Welcome, Guest: Register On Nairaland / LOGIN! / Trending / Recent / New
Stats: 3,167,070 members, 7,867,044 topics. Date: Friday, 21 June 2024 at 10:04 AM

Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor - Culture - Nairaland

Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor (23659 Views)

The Name Lagos, Was Called Ekonunuame By The Benins / Why Onitsha Is Not An Igboland, It Belongs To Benins / Benins Are The Owners Of Ogboni Confraternity and olokun worship (2) (3) (4)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (44) (Reply) (Go Down)

Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by samuk: 6:46pm On Jul 21, 2019
[b][/b]BENINS WERE THE FIRST EDUCATED NIGERIANS

Dr. Samuel Okafor, the Igbo scholar In an article made available to News Express yesterday, Okafor responds to critics of his claims and sets the records straight on great Nigerians, mainly of the past, from various parts of the country. He also explains his motive and suggests the way forward in Igbo-Yoruba relations. Please read on:

I had earlier made a submission stating that the Binis were the first to be exposed to Western education. This very position which I presented was not well received by a lot of my Yoruba brothers who have gone to great lengths to discredit this true historical fact.

Some have even resorted to outright fabrication of history. They have based their own position on sentiments which have no bearing to known historical research. I have thus decided to provide further historical evidences to further substantiate my previous position, because the very essence of historical research is not to belittle any ethnic nationality but to provide a deeper understanding of our history with a view of correcting some wrong pre-conceived notions held or being propagated by some ethnic nationalities.

In historical research, when one disagrees with another position, that person must provide an alternative and completing evidence to the contrary, and also provide references that can be crosschecked for accuracy. My Yoruba brothers have failed to provide the much required evidence. They have simply stated an alternative position without showing that indeed their position on the balance of historical evidence is the one to adopt. This, as one of my great professors, Adiele Afigbo, would put it, is the lazy historical approach to historical research. I would now provide incontrovertible evidence that the Binis were the first to be exposed to Western education.

THE BINIS WERE THE FIRST NIGERIANS EXPOSED TO WESTERN EDUCATION

I would ask that readers google the name, Ohen Okun. Ohen Okun from historical records held in both Benin archives and in the annals of Portuguese history was the Olokun priest of the port town of Ughoton Benin. Oba Esigie the Great, who reigned from 1504 to 1549, sent the Ohen Okun to Portugal as the Ambassador of Benin to the Portuguese Court. While in Portugal, the Portuguese Affonso D. Aveiro remained in Benin as the Portuguese envoy. Ohen Okun was treated with respect while in Portugal. He later returned to Benin and is described as the first known Diplomat of Nigerian origin to Europe.

A BINI MAN WAS THE FIRST NIGERIAN GRADUATE

Let us go further; who was the first known Nigerian graduate? As this issue has generated so much controversy, it is important that I deal with it comprehensively and provide a clear evidence to substantiate my research. Readers, again kindly google the name Olu Atuwatse (Dom Domingo). Olu Atuwatse was the crown prince of the Bini Empire who was sent to Portugal in 1601 for advanced studies by his father, the then reigning Oba. He graduated from the University of Coimbra in 1611. He was the first Nigerian to obtain a European university degree. He later married the daughter of a Portuguese noble, Dona Feirs. Their son Antonio Domingo referred to in Benin history as the Golden Skinned King succeeded him to the throne in 1643.

Antonio Domingo, a Christian who wanted to spread Christianity throughout the Empire, wrote the Pope in 1652 asking for Missionary assistance. This is the oldest letter written in Nigeria. I think this lays to rest which ethnic nationality produced the first educated Nigerians. If required, I would provide other historical research to substantiate my position further. I ask my Yoruba brothers to provide the same.

Dr Okafor

3 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by tolugar: 6:57pm On Jul 21, 2019
And so??

Don’t have time to read such
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by gregyboy(m): 8:45pm On Jul 21, 2019
The ancient is a shame of today

1 Like

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Blackfire(m): 6:47pm On Jul 26, 2019
Wow wow wow wow wow wow wow
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by RedboneSmith(m): 3:08am On Jul 27, 2019
"Benins were the first educated Nigerians."

LOL. Because education is only education when it comes from Europe? The people of Borno that were going to schools in Egypt and writing books before the Portuguese ever dreamt of coming to Benin. Those one were not educated, abi?

SMH.

14 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by gregyboy(m): 5:56am On Jul 27, 2019
RedboneSmith:
"Benins were the first educated Nigerians."

LOL. Because education is only education when it comes from Europe? The people of Borno that were going to schools in Egypt and writing books before the Portuguese ever dreamt of coming to Benin. Those one were not educated, abi?

SMH.

The issues he is adressing id yorubas claiming they got western education first .....

The people borno attended islamic schools not western

1 Like

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by YourNemesis: 11:33am On Jul 27, 2019
gregyboy:


The issues he is adressing id yorubas claiming they got western education first .....

The people borno attended islamic schools not western

if that was the case, then the Itsekiris were actually the FIRST Western Educated Nigerians and not the Benins.
When Yorubas talk about being the first in exposure to western education they are talking about Western education on a mass societal level, not to a select handful of 1 or 2 royal ambassadors.

9 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by RedboneSmith(m): 3:25pm On Jul 27, 2019
gregyboy:


The issues he is adressing id yorubas claiming they got western education first .....

The people borno attended islamic schools not western

The title should reflect the body of the work. The title says "First educated Nigerians", not "First western-educated Nigerians", which suggests that like many Eurocentric-minded people the OP equates education with western education.

9 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by samuk: 1:32pm On Jul 28, 2019
YourNemesis:


if that was the case, then the Itsekiris were actually the FIRST Western Educated Nigerians and not the Benins.
When Yorubas talk about being the first in exposure to western education they are talking about Western education on a mass societal level, not to a select handful of 1 or 2 royal ambassadors.

Earlier Itsekiris nobility that were exposed to western education were all Benin princes. The entire Itsekiris nobility including the monarch are all Benin descendants.

4 Likes

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by YourNemesis: 3:27pm On Jul 28, 2019
samuk:


Earlier Itsekiris nobility that were exposed to western education were all Benin princes. The entire Itsekiris nobility including the monarch are all Benin descendants.

They were Itsekiris and not Benin, regardless of where their ancestors came from.
So technically, Itsekiris were the 1st not Benins.

8 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by DonCandido(f): 9:29pm On Jul 28, 2019
samuk:


Earlier Itsekiris nobility that were exposed to western education were all Benin princes. The entire Itsekiris nobility including the monarch are all Benin descendants.

The British monarchy is of German origin, the British Royal House is British and their subjects are Britons.

The first Nigerian ethnic group to be exposed to Western Education are the Itshekiris. A Yoruboid group.

The good doctor is wrong in his conclusion.

6 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by lawani: 11:34am On Jul 30, 2019
samuk:


Earlier Itsekiris nobility that were exposed to western education were all Benin princes. The entire Itsekiris nobility including the monarch are all Benin descendants.
and the earliest Benin's were Yoruba speaking peoples

5 Likes

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by gregyboy(m): 7:16pm On Jul 30, 2019
lawani:
and the earliest Benin's were Yoruba speaking peoples


Haha very funny

1 Like

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 10:46pm On Jul 30, 2019
lawani:
and the earliest Benin's were Yoruba speaking peoples

You're right my brother!

Even if arguably the whole populace (i.e. every non-royal Tom, Dick, and Harry of Benin kingdom then) spoke another language (i.e. Edo); there is substantial historical evidence indicating that Yoruba was the official language of the then Benin royal court.


*The first is that:

According to Omo N'Oba N'Edo Erediauwa, in his "Benin-Ife Connection, 2004", young Eweka (born and raised in Benin kingdom in a Benin family) was born dumb in his early days. Erediauwa noted that Eweka's very first words (having won an opponent in a game of "ayò" or "akhue" ) was an exclamation in excitement "in his father's tongue" saying "OWOMIKA"

In other words, the young prince uttered his very first words in Yoruba language --- obviously and certainly the language he had always heard as he was growing up in Benin kingdom.


*The second historical evidence, which is very crucial, is that:

The Obas of Benin (even until as recent as 1937) considered themselves as part of the Yoruba household --- In fact, they attended meetings and conferences of Yoruba Obas, in Yorubaland, where the language of the proceedings was mutually intelligible --- Yoruba language.

The report of the first conference of Yoruba chiefs held at Oyo on 31 March and 1 April 1937, notes in its introduction as follows:


"The chiefs were seated in horse-shoe formation with the Oni of Ife, as head of the town from which all Yoruba have traditionally sprung, at the centre, and the Alafin of Oyo at the western and the Oba of Benin at the eastern end, an arrangement which gave general satisfaction."


See the attached screenshot below for "a sketch of the seating arrangement" as contained in the report.


--- Refer to: "Conference of Yoruba Chiefs, Oyo, 31 March to 1 April 1937", mimeographed, p.1.


**During the second of this conference held at Ife on 16 and 17 March 1 1938, the question of permanent membership was raised, and after deliberation a list of permanent members was announced with the name of the Oba of Benin in third place after those of the Ooni of Ife and the Alaafin of Oyo.


Before the end of the conference, a proposal was made to extend the membership scope to include others from the Western Yoruba provinces. This proposal drew comment from the Ooni of Ife to the effect that this would create certain problems, including that of language. Then he said, 'We understand the Oba of Benin: he is one of us, and today we come together as the children of Odudua'"


--- Refer to: "Conference of Yoruba Chiefs, Ife, 16 and 17 March 1938", mimeographed, p. 44.


This foregoing paragraph shows clearly that the problem of language [which the Ooni envisaged if the membership scope was to include the Western Yoruba subgroups of Dahomey and Togoland (i.e., the Ketu, the Idasa, the Sabe, the Ahori, the Mahi, the Sha a.k.a. the Itsha, and the Ifè of Togo a.k.a. the Ana)] was absent in the then present arrangement which included the Oba of Benin.


In other words, the Yoruba language was mutually intelligible in the then present arrangement.

8 Likes 3 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 2:14am On Jul 31, 2019
YourNemesis:


They were Itsekiris and not Benin, regardless of where their ancestors came from.
So technically, Itsekiris were the 1st not Benins.

The Itsekiris are a Yoruba sub-group, just as other Yoruba sub-groups.

4 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by gregyboy(m): 12:48pm On Jul 31, 2019
TAO11:


The Itsekiris are a Yoruba sub-group, just as other Yoruba sub-groups.


You again yea itsekiris werw yorubas sub grouped which we colonized just as eko,ekiti,ondo and osun the nupes took care of oyo the same nupes benins conquered at idah renamed the town ida
Yorubas has no history outside been conquered by other tribes the only people who conquered benin was the britsh throughout history

2 Likes

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 2:15pm On Jul 31, 2019
gregyboy:



You again yea itsekiris werw yorubas sub grouped which we colonized just as eko,ekiti,ondo and osun the nupes took care of oyo the same nupes benins conquered at idah renamed the town ida
Yorubas has no history outside been conquered by other tribes the only people who conquered benin was the britsh throughout history

I know you must have skipped a heartbeat when you saw my comment, because I have already beaten you black and blue on another topic from where you quietly escaped to this one without uttering a word.

Now to your idiotic comment as it is typical of you:

Nigeria was a colony of Britain, hence Nigerians speak English language alongside our indigenous languages.

Tell us which of your fictitious and imaginary so-called "Benin kingdom colonies" speak Edo language alongside its own language(s). Bring your PROOF!! cheesy grin

Nay! On the contrary, Benin kingdom was a colony of Ife as we've seen many evidence of that. One of the most prominent of the evidence been that Yoruba language was spoken alongside Edo language in Benin kingdom. I have demonstrated this above with historical evidence.

The Yorubas emancipated your ancestors from the dungeon and shackles of Igodomigodo. We scrapped your archaic monarchy called Ogiso, we introduced a relatively "modern" monarchy to you, called Oba. We introduced the concept of crown to you, and much more.

I wonder what your degenarating condition would have been today had the light from Ife not shone on your ancestors and liberated them from the shackles and savagery of Igodomigodo.

You're only seeking relevance for your pathetic and frustrated soul, and you do so with lies, after which you always quietly exit when given the adequate harsh and embarrassing treatment which you deserve and always seek. grin

Lastly, it is only fair that I should assist your case by mentioning to you how urgently you need to see a psychiatrist.

It is obvious from my exchange with you that you're battling delusion of grandeur. I pray that you find help before you're consumed by it.


Mind you, I'm still waiting for you on the other post from where you ran down here.

There is a home-work which you haven't submitted, a home-work from which you fled.

Till then,

Cheers! cheesy

10 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Astark: 9:23am On Aug 03, 2019
TAO11:


I know you must have skipped a heartbeat when you saw my comment, because I have already beaten you black and blue on another topic from where you quietly escaped fo this one without uttering a word.

Now to your idiotic comment as it is typical of you:

Nigeria was a colony of Britain, hence Nigerians speak English language alongside our indigenous languages.

Tell us which of your fictitious and imaginary so-called "Benin kingdom colonies" speak Edo language alongside its own language(s). Bring your PROOF!! cheesy grin

Nay! On the contrary, Benin kingdom was a colony of Ife as we've seen many evidence of that. One of the most prominent of the evidence been that Yoruba language was spoken alongside Edo language in Benin kingdom. I have demonstrated this above with historical evidence.

The Yorubas emancipated your ancestors from the dungeon and shackles of Igodomigodo. We scrapped your archaic monarchy called Ogiso, we introduced a relatively "modern" monarchy to you, called Oba. We introduced the concept of crown to you, and much more.

I wonder what your degenarating condition would have been today had the light from Ife not shone on your ancestors and liberated them from the shackles and savagery of Igodomigodo.

You're only seeking relevance for your pathetic and frustrated soul, and you do so with lies, after which you always quietly exit when given the adequate harsh and embarrassing treatment which you deserve and always seek. grin

Lastly, it is only fair that I should assist your case by mentioning to you how urgently you need to see a psychiatrist.

It is obvious from my exchange with you that you're battling delusion of grandeur. I pray that you find help before you're consumed by it.


Mind you, I'm still waiting for you on the other post from where you ran down here.

There is an home-work which you haven't submitted, an home-work from which you ran fled.

Till then,

Cheers! cheesy
benin kingdom was a colony of ife? I've no time in responding or arguing with Yoruba's, please keep Edo out of your mouth
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 10:41am On Aug 03, 2019
Astark:
benin kingdom was a colony of ife? I've no time in responding or arguing with Yoruba's, please keep Edo out of your mouth

Yes, Benin kingdom was a colony of Ile-Ife.

That you were not aware, or you hate that fact, changes nothing.

Thank you!

8 Likes 1 Share

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Astark: 11:34am On Aug 03, 2019
TAO11:


Yes, Benin kingdom was a colony of Ile-Ife.

That you were not aware, or you hate that fact, changes nothing.

Thank you!
please keep anything Edo out of your mouth, we've no problems with the Yoruba's so please some creating enmity between us.
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 8:28pm On Aug 03, 2019
Astark:
please keep anything Edo out of your mouth, we've no problems with the Yoruba's so please some creating enmity between us.

Stating facts and educating someone who is humble enough to want to be educated, is not one and the same thing as creating enmity.

Do you now understand?

5 Likes

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Astark: 8:55pm On Aug 03, 2019
TAO11:


Stating facts and educating someone who is humble enough to want to be educated, is not one and the same thing as creating enmity.

Do you now understand?
oga leave Edo out of your delusion.

My last reply to you
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 9:33pm On Aug 03, 2019
Astark:
oga leave Edo out of your delusion.

My last reply to you

Could your plea be because you're afraid of facts?

Can you tolerate facts?

5 Likes

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Nobody: 1:01pm On Aug 04, 2019
TAO11:


Could your plea be because you're afraid of facts?

Can you tolerate facts?

I have seen stupid and baseless comments on nairaland but yours is the most foolish I will ever encounter.idiot

All you have is data that you put together in very deceitful ways,just to pervet history.

Ife that was established by a Benin prince was now Benin's colonial master,?

Ewaure's effort to make Benin kingdom an empire should be awarded to the Yoruba's,

Miss I see u have brain problem,
Stop quoting people because u probably are the dumbest Yoruba folk on this forum.

1 Like

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 8:29pm On Aug 04, 2019
Chidorx60:

I have seen stupid and baseless comments on nairaland but yours is the most foolish I will ever encounter.idiot

All you have is data that you put together in very deceitful ways, just to pervet history.

Ife that was established by a Benin prince was now Benin's colonial master,?

Ewaure's effort to make Benin kingdom an empire should be awarded to the Yoruba's,

Miss I see u have brain problem,
Stop quoting people because u probably are the dumbest Yoruba folk on this forum.

Your comment here would definitely earn you a top spot in a ranking of the world's most illogical arguments and ideas.

And that's clearly because it is littered with all manners of logical fallacies, and you still probably haven't realized it even at this point.


Your comment is a classic case of "Since I obviously can't match her argument, then why not I insult her?"

The following, however, is my point-by-point refutation of your arguments (if what you have above can be referred to as arguments in the first place):


(1) You noted (without a single shred of proof) that my argument is baseless and foolish.

But you seem not to realize that your specific claim here is actually the blueprint and hallmark of all baselessness and foolishness.

The simple reason being that you provided no evidence whatsoever for what you claimed. While I, on the other hand, did substantiate the claims in my argument structure with evidence, proof, and reason.

Your claim here is a well known logical fallacy in argumentation. It is called: argumentum ad lapidem


(2) You noted that what I have done is simply to have put "data" (aka facts) together in a deceitful manner. What I (as well as other thinking people) would have expected you to do is:

(i) Point out the facts which you admitted that I adduced; and then, more importantly, show how and where I've deceitfully strung them together. cheesy

(ii) Demonstrate how the same facts should have been put together to support the view you wish to see prevail. cheesy

Your "argument" here is another classic example of argumentum ad lapidem


(3) You noted that "Ife ... was established by a Benin prince".

To put your statement here in a proper historical perspective, I would say: You actually wish that Ife was established by a Benin prince cheesy But human wishes, to the best of my knowledge, can not alter historical facts even in the most minute way.

Did you not consider NOT just making the claim but also adducing evidence, proof, or reason to back it up? Did you not?


But to "help" you out, I am actually aware that you were trying to make reference to the psedohistorical redactions of certain Benin revisionists. Redactions which began in the 1970s with S. B. Omoregie's "Edo History (c. 1970)"; D. U. Edebiri's "Whence the Igodomigodos (1970)"; E. Akenzua's "Benin Was Never A Republic (1971)"; and Air Iyare's "Bini, Ife Dynasties: The True Focus On Our Historical Past (1973)".


These revisions which attempted to overturn the classic account of Benin history, as well as the Ife-Benin Connection, continues through D. N. Oronsaye's "History of the Ancient Benin Kingdom and Empire (1995)", and even up to the present time.

These revisions have it that the only heir of Ogiso Owodo whose name is Ekaladerhan became king Oduduwa in Ile-Ife after he had been exiled from Igodomigodo to Ughoton (Gwato).


Moreover, this ambitious redaction itself is in actual fact "pseudohistorical" and "Apocryphal" first because it is a very clear and obvious spin on Benin's classical account as contained in the classical works of Chief J. U Egharevba (who is regarded by experts and scholar of Benin history the world-over as the most authoritative indigenous Edo historian in the world) which began in as early as 1933.

Writing about Ogiso Owodo, Chief Egharevba is said to have noted that:

" ... His only heir, Ekaladerhan, who would have succeeded him had earlier been exiled to Ughoton; and although every attempt was made to persuade him to return to Benin after his father's banishment, Ekaladerhan refused to leave Ughoton where he eventually DIED."

Refer to: J. U. Egharevba, A Short History of Benin, (Ibadan University Press, 1968), pp. 2-3." cited in G. A. Akinola, "The Origin of The Eweka Dynasty of Benin: A Study In the Use and Abuse Of Oral Traditions", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Vol. 8, No. 3 (December 1976), pp. 22.


Moreover, the above redaction by the Benin revisionists (that Ekaladerhan found his way to Ile-Ife from Ughoton, and then was made king in Ife, etc.) has long been disregarded in academia by scholars and experts of Benin History and the Ife-Benin connection, as pseudohistorical and Apocrypha.


For example, the scholar of Benin History viz. Dmitri M. Bondarenko of the Institute for African Studies in the Russian Academy of Sciences writes, in his "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", that:


"Finally, there are the Apocryphal versions of Benin oral traditions (wherein) Ekaladerhan... some time later ... left Gwato for Ife"

[I hope you bear in mind what is meant here by "Apocryphal"] cheesy cheesy


He continues:

"According to other versions of the kind, after leaving Gwato Ekaladerhan founded another settlement ILE-IFE and became her first ruler under the name of Oduduwa."


After having combed through and presented all the strange versions of the Benin Apocryphal accounts which claim that Ekaladerhan proceeded to Ile-Ife to become a king; D. M. Bondarenko wrapped up his assessment of all these versions of the Apocryphal account by noting that:


"However, a student of ancient Benin might feel obliged to reject the Apocryphal versions without hesitation as deliberately unauthentic. There are no their records made before the early 1970s ..."

He then concluded that:

"There is no doubt that the APOCRYPHAL versions are NOT AUTHENTIC and are not popular. Their authors are representatives of the nationalistically-minded part of the Bini intelligentsia who are seeking to ground the idea of an exceptional antiquity for their people and claims for its exclusive part in the socio political life of independent Nigeria ... Behind such PSEUDOHISTORICAL studies by intellectuals, as if harmless, one can make out serious problems for the country ..."


Refer to: Dmitri M. Bondarenko, "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", History in Africa, Vol. 30 (2003), pp. 67 - 68, Cambridge University Press.


Contrary to the pseudohistory which you would love to peddle around and which has long been crushed and dismissed by scholars (an example of which is shown above), an Ife-Yoruba prince by the name Oranmiyan was the first OBA of BENIN kingdom. Listen to your Oba Ewuare 2 also admitting this fact in the following video at the time-stamp 13:22 to 13:41.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXvXupQwaz0


By now, If you are smart enough and if everything is okay, then you should have noticed how baseless and dumb your claim (that your prince founded or established Ife) really is.

But to add more evidence aside language to my already established argument that Benin kingdom was a colony of Ile-Ife, consider the following submission of Margaret Plass who is an expert on Ife-Benin Connection:


"... the early Oba Oguola --- supposed to have reigned about A.D. 1280 --- applied to his spiritual Overlord, the Ooni of Ife, for the services of a bronze founder to teach his people to make the memorial bronzes formerly imported from Ife, that they might be made in Benin."

Refer to: Margaret Plass: The Art of Benin: An Evaluation Based on Discussions with William Fagg


If the foregoing still isn't enough to kill your thick ignorance, then consider also the following statement found in the attached British Museum/BBC documentary and made by experts on Benin History:

It is stated unequivocally and extremely clearly at time-stamp 47:16 to 49:00 that: The Kings of Benin kingdom paid homage to Ile-Ife


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQY_Jd--pwI&t=2070s


In summary, your claim that "Ife ... was established by a Benin prince" has not only been shown to be an example of the fallacy known in argumentation as wishful thinking; it has actually been demolished and crushed by scholarly evidence.



(4) Regarding your "argument" that it wasn't until Ewaure's reign (1440 to 1473) that Benin achieved the status of an Empire:

Yes, I am aware that Ewuare 1 made many strides during his reign over Benin kingdom, including (among many other things) the introduction of the use of beads into Benin; even though Ile-Ife since as early as the 1100s (or even centuries earlier) already had a bubbling industry of bead production viz. dichroic glass beads known as "segi" or "akori", as well as tubular coral beads known as "iyun". Yes, I am aware of this.


But you are yet to demonstrate how your "argument" that "Ewaure (made) effort to make Benin kingdom (into) an empire" is in any way, shape, or form supposed to be a refutation to my argument that Benin kingdom was a colony of Ile-Ife.

Or how and where I argued that Ewaure's effort "should be awarded to the Yorubas"

Wait a second!, Do you really believe that the fact of Nigeria's once being a colony of Britain is contradictory or mutually exclusive to the fact that Awolowo, Azikwe, Balewa, et al. made some effort to make Nigeria great? Do you?


Your fallacy here is actually two in one, lol:

You not only committed the red herring fallacy, you also committed the straw man fallacy. cheesy


(5) And then you rounded up with a dumb plea (forgetting that it was your brothers who quoted me first and not the other way round) as well as an argumentum adhominem


May God have mercy on your ignorant soul.

12 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Nobody: 11:07pm On Aug 04, 2019
TAO11:


Your comment here definitely would earn you a top spot amongst a listing of the world's most illogical arguments and ideas.

And that's clearly because it is littered with all manners of logical fallacies, and you still probably haven't realized it even at this point.


Your comment is a classic case of "Since I obviously can't match her argument, then why not I insult her?" But the following is my point-by-point refutation to your argument (if what you have above can be referred to as arguments in the first place):


(1) You noted (without a single shred of proof) that my argument is baseless and foolish. But you seem not to realize that your claim here is actually the blueprint and hallmark of all baselessness and foolishness, as you provided no evidence whatsoever for what you have claimed. While I, on the other hand, did substantiate the claims in my argument structure with evidence, proof, and reason.

Your claim here is a well known logical fallacy in argumentation. It is called: argumentum ad lapidem


(2) You noted that what I have done is simply to have put "data" (aka facts) together in a deceitful manner. What I (as well as other thinking people) would have expected you to do is:

(i) Point out the facts which you admitted that I adduced; and then, more importantly, show how and where I've deceitfully strung them together. cheesy

(ii) Demonstrate how the same fact should have been put together to support the view you wish to see prevail. cheesy

Your "argument" here is another classic example of argumentum ad lapidem


(3) You noted that "Ife ... was established by a Benin prince".

To put your statement here in a proper historical perspective, I would say: You actually wish that Ife was established by a Benin prince cheesy But human wishes, to the best of my knowledge, can not alter historical facts even in the most minute way.

Did you not consider NOT just making the claim but also adducing evidence, proof, or reason to back it up? Did you not?


But to "help" you out, I am actually aware that you were trying to make reference to the psedohistorical redactions of certain Benin revisionists. Redactions which began in the 1970s with S. B. Omoregie's "Edo History (c. 1970)"; D. U. Edebiri's "Whence the Igodomigodos (1970)"; E. Akenzua's "Benin Was Never A Republic (1971)"; and Air Iyare's "Bini, Ife Dynasties: The True Focus On Our Historical Past (1973)".


These revisions which attempted to overturn the classic account of Benin history, as well as the Ife-Benin Connection, continues through D. N. Oronsaye's "History of the Ancient Benin Kingdom and Empire (1995)", and even up to the present time.

These revisions have it that the only heir of Ogiso Owodo whose name is Ekaladerhan became king Oduduwa in Ile-Ife after he had been exiled from Igodomigodo to Ughoton (Gwato).


Moreover, this ambitious redaction itself is in actual fact "pseudohistorical" and "Apocryphal" first because it is a very clear and obvious spin on Benin's classical account as contained in the classical works of Chief J. U Egharevba (who is regarded by experts and scholar of Benin history the world-over as the most authoritative indigenous Edo historian in the world) which began in as early as 1933.

Writing about Ogiso Owodo, Chief Egharevba is said to have noted that:

" ... His only heir, Ekaladerhan, who would have succeeded him had earlier been exiled to Ughoton; and although every attempt was made to persuade him to return to Benin after his father's banishment, Ekaladerhan refused to leave Ughoton where he eventually DIED."

Refer to: J. U. Egharevba, A Short History of Benin, (Ibadan University Press, 1968), pp. 2-3." cited in G. A. Akinola, "The Origin of The Eweka Dynasty of Benin: A Study In the Use and Abuse Of Oral Traditions", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Vol. 8, No. 3 (December 1976), pp. 22.


Moreover, the above redaction by the Benin revisionists (that Ekaladerhan found his way to Ile-Ife from Ughoton, and then was made king in Ife, etc.) has long been discounted in academia among scholars and experts of Benin History as well as on the Ife-Benin connection, as pseudohistorical and Apocrypha.


For example, the scholar of Benin History viz. Dmitri M. Bondarenko of the Institute for African Studies in the Russian Academy of Sciences writes, in his "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", that:


"Finally, there are the Apocryphal versions of Benin oral traditions (wherein) Ekaladerhan... some time later ... left Gwato for Ife"

[I hope you bear in mind what is meant here by "Apocryphal"] cheesy cheesy


He continues:

"According to other versions of the kind, after leaving Gwato Ekaladerhan founded another settlement ILE-IFE and became her first ruler under the name of Oduduwa."


After having combed through and presented all the strange versions of the Benin Apocryphal accounts which claim that Ekaladerhan proceeded to Ile-Ife to become a king; D. M. Bondarenko wrapped up his assessment of all these versions of the Apocryphal account by noting that:


"However, a student of ancient Benin might feel obliged to reject the Apocryphal versions without hesitation as deliberately unauthentic. There are no their records made before the early 1970s ..."

He then concluded that:

"There is no doubt that the APOCRYPHAL versions are NOT AUTHENTIC and are not popular. Their authors are representatives of the nationalistically-minded part of the Bini intelligentsia who are seeking to ground the idea of an exceptional antiquity for their people and claims for its exclusive part in the socio political life of independent Nigeria ... Behind such PSEUDOHISTORICAL studies by intellectuals, as if harmless, one can make out serious problems for the country ..."


Refer to: Dmitri M. Bondarenko, "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", History in Africa, Vol. 30 (2003), pp. 67 - 68, Cambridge University Press.


Contrary to the pseudohistory which you would love to peddle around and which has long been crushed and dismissed by scholars (an example of which is shown above), an Ife-Yoruba prince by the name Oranmiyan was the first OBA of BENIN kingdom. Listen to your Oba Ewuare 2 also admitting this fact in the following video at the time-stamp 13:22 to 13:41.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXvXupQwaz0


By now, If you are smart enough and if everything is okay, then you should have noticed how baseless and dumb your claim (that your prince founded or established Ife) really is.

But to add more evidence aside language to my already established argument that Benin kingdom was a colony of Ile-Ife, consider the following submission of Margaret Plass who is an expert on Ife-Benin Connection:


"... the early Oba Oguola --- supposed to have reigned about A.D. 1280 --- applied to his spiritual Overlord, the Ooni of Ife, for the services of a bronze founder to teach his people to make bronzes formerly imported from Ife, that they might be made in Benin."

Refer to: The Art of Benin: An Evaluation Based on Discussions with William Fagg


If the foregoing still isn't enough to kill your thick ignorance, then consider also the following statement found in the attached British Museum/BBC documentary and made by experts on Benin History:

It is stated unequivocally and extremely clearly at time-stamp 47:16 to 49:00 that: The Kings of Benin kingdom paid homage to Ile-Ife


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQY_Jd--pwI&t=2070s


In summary, your claim that "Ife ... was established by a Benin prince" has not only been shown to be an example of the fallacy known in argumentation as wishful thinking; it has actually been demolished and crushed by scholarly evidence.



(4) Regarding your "argument" that It wasn't until Ewaure's reign (1440 to 1473) that Benin achieved the status of an Empire:

Yes, I am aware that Ewuare 1 made many strides during his reign over Benin kingdom, including (among many other things) the introduction of the use of beads into Benin; even though Ile-Ife since as earlier as the 1100s (or even centuries earlier) already had a bubbling industry of bead production viz. the dichroic glass beads known as "segi" or "akori", as well as the tubular coral beads known as "iyun". Yes, I am aware of this.


But I am yet to see how your "argument" [that "Ewaure (made) effort to make Benin kingdom (into) an empire"] is in any way, shape, or form supposed to be a refutation to my argument that Benin kingdom was once a colony of Ile-Ife. Or how and where I argued that Ewaure's effort "should be awarded to the Yorubas"

Do you really believe that the fact of Nigeria's once being a colony of Britain is contradictory or mutually exclusive to the fact that Awolowo, Azikwe, Balewa, et al. once made effort to make Nigeria great? Do you?

Your fallacy here is actually two in one, lol: You not only committed the red herring fallacy, you also committed the straw man fallacy.


(5) And then you rounded up with a dumb plea (forgetting that it was your brothers who quoted me first and not the other way round) as well as an argumentum adhominem


May God have mercy on your ignorant soul.

Hmmm!
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Nobody: 6:43am On Aug 05, 2019
TAO11:


Your comment here would definitely earn you a top spot in a ranking of the world's most illogical arguments and ideas.

And that's clearly because it is littered with all manners of logical fallacies, and you still probably haven't realized it even at this point.


Your comment is a classic case of "Since I obviously can't match her argument, then why not I insult her?"

The following, however, is my point-by-point refutation of your arguments (if what you have above can be referred to as arguments in the first place):


(1) You noted (without a single shred of proof) that my argument is baseless and foolish.

But you seem not to realize that your specific claim here is actually the blueprint and hallmark of all baselessness and foolishness.

The simple reason being that you provided no evidence whatsoever for what you claimed. While I, on the other hand, did substantiate the claims in my argument structure with evidence, proof, and reason.

Your claim here is a well known logical fallacy in argumentation. It is called: argumentum ad lapidem


(2) You noted that what I have done is simply to have put "data" (aka facts) together in a deceitful manner. What I (as well as other thinking people) would have expected you to do is:

(i) Point out the facts which you admitted that I adduced; and then, more importantly, show how and where I've deceitfully strung them together. cheesy

(ii) Demonstrate how the same facts should have been put together to support the view you wish to see prevail. cheesy

Your "argument" here is another classic example of argumentum ad lapidem


(3) You noted that "Ife ... was established by a Benin prince".

To put your statement here in a proper historical perspective, I would say: You actually wish that Ife was established by a Benin prince cheesy But human wishes, to the best of my knowledge, can not alter historical facts even in the most minute way.

Did you not consider NOT just making the claim but also adducing evidence, proof, or reason to back it up? Did you not?


But to "help" you out, I am actually aware that you were trying to make reference to the psedohistorical redactions of certain Benin revisionists. Redactions which began in the 1970s with S. B. Omoregie's "Edo History (c. 1970)"; D. U. Edebiri's "Whence the Igodomigodos (1970)"; E. Akenzua's "Benin Was Never A Republic (1971)"; and Air Iyare's "Bini, Ife Dynasties: The True Focus On Our Historical Past (1973)".


These revisions which attempted to overturn the classic account of Benin history, as well as the Ife-Benin Connection, continues through D. N. Oronsaye's "History of the Ancient Benin Kingdom and Empire (1995)", and even up to the present time.

These revisions have it that the only heir of Ogiso Owodo whose name is Ekaladerhan became king Oduduwa in Ile-Ife after he had been exiled from Igodomigodo to Ughoton (Gwato).


Moreover, this ambitious redaction itself is in actual fact "pseudohistorical" and "Apocryphal" first because it is a very clear and obvious spin on Benin's classical account as contained in the classical works of Chief J. U Egharevba (who is regarded by experts and scholar of Benin history the world-over as the most authoritative indigenous Edo historian in the world) which began in as early as 1933.

Writing about Ogiso Owodo, Chief Egharevba is said to have noted that:

" ... His only heir, Ekaladerhan, who would have succeeded him had earlier been exiled to Ughoton; and although every attempt was made to persuade him to return to Benin after his father's banishment, Ekaladerhan refused to leave Ughoton where he eventually DIED."

Refer to: J. U. Egharevba, A Short History of Benin, (Ibadan University Press, 1968), pp. 2-3." cited in G. A. Akinola, "The Origin of The Eweka Dynasty of Benin: A Study In the Use and Abuse Of Oral Traditions", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Vol. 8, No. 3 (December 1976), pp. 22.


Moreover, the above redaction by the Benin revisionists (that Ekaladerhan found his way to Ile-Ife from Ughoton, and then was made king in Ife, etc.) has long been disregarded in academia by scholars and experts of Benin History and the Ife-Benin connection, as pseudohistorical and Apocrypha.


For example, the scholar of Benin History viz. Dmitri M. Bondarenko of the Institute for African Studies in the Russian Academy of Sciences writes, in his "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", that:


"Finally, there are the Apocryphal versions of Benin oral traditions (wherein) Ekaladerhan... some time later ... left Gwato for Ife"

[I hope you bear in mind what is meant here by "Apocryphal"] cheesy cheesy


He continues:

"According to other versions of the kind, after leaving Gwato Ekaladerhan founded another settlement ILE-IFE and became her first ruler under the name of Oduduwa."


After having combed through and presented all the strange versions of the Benin Apocryphal accounts which claim that Ekaladerhan proceeded to Ile-Ife to become a king; D. M. Bondarenko wrapped up his assessment of all these versions of the Apocryphal account by noting that:


"However, a student of ancient Benin might feel obliged to reject the Apocryphal versions without hesitation as deliberately unauthentic. There are no their records made before the early 1970s ..."

He then concluded that:

"There is no doubt that the APOCRYPHAL versions are NOT AUTHENTIC and are not popular. Their authors are representatives of the nationalistically-minded part of the Bini intelligentsia who are seeking to ground the idea of an exceptional antiquity for their people and claims for its exclusive part in the socio political life of independent Nigeria ... Behind such PSEUDOHISTORICAL studies by intellectuals, as if harmless, one can make out serious problems for the country ..."


Refer to: Dmitri M. Bondarenko, "Advent of the Second (Oba) Dynasty: Another Assessment of a Benin History Key Point", History in Africa, Vol. 30 (2003), pp. 67 - 68, Cambridge University Press.


Contrary to the pseudohistory which you would love to peddle around and which has long been crushed and dismissed by scholars (an example of which is shown above), an Ife-Yoruba prince by the name Oranmiyan was the first OBA of BENIN kingdod) as well as an [b]argumentum adhominem


May God have mercy on your ignorant soul.
I have clearly stated that people like you are not worth a detailed argument you disregard the scholarly evidence of one man and support the one that graces your taste of history.

Get this into your skull Benin at a time spoke Yoruba which largely due to many returnees who have conquered Yoruba regions during war and also due to trade,their is no were in history were Benin was ever a colony of ife .

So please stop saying trash,no matter how bulky your write up is,it easily portrays your lies
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 7:49am On Aug 05, 2019
Chidorx60:

I have clearly stated that people like you are not worth a detailed argument you disregard the scholarly evidence of one man and support the one that graces your taste of history.

Get this into your skull Benin at a time spoke Yoruba which largely due to many returnees who have conquered Yoruba regions during war and also due to trade,their is no were in history were Benin was ever a colony of ife .

So please stop saying trash,no matter how bulky your write up is,it easily portrays your lies

Scholarly evidence of one man you said?? Who is the one man?? You?? What does your statement here even mean to begin with?? cheesy cheesy

I actually can't remember you citing any scholar (renowned or not) to buttress any of your wishful claims, not even up to this point. cheesy cheesy

Like I had said, wishes do not alter historical facts.

Regarding your imagined and made-up reason for why Binis spoke Yoruba language:

A simple refutation lies in the following:

(1) You adduced not a single shred of scholarly attestation cum historical evidence to substantiate your imagined wish.

(2) At what point in the history of Benin kingdom did the supposed soldiers keep returning to Benin to the point that Yoruba language became overwhelmingly preponderant over Edo language that Eweka 1's first ever utterance had to be in Yoruba language and not in Edo language?? At what point??

Please always remember to provide the scholarly source and not just the wishful claim which itself doesn't even add up.


(3) Why was your imagined excessively heavy language influence from trade contact only one way?

Shouldn't there have been some record, in History, of the use of Edo language alongside Yoruba language in at least some region of Yoruba land, if there was any such excessive language influence as you're trying hard to portray (although without even a shred of evidence) in the first place??

Please name me one of such region of Yorubaland if any exist in history, and do not forget to attach your evidence. Lol.

(4) Were the ruling Obas of Beni also among the teaming population of returning traders and soldiers who had lived for years in Yoruba land; or was the palace's indigenous language just simply influenced by this foreign language of the enemy combatants through the returning Bini warriors and traders??

Remember the Obas too speak and understand Yoruba language as seen in the evidence I had provided in my original argument in this thread.

What a strange hypothesis which in itself doesn't add up, let alone be supported by any scholarly source!!! cheesy cheesy

Always remember this: It is not enough to make up a hypothetical claim. It must not only add up, but must also be substantiated.


In case you feigned blind to the scholarly evidence which I had presented earlier (in addition to language evidence) showing that Benin kingdom was indeed a colony of Ife, then here we go one more time:


(1) The fact that world-renowned scholars of Benin History admit that the Oba of Benin considers the Ooni of Ife as his Overlord.

Refer again to: Margaret Plass, The Art of Benin: An Evaluation Based on Discussions with William Fagg


(2) The fact that world-renowned experts of Benin History admits that the kings of Benin kingdom paid homage to Ile-Ife.

Refer again to time stamp 47:16 to 49:00 of the British Museum/BBC documentary below:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQY_Jd--pwI&t=2070s


In sum, it becomes obvious that you're just one very emotional rookie.

Engage the scholarly evidences I have adduced in my previous argument as well as in this one, if you really think you have any contention to what experts have submitted.

Otherwise, you should simply take a deep breath, accept what just hit you in good faith, and then move on with life.

Cheers! grin

6 Likes 1 Share

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by Nobody: 12:15pm On Aug 05, 2019
TAO11:


Scholarly evidence of one man you said?? Who is the one man?? You?? What does your statement here even mean to begin with?? cheesy cheesy

I actually can't remember you citing any scholar (renowned or not) to buttress any of your wishful claims, not even up to this point. cheesy cheesy

Like I had said, wishes do not alter historical facts.

Regarding your imagined and made-up reason for why Binis spoke Yoruba language:

A simple refutation lies in the following:

(1) You adduced not a single shred of scholarly attestation cum historical evidence to substantiate your imagined wish.

(2) At what point in the history of Benin kingdom did the supposed soldiers keep returning to Benin to the point that Yoruba language became overwhelmingly preponderant over Edo language that Eweka 1's first ever utterance had to be in Yoruba language and not in Edo language?? At what point??

Please always remember to provide the scholarly source and not just the wishful claim which itself doesn't even add up.


(3) Why was your imagined excessively heavy language influence from trade contact only one way?

Shouldn't there have been some record, in History, of the use of Edo language alongside Yoruba language in at least some region of Yoruba land, if there was any such excessive language influence as you're trying hard to portray (although without even a shred of evidence) in the first place??

Please name me one of such region of Yorubaland if any exist in history, and do not forget to attach your evidence. Lol.

(4) Were the ruling Obas of Beni also among the teaming population of returning traders and soldiers who had lived for years in Yoruba land; or was the palace's indigenous language just simply influenced by this foreign language of the enemy combatants through the returning Bini warriors and traders??

Remember the Obas too speak and understand Yoruba language as seen in the evidence I had provided in my original argument in this thread.

What a strange hypothesis which in itself doesn't add up, let alone be supported by any scholarly source!!! cheesy cheesy

Always remember this: It is not enough to make up a hypothetical claim. It must not only add up, but must also be substantiated.


In case you feigned blind to the scholarly evidence which I had presented earlier (in addition to language evidence) showing that Benin kingdom was indeed a colony of Ife, then here we go one more time:


(1) The fact that world-renowned scholars of Benin History admit that the Oba of Benin considers the Ooni of Ife as his Overlord.

Refer again to: Margaret Plass, The Art of Benin: An Evaluation Based on Discussions with William Fagg


(2) The fact that world-renowned experts of Benin History admits that the kings of Benin kingdom paid homage to Ile-Ife.

Refer again to time stamp 47:16 to 49:00 of the British Museum/BBC documentary below:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQY_Jd--pwI&t=2070s


In sum, it becomes obvious that you're just one very emotional rookie.

Engage the scholarly evidences I have adduced in my previous argument as well as in this one, if you really think you have any contention to what experts have submitted.

Otherwise, you should simply take a deep breath, accept what just hit you in good faith, and then move on with life.

Cheers! grin
Benin will surely view ile ife with respect because the present Eweka dynasty was established by oranmiya the son of Ekelarderan who created your ife monarchy.

So the Ife dynasty is father to the benin dynasty so I have no qualms with Edo paying homage to Benin.
Even though we know that Edo is the source of ife's monarchy.


But your claims to place Edo's might under the minute influence under ife is stupid.
Ife's significance is only spiriitual.

But your language claims have no way of limiting Edo,
Many tribes in Nigeria have their language influenced by Edo a testerment of Edo's emperial dominance.

Besides language is not the only factor for dominance,
Lagos was colonized by oba orosghene,will you say that this is a lie just because eko doesn't speak edo .

Forget your dumb facts, Edo was never a colony of ile ife.
Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 4:06pm On Aug 05, 2019
Chidorx60:

Benin will surely view ile ife with respect because the present Eweka dynasty was established by oranmiya the son of Ekelarderan who created your ife monarchy.

So the Ife dynasty is father to the benin dynasty so I have no qualms with Edo paying homage to Benin.
Even though we know that Edo is the source of ife's monarchy.


But your claims to place Edo's might under the minute influence under ife is stupid.
Ife's significance is only spiriitual.

But your language claims have no way of limiting Edo,
Many tribes in Nigeria have their language influenced by Edo a testerment of Edo's emperial dominance.

Besides language is not the only factor for dominance,
Lagos was colonized by oba orosghene,will you say that this is a lie just because eko doesn't speak edo .

Forget your dumb facts, Edo was never a colony of ile ife.

Smiles...

Your amateurish and interestingly lame defense (or "arguments" as you may like to call it) reminds me of the act of throwing anything and everything (in the hope that something sticks) without minding the obvious mutual contradiction flooding the statements been thrown around.


Your argument, in a nutshell, is as follows:

Premise 1: Ile-Ife was founded by a prince of Benin kingdom (or Igodomigodo) whose name is Ekaladerhan.

Premise 2: One of the sons of this Ekaladerhan sometime later went to become the king back at home --- that is; back in Benin kingdom.

Conclusion 3: Hence, Benin kingdom pays homage to Ile-Ife, but not the other way round.


The obvious inherent blatant contradiction in the foregoing "argument" of yours is a clear testament to the fact that reality and fiction shouldn't mix.

Any desperate attempt to mix fact and fiction as a singularity is like a patchwork whose seams would always be obvious.


Not only does the seams of your patchwork still get palpably perceptible, but there is also actually no scholarly support for the Apocryphal and pseudohistorical narrative that a certain Benin prince Ekaladerhan became king at Ile-Ife.


I have cited you a reference to Benin's earliest and classical historical account in the works of Chief Jacob Uwadiae Egharevba (who is the leading and most respected indigenous Edo historian among others dead or alive anywhere in the world) where it is stated that the prince Ekalderhan having been exiled to Ughoton lived and died there.


I have also cited you the work of Dmitri M. Bondarenko, a world-renowned expert of Benin History and a leading academic (if not the world's present leading academic alive) in the field of Benin Studies.

I have adduced his statement to the effect that such account of a Benin prince Ekaladerhan becoming king at Ife is Apocryohal, unauthentic, and pseudohistorical.

And he continued to show that the motive behind this forgery in the 1970s (contrary to the classical Bini account that had held sway since 1933) is the desperation by a handful of Binis to ground the idea of an exceptional antiquity for the Binis, thereby laying claim to Benin's exclusive part in the sociopolitical life of independent Nigeria.


So far, it is very unfortunate and shocking that you've not been able to adduce even a single shred of scholarly statement or evidence to support your wishful claim that your prince Ekaladerhan became king at Ile-Ife.

All you've presented so far is your own words --- in other words, your personal wish. Yet you apparently strongly insist that your wish must be trusted over and above the submission of the leading experts of Benin History. Isn't that interesting? cheesy


Having demonstrated from scholarly evidence that the idea of a certain prince Ekaladerhan becoming king at Ife is simply a figment of the wild and ambitious imaginations of the fabricators, we are, therefore, not left with many factual options but one.


And the fact thus remains that Oranmiyan, a full-fledged Ife prince, sojourned on an expedition to a relatively backward Igodomigodo land; scrapped its indigenous "Ogiso" dynasty; introduced a foreign monarchy viz. "Oba"; and then made this newer monarchy into an Ife Yoruba blood-line dynasty till date.

Provide me one --- just one --- scholarly evidence from anywhere in the world which disputes the foregoing facts.

And if you can not find any contrary scholarly evidence (you obviously can not), then you should have to explain how Oranmiyan's establishment of an Ife-Yoruba dynasty in a foreign land is not one and the same thing as establishing an Ife colony there.

**In light of the fact of the already dismissed fictional and self-contradictory idea that a Benin prince founded Ife; your admittance of the fact that the kings of Benin kingdom PAID HOMAGE to Ile-Ife therefore remains a testament to what it is --- that is, a testament to the fact of Ife's imperial influence and domination over a foreign country, viz. Igodomigodo.


Furthermore, it amazes me that you also (like in the above case) admitted the fact that Ife exercised a spiritual Overlordship over Benin kingdom; but yet you seem to be trivializing that fact. cheesy

Please inform me, what other kinds of influence and overlordship can be greater than a spiritual and religious allegiance to a theocratic monarchy such as that of ancient Ife?

Did you know before now that the Ooni of Ife was literally regarded, in Benin kingdom, as God Almighty in human flesh? cheesy

Yes, the Ooni of Ife was actually referred to, in Benin kingdom, by the epithet "Oghene". Yes, "Oghene".

Refer to: Omo N'Oba N'Edo Erediauwa's "The Benin-Ife Connection (2004)". A source which I believe you would trust. cheesy


It is for this reason that Omo N'Oba Erediauwa could have made a statement along the following lines:

The "land of Edo ... was founded by the first Oba of Benin who was the youngest son of the Supreme God."

[Oba of Benin, quoted in Eweka 1992:2 and cited in Roger Blench & Matthew Spriggs, Archaeology and Language I: Theoretical and Methodological Orientations, 2004, p. 314.]

Isn't Oranmiyan truly thought, in Benin traditions, to be the youngest son of the Ooni of Ife? cheesy


Also, refer, for more details, to the attached screenshot (which from my experience, Nairaland does not allow me to post as a comment) on the overlordship and suzerainty of the Ooni of Ife over Benin kingdom.


Regarding your latest point on the language evidence, you seem to be gradually seeing the light. cheesy

You noted that "language is not the only factor for dominance".

And this is precisely my point which I have consistently and repeatedly defended.

Yes, language is just one evidence of the suzerainty of Ile-Ife over Benin kingdom, and as it is obvious I have since added more evidence. cheesy


Furthermore, regarding your remark that "Lagos was colonized by Oba Orosghene", this remark actually contains certain inaccuracies and assumption that need to be pointed out.

First, on the inaccuracies: The region in question is not Lagos per se but actually a section of Lagos known today as Lagos Island. Also, the king of Benin kingdom in question is not Oba Oroghene as you presumed, but Oba Orhogbua --- even according to the erudite Benin historian J. U. Egharevba.

Second, on the assumption: Your remark that Lagos Island was "colonized" by Benin kingdom actually assumes that this Benin account is actually identical to, and uniform in all respects with, the account held by the autochthonous people of the region, i.e. the Aworis. Your assumption here is terribly mistaken and actually false.


The Bini and the Awori accounts actually differ in a number of important respects:

While the Bini account lay claim to an outright conquest, the Awori account describes many indecisive conflicts and skirmishes between the indigenous Awori population on one hand; and the non-Awori resident population (which comprises largely of the Bini traders, but also includes others like the Ijebu, the Ilaje, the Ikale, the Owo, the Egba, the Egbado, the Aja, and the Ijaw traders) on the other hand.

The Awori account notes that these conflicts and skirmishes endured and escalated so badly as to almost completely cripple trading activities. The Benin resident population was therefore so affected that it could not make its due remittances back home to the Oba of Benin.

So, this shortage of remittances from its Benin subjects residing in faraway Lagos Island attracted the attention of the government of Benin kingdom. The intervention thus necessitated the need to find a lasting solution to the incessant conflicts between the indigenous population and the non-Awori resident population of different trading groups.

It was, however, eventually resolved that an ultimate settlement would involve permitting the non-Awori resident population to have some representation and hence participation in the government of the island which had been administered theretofore solely by the Olofin and his enclave of Awori chiefs.

This arrangement, therefore, gave a platform to Asheru --- a Benin man who had been the leader and voice for the non-Awori resident population of traders --- to participate in the governance of the island alongside the indigenous people.

But unfortunately, the new arrangement proved to be ineffective in putting a final stop to the conflicts, and Asheru was soon afterwards killed in one of the clashes/skirmishes that ensued in the course of time.

A certain Awori prince named Aṣipa who is described in same Awori account as an Isheri chief of Ife royal descent (and who shared some of the sentiments of the resident alien population) graciously led the party that conveyed Asheru's body to Benin.

Aṣipa --- with the support of his loyalists who largely consist of the resident alien population --- eventually became the new dynastic king of the island to whom the line of Lagos Island kings till date is traced as their progenitor.


Refer to: S. Adebanji Akintoye, A History of the Yoruba People, Amalion Publishing, 2010, pp. 221-222:

An outstanding, audacious, and refreshing scholarly comprehensive research work of about thirty-two years, by a Professor of African and Yoruba History who has been in the frontline of African and Yoruba history studies for over four decades in different Nigerian and U.S. prestigious and foremost universities.

This authoritative work enjoyed the inputs and reviews of a galaxy of world-renowned historians of African and Yoruba History such as: J. F. Ade Ajayi (Emeritus Professor of History, University of Ibadan, Nigeria); Elisee Soumonni (Retired Professor of African History and Archaeology, National University of Benin, Benin Republic); Robin C. C. Law (Professor of African History, Stirling University, Scotland); Toyin Falola (the Frances Higginbotham Nalle Centennial Professor of History, University of Texas, U.S.); Funso Afolayan (Associate Professor of History and African Studies, University of New Hampshire, Durham); and Adebayo Oyebade (Professor of History, Tennessee State University, Nashville).


The foregoing account is the standard Awori account of the relationship between "Oko" (i.e. the earlier Yoruba name of the region which became phono-semantically matched into the Edo word "Èkó" which in turn proves, with time, to be more dominant through Benin's popularity and influence among the alien resident population) and Benin kingdom.


This Awori account is obviously and clearly in sharp contrast to the Benin account.

If I am, however, faced with the option of adopting the most logical and consistent of the two accounts (as I am now faced with), then I am inclined to upholding the Awori account, not merely for being a Yoruba myself, but for the fact that only the Awori account explains the historical absence of any adoption of Edo language alongside Yoruba language on the island (or in any part of Lagos for that matter) --- a phenomenon which would have been present had Benin kingdom truly "colonized" Lagos as claimed in the Benin account.

Be humble, cheers! cool

7 Likes 2 Shares

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by TAO11(f): 6:25pm On Aug 05, 2019
As promised cool

Cheers!

Cc: Chidorx60

2 Likes 1 Share

Re: Benins Were The First Educated Nigerians. Dr Okafor by geosegun(m): 8:12am On Aug 06, 2019
The above summarized it all. Another knock out from @TAO11. What a well seasoned scholarly person you are...Respect.

I wonder why some people will be comfortable to lie and distort history because of their inferiority complex. What's the big deal if one city rules over the other...? For the records, Britain was enslaved by Roman's, the now mighty US was ruled by small highland Britain for almost 400 years and brought about her civilisation and heaven did not fall. Even Britain, the US and some rest of old powers are confidence to include these in there national histories. They ve accepted who they are and have moved on and hence, great people now.

But nay, our people will distort histories and think they are doing themselves a tribal service? Not knowing that it was a great disservice to generations yet unborn, as no one will ever take you/them serious in any way. This act of historical distortions is a national disgrace. This has to stop.

5 Likes 1 Share

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (44) (Reply)

Alaafin Presents Car To Journalist Sanni Agboola / Ebenezer Tunde Omobobami Begs Police To Stop Him From Being Ogun Chief Priest / My View: Nigerian vs Carribbean Women

(Go Up)

Sections: politics (1) business autos (1) jobs (1) career education (1) romance computers phones travel sports fashion health
religion celebs tv-movies music-radio literature webmasters programming techmarket

Links: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Nairaland - Copyright © 2005 - 2024 Oluwaseun Osewa. All rights reserved. See How To Advertise. 202
Disclaimer: Every Nairaland member is solely responsible for anything that he/she posts or uploads on Nairaland.