recognize as being undermined by mind wandering illustrates how easy it is to temporarily lose track of what is going on in one's mind, that is, to have a temporal dissociation of meta-awareness.
The causes of mind wandering especially when reading are lack of concentration, distraction of any kind, thoughts that are contrary to what you are reading etc.
Reading comprehension is a task that involves both externally-directed attentions in reading the words on the page as well as a good deal of internally-directed attention to the mental representation of the text being constructed. Comprehension of an expository text is a common learning task and involves coherence building processes that manipulate mental representations of meaning in order to construct inferences and elaborations that connect the text with prior knowledge. The overlap between mind wandering regions and discourse comprehension regions indicates that mind wandering and comprehension likely share many of the same cognitive processes. This overlap in processes may also indicate why mind wandering is so detrimental to comprehension.
Difficult texts have more discontinuities in cohesion, which may make it more challenging to maintain sustained control and attention on the comprehension activities. In line with this idea, we expected that mind wandering would occur when a reader had difficulty constructing a situation model of the text because of a failure of executive processing, be it due to control or insufficient executive resources. Furthermore, mind wandering may disrupt comprehension as a result of the reader’s inability to construct a well-formulated situational model of the text.

One of the ways to avoid mind wandering as an undergraduate especially during reading is to first of all seek counseling services. It is advised that you seek professional counseling services. Discuss your issue with the counselor and other reasons why your mind wanders. The counselor will be in a best position to help you as well as help you with tips on how best to avoid mind wandering especially when you are reading or in class for lectures.
Another way to avoid mind wandering as an undergraduate is to try as much as possible to concentrate especially when reading and listening to lecture. Concentration is not just about looking at your text books or lecture notes while studying or even looking at the lecturer during lectures. There is more to concentration than just mopping at whatever activity you are involve in at the moment. Concentration therefore, entails been committed physically, mentally, psychologically and otherwise. The more you concentrate the likelihood of avoiding mind wandering.
Another way to avoid mind wandering is to avoid distraction. As an undergraduate, you must try by all means to avoid any kind of distraction. Make sure your mind and attention is on what you are doing at all times. Learn to pay more attention to whatever activity you are doing even if it means changing your environment.
It is also important that you clear your mind before reading. Clear your mind of any sort of worry or thought that is contrary to what you are reading that way you will avoid your mind wandering.
Conclusively, it is expected that at some point when reading the mind is likely to wander away but the important thing is that you should be mindful not to allow it wander that it distracts you or make you lose focus. Try at all times to avoid mind wandering especially when reading.
Education / Do All Research Projects Require Hypothesis? Lets Find Out by uniprojectM1: 11:19pm On Mar 25
Determining whether or not undergraduate project topics or topic requires research hypothesis is very important for effective and efficient research project writing. The outcome of an undergraduate projects is partly dependent on the nature or the kind of the research hypothesis you choose. The choice of statistical tool(s) for the validation of the stated hypothesis is dependent on the type of hypothesis stated. A research hypothesis that is trying to determine the impact of a variable on the other will push the method of data analysis to the use of non parametric test (chi-square) while the hypothesis that is trying to relate or determine the influence of a variable on the other will push the method of data analysis to correlation method.
Research Projects
Research project is a request or examination directed by an research that makes a unique scholarly or imaginative commitment to the control. Research project is a scholastic task (or examination) attempted by an understudy towards the consummation of his/her scholarly quest for a first degree as expressed in quite a while first degree educational program. Research projects can be intended to fit an assortment of class develops and to advance understudy learning at all degrees of undergraduate schooling. It is additionally an errand attempted by student(s) inside a given time frame in a given branch of knowledge pointed toward causing the understudy to have autonomous limit with regards to requests and to enhance and to supplement formal educating in his general vicinity of study. This empowers the understudy sharpen in the hypothetical course work in the college. There is no uncertainty that the activity will uncover to the instructor who is doled out to direct the understudy, the understudy's territory of solidarity and shortcomings. At the point when these shortcomings are adjusted during speaker – understudy collaboration, the understudy comes out to be the pride of the college – the place of graduation. Research project undertakings can be understudy or workforce started, and understudies can either take part in a work in advance or enter a task at its beginning. Research projectis the investigation of a particular point inside a field by an research understudy that makes a unique commitment to the control.
Research Hypothesis
We cannot take a single step forward in any inquiry unless we begin with a suggested explanation or solution of the difficulty which originated it. Such tentative explanations are suggested to us by something in the subject-matter and by our previous knowledge. When they are formulated as propositions, they are called hypotheses. The hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a tentative solution of a problem. The research activities are planned to verify the hypothesis and not to find out the solution of the problem or to seek an answer of a question. It is very essential to a research worker to understand the meaning and nature of hypothesis. The researcher always plan or formulate a hypothesis in the beginning of the problem. The word hypothesis consists of two words: Hypo + thesis = Hypothesis. ‘Hypo’ means tentative or subject to the verification and ‘Thesis’ means statement about solution of a problem. The word meaning of the term hypothesis is a tentative statement about the solution of the problem. Hypothesis offers a solution of the problem that is to be verified empirically and based on some rationale. Another meaning of the word hypothesis which is composed of two words – ‘Hypo’ means composition of two or more variables which is to be verified. ‘Thesis’ means position of these variables in the specific frame of reference. This is the operational meaning of the term hypothesis. Hypothesis is the composition of some variables which have some specific position or role of the variables i.e. to be verified empirically. It is a proposition about the factual and conceptual elements. Hypothesis is called a leap into the dark. It is a brilliant guess about the solution of a problem. A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. To be complete the hypothesis must include three components –
 The variables;
 The population; and
 The relationship between the variables.
Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore a number of different factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome. In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment do not support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.
Why Some Research Projects Do Not Require Hypothesis
Not all research projects require hypothesis; some of these projects are those that have to do with design and construction, design and implementation, law projects, english and literary studies etc. There are a whole lots of them. This because the projects under design and contruction is not hypothetical in nature; any body designing a project have an expected outcome in mind and he/she will not stop until he/she achieve the aim of his research work. But the projects that require hypothesis usually contains two or more variables that can or not be quantified. The researcher usually get the information he/she need from primary or secondary source. The kind of response he/she gets from her respondents will influence the outcome of the project.
In conclusion, not all project require hypothesis; projects under social science normally require hypothesis but those in the field of engineering, computert science and law do not require hypothesis.
Education / How The Use Of Audio-visual Aids Will Help Boost Students Performance by uniprojectM1: 1:32pm On Mar 21
The use of audio-visual aids or instruction is becoming very popular in the education sector. Visual aids include pictures, textbooks, charts, models, television, films, radio maps, tape recorders, slides, video tapes, strip projectors and overhead projectors. Physical facilities include classrooms, theatres, laboratories, resource centres, etc. As a matter of fact, vocational or trade subjects have advantages in terms of suitability for visual aids because substances and processes are common and can easily be seen and demonstrated. The audio-visual aids are most used for teaching and presentation like seminars, paper, undergraduate project defence and a lot more.
2.0 Audio-Visual Aids
Teaching aids arouse the interest of learners and help the teachers to explain the concepts easily. Undoubtedly, audio visual aids are those instructional aids which are used in the classroom to encourage teaching learning process. Audio visual can also be seen as any device which by sight and sound increase the individuals' experience beyond that acquired through read described as an audio visual aids. Audio- Visual aids are those instructional devices which are used in the classroom to encourage learning and make it easier and interesting. The materials like charts, maps, models, film strip, projectors, radio, television etc called instructional aids. Audio-Visual Aids is also a training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes. Audio-visuals present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources; sight as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic. The term audio-visual material is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language.

See Samples Of Education Projects On Audio-Visual Aids

A text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips. Anzaku further states that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike that materials are considered to be system or body of content of potential value when put to work while equipment or instructions often referred to as hardware, components are the means of presenting such content.
3.0 Academic Performance
Academic instruction is arguably the primary business of education. To this end, schools are expected to influence students’ learning, socialisation, and even vocational preparedness for education courses. Despite the attention paid to a broad definition of educational outcomes, however, academic performance remains central. Students’ academic performance is a term that appears frequently married in higher education discourse. Academic performance is a multidimensional construct composed of the skills, attitudes, and behaviors of a learner that contribute to academic success in education courses. It is a satisfactory and superior level of performance of students as they progress through and complete their school experience. The implication of this definition is underscored by research which repeatedly demonstrates that the vast majority of students who withdraw from school do so for no reason other than poor academic performance. Although the importance of academic achievement is rarely questioned, reaching unanimity regarding its measurement has been elusive. The measurement of students’ academic performance continues to be a controversial topic among policymakers, measurement experts, and educators. Researchers have used a variety of ways to measure academic achievement such as report card grades, grade point averages, standardized test scores, teacher ratings, other cognitive test scores, grade retention, and dropout rates.
4.0 how audio-visual aids affects students performance in education courses
The use audio visual materials bring freshness and variety to the learning experience. They make learning meaningful over a wide range of student’s abilities. They encourage meaningful use of subject matter by allowing negative involvement and active participation. Audio-visual materials technology provides the teacher with means of extending the students horizon of experience in education courses; the main feature of visual materials, lies in the ability to make possible, a wide range of sensory stimuli, by providing a more direction from seeing, doing and trying The best audio visual materials are those designed specially to meet some particular teaching needs. The teacher’s main task is to make his or her student learn effectively. To carry this out effectively, he or she needs the materials also known as teaching materials therefore, most of the effective and useful materials must be constructed by the teachers. Any teacher wished to teach effectively, and efficiently must anticipate the need, and he or she is expected to produce his or her own audio visual materials designed for a particular or specific needs. No matter the efforts the ministries of education may make, to actively promote and encourage the use of audio visual materials, they are bond to yield not much dividend unless the teacher shows them interest in the design, development and use to the audio visual materials. To the end, in service training courses, and workshop, should be conducted from time to keep up the interest and zeal of then teachers. This is with view of enhancing their ability to produce or improved a variety of teaching materials.
5.0 conclusion
In conclusion the use of audio visual aids is very effective in improving students academic performance in education courses. The only challenge that might hinder the effective administration of audio visual aids for education courses are lack of instructional personnels that can use various audio visual aids in teaching and learning.

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