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The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland - Culture - Nairaland

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The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 5:48am On Aug 27, 2011
Taking pride in my people, I wish to relay to all the brilliance and marvel found in the refined and sophisticated culure and society of the Igbos. Being a large people, we hold one ommon culture, language, tradition and mindset. Igboland, Obodo ndi Igbo (Land of the Igbos in English) is athrive with the beauty and joy of the Igbo people. Dont take what I have just said as ethnocentrism or as delusion. I am simply in love with the culture and tradition of our people.

So please kick back, relax and enjoy the pictures depicting the cuture of our people cool

These first few will be about traditional Igbo attire.

46 Likes

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 6:11am On Aug 27, 2011
The next few pictures will begin to deal with the masculine societies of the Igbos. The first picture is of the "ikperikpe" war dance. Such a dance was performed before and after a war by warriors of Arochukwu, Ohafia, Afikpo and Abiriba and a few other neighbouring communities. The dance was meant to please the ancestors so as to grant the warriors victory during war.

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 6:23am On Aug 27, 2011
Here are pictures of the Ekpe society. The Ekpe society is a powerful fraternity which in the olden days, served as a lawmaking body in certain Igbo communities and controlled civil matters and trade. The Ekpe is not only used by the Igbo people but by the Ekoi (Okoyong), Efik, Ibibio, Eket and Annang peoples. Despite the fact that only a handful of Igbo communities practice the Ekpe (Ututu, Arochukwu, Arondizuogo, Ihechiowa), the Ekpe still plays a strong cultural and political role in these societies.

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by AndreUweh(m): 10:32pm On Aug 27, 2011
One of the marvelous cultures of Ndigbo is being exhibited in Traditional Igbo marriage called Igba Nkwu. And in some places , it is called Ibu mmaya, Ipa Mmanya or Ihe Nrisa as in my part of Igboland (Isinweke, Obowu, Nsu).

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 10:53pm On Aug 27, 2011
lovely culture. God bless ndigbo

also i can see gele and cap (fi la abe eti aja) which is usually common in the yoruba culture

i love the the way nigeria cultures are mixing up

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by AndreUweh(m): 12:48am On Aug 28, 2011
alj_harem:

lovely culture. God bless ndigbo

also i can see gele and cap (fi la abe eti aja) which is usually common in the yoruba culture

i love the the way nigeria cultures are mixing up
You are right. The Igbo culture has incorporated some aspects of Yoruba, Ijo and Bini cultures. Other cultures are incorporating Igbo ways of life in their own systems as well. For example, some Yoruba musicians now sing songs in Igbo or have a mixture of Igbo in their songs. Notable examples are D-Banj and Midnight crew ''Igwe'' songs.

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 12:52am On Aug 28, 2011
Andre Uweh:

You are right. The Igbo culture has incorporated some aspects of Yoruba, Ijo and Bini cultures. Other cultures are incorporating Igbo ways of life in their own systems as well. For example, some Yoruba musicians now sing songs in Igbo or have a mixture of Igbo in their songs. Notable examples are D-Banj and Midnight crew ''Igwe'' songs.

true talk brother. also majority of Nigerian pigin english are igbo words of nna, etc

yorubas also took baban riga from fulani

etc northerns speak eat isi ewu a nice igbo dish etc. this is how cultures mix up which is good

a lot of hausa and yoruba people have used igbo language to sing can't just recall now.

lovely culture. God bless ndigbo

1 Like

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 12:57am On Aug 28, 2011
Here are some shopts of the ekpo. The ekpo society is a society shared by the Igbo, Ibibio, Efik, Annang, Eket and Ekoi. The ekpo society in the olden days was very influential and still is today. The ekpos or "spirits" in Ibibio, were meant to represent the spirit of the ancestors and they presided over events such as the New Yam Festival, and important burials. Ekpos are celebrated by the Igbo in (Imo, Abia, and Ebonyi).
The Ekpo society is a fraternity, and during festivals, Ekpo masquerades chased women and young children but never men.


Please look watch this to see Igbo masquerades: www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0wF6nGoq3A

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 1:26am On Aug 28, 2011
Igbos prior to colonisation, existed in many independent city states ranging from those in present day Edo state and Agbor to those across the cross River. From the forests of Anambra state to the swamps of Rivers state, Igbos are present in great numbers. Many of these city states developed their own independent dialect of the Igbo language which were mutually intelligible. For example "Iye o ne meni m" in Ekpeye dialect was equivalent to "Ife o ne mele m" in Anambra dialect. Despite these differences, an Anambra man would easily understand the Igbo of an AGbor man and vise versa.

Many of these communities had masquerades which were known as "mmanwu" in Igbo not to be confused with "ekpo"

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 1:51am On Aug 28, 2011
With the large and powerful city states came equally large and powerful monarchs. Igbo monarchs were mostly men, but in the olden days some communities had women as their monarchs. Women monarchs answered "Eze Nwanyi, or Lolo" bough translated to queen. Among the Igbo, several prominent monarchs arose namely: His Royal Magesty Eze Aro Ogbonnaya Okoro (King of the Aros), His Royal Magesty Dein Obi Benjamin Ikechukwi Keagborekuzi I (King of Agbor), His Royal Magesty Eze Nri Enweleana II Obidegwu Onyeso (King of Nri) and the Ezes of the Ikwerre communities.

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 1:59am On Aug 28, 2011
some of noble igbo people known worldwide

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie



Chinua Achebe



Adaora - Model





Traditional Wedding
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 2:06am On Aug 28, 2011
Kola-nut or carpel is a nut content of a pod, produced by a tree called Ọjị or Kola accuminata. It is used according for rituals, for marriage ceremonies, title taking, offering or prayers at traditional ceremonies, to welcome visitors and to introduce very important discussions and requests.”

Among Ndi Igbo, the Kola nut (Ọjị) symbolizes pure intention and connects us to our ancestors. Oji is the channel of communication beyond the physical world and into the spirit world. This practice is part of the Igbo traditional religion, or Odinani.

“The founding fathers chose Ọjị as the king of all the fruits and because it came from the gods, it is used in communicating with gods. Because it is the king of all the fruits (a sacred fruit from the gods) it is used in showing goodwill to visitors and for entering into bonds.”

Growing up, I do not recall ever seeing having a visitor in our home or seeing a function commence without the “breaking of the Kola nut.” To not include the kola nut is unheard of and almost criminal.

I can recall, however, that anytime an aunty or uncle (I use this to include all Igbo family regardless if there is immediate blood relation) came to visit our home, my mom or dad would tell me (or one of my siblings) to go and bring a special wooden plate (which we use in our home to serve the kola nut) with the kola nut on it. I would set the plate down before our guests, who would respond with a smile and/or thank you. That seemingly small gesture indicated that there was no ill will in the home towards the guest, and that essentially they were welcome. After I set the plate down with the kola nut, I would go back upstairs and resume whatever it was that I was doing.

Legend of Ọjị

“The importance which the Igbos attach to Ọjị can further be illustrated by a legend which speaks of the visit of the founding fathers to the home of the gods where the gods asked the founding fathers to choose a fruit from all the fruits in the orchard of the gods. The founding fathers chose Ọjị as the king of all the fruits and because it came from the gods, it is used in communicating with gods. Because it is the king of all the fruits (a sacred fruit from the gods) it is used in showing goodwill to visitors and for entering into bonds.”

Presentation of Ọjị

A person cannot present the Kola nut any way that he or she pleases.

“There is the usual handshake immediately a visitor comes in. This is the first demonstration of goodwill with the palm open and the fingers stretched one announces as it were: “I have not hidden on my person any object that will harm you.” A visitor is given a seat and within seconds there is an air of conviviality, which makes the visitor feel at home.”

“Soon a kola-nut is brought “E nwelem Ọjị” -“I have got kola-nut, Ọjị abiala –kola-nut has come.” This pattern obtains at simple receptions. Two kola-nuts may be served to a titled man. One is broken and shared and the other is taken home in fulfillment of the Igbo saying that: “Ọjị rue ụnọ okwue onye chere ya”- a kola-nut brought home says who offered it. It is not customary to present three kola-nuts at a time. Four kola-nuts or multiples of four are served at big gatherings such as fixing of bride price or at Ọzọ title taking. Incidentally, kola-nut is not served in five and six compositions. Seven kola-nut and other requisites in multiples of seven may be served during an important ceremony like “Igbu ewu ndi ichie” – killing a goat for ancestral gods. Eight kola-nuts are normal for marriage that is when the bride is to leave her abode for that of her husband’s. One kola-nut is normally shared even where there are many people; after all an Igbo proverb says: “If kola-nut does not go round when shared, then there are no finger nails to break it up to the required number.” Kola offering is a precursor at receptions, important meetings, customary ceremonies as well as the ceremonial slaughter of cows, goats and cocks. Who offers or can be offered kola-nut is determined by factors culturally discernable. A host offers or can be offered kola-nut as gifts. Priests, elders and titled men at village meetings or even at markets can offer kola-nuts to guests or any people who call on them for advice. The Igbo man offers kola-nuts to guests any time of the day. But, at night, he could excuse himself simply saying by this common saying: “Anyasị ewerela Ọjị’ – the night has taken away the kola-nut. Some are selective in the choice of kola-nut they offer to guests. Ọjị Ugo –champion kola may be selected for presentation to a particular dignitary or it may just happen that a chance pick is Ọjị Ugo. In whatever circumstance Ọjị Ugo is served, the recipient is always held highly as implied in the Igbo statement: “Ọjị Ugo ana-echere nwaeze” – the princely kola which is offered to a prince. Ọjị Ugo (a champion kola-nut) is symbolic of royalty and purity. It attracts blessings and luck on the parties.” (Source)

Breaking of Ọjị

”Usually it is the privilege of the eldest man in a group to offer prayers and thanksgiving when the kola-nut is about to be broken and shared. In some parts of Igboland, the youngest breaks the kola-nut. Investigations show that in some other areas, the youngest one shares out the kola-nut as a service though the eldest man still prays for the well-being of all present. A grandson cannot break kola-nut in the presence of his grandfather and maternal uncles however young they may be, because it is held that he has no effective prayers to offer for them. It is they who will pray for his good health, posterity and progress in life. One cannot also break kola-nut in the presence of one’s in-laws. This is because it is also held that only one’s in-law can effectively pray for the fruitful marriage between the latter and their daughter. Women do not break kola-nut in the presence of men though they can do so when it is an all women gathering. If a man is present, he would be called upon to break the kola-nut. This obtains because women do not offer rituals in Igbo tradition. Kola-nut is held by majority of Igbo people to be sacred. Hence women who because of their monthly period are regarded as impure are barred from breaking kola-nut in order to avoid its defilement. It is even held that women should not climb a kola-nut tree as this could result in the tree going barren. An old woman herbalist however has a privilege to break kola-nuts. She should nevertheless precede this operation by an act of self-purification. This she does by waving seven seeds of alligator pepper over the head, one after the other, and throwing each of them away.”



sources

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 3:08am On Aug 28, 2011
@ Alj

Nice

Continued, These Igbo kingdoms grew strong and boasted cities which were vibrant with trade and bustling with wealth. Many Igbo kingdoms grew prominent and powerful. The Kingdom of Agbor was very powerful in that it and its neighbours played a large role in halting the advance of the Benin Empire Eastward. However, two Igbo kingdoms became unimaginably powerful and famous: that of the Aros and the kingdom of Nri.[/b]The Nri Kingdom based in Nri city was an important and significant place in olden times. Nri had a strong religious influence and served as a Mecca across Southern Nigeria. It was a centre of learning, trade, religion and advancement in that relatively new technologies such as bronze casting was common in Nri. The Aros on the other hand based their power on trade and military diplomacy. At the height of the ARochukwu confederacy, it boasted a population of circa 3 million and dozens of towns scattered around Southern Nigeria and Western Cameroun, many of which are still there today. The Aros grew rich on their monopoly on slaves, they controlled inland trade with the British and other Igbo groups, and sold palm oil and wine. The legacy of both of these kingdoms and many other prominent Igbo kingdoms is still alive today.

The first is a photograph of the grave of an Igbo nobleman buried at Igbo-Ukwu around the year 1000 AD. Notice the presence of [b]cloth
, elephant tusks, and gold which speak of the wealth of the city.

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 3:38am On Aug 28, 2011
Igbo Ukwu is an archaelogical site in Igboland, in Anambra State to be exact. These artifacts are dated to approximately 900 AD, but they may be much older(in fact I’m sure of it), and indicative of a lost ancient civilization in Igboland.

Strangely there isn’t much known about these artifacts beyond what you will find in standard Google searches. What you will generally find are brief descriptions of what was uncovered at Igbo Ukwu with some pictures. Mind you there are hundreds of pieces, and you will not find them all online. Also, sadly, many of the Igbo Uwku artifiacts, our artifacts, because these are indeed ours, are locked away in the British Museum.

These pieces, which I believe to be indigenous productions, are vital in helping to reconstruct some of the ancient history of not only Igbos, but of the human existence within ancient Africa.

Dr. Acholonu and her research team to numerous trips to Igbo Ukwu and recorded what they saw in They Lived Before Adam and The Lost Testament. Many of the pictures in these books are not visible online.

“Igbo Ukwu excavations were conducted in three major locations. But, these three locations yielded no fewer than 700 individual bronze copper and pottery artifacts including more than 200,000 beads, strung and unstrung. Now that does not look like some chance burial of goods. It looks more like a fragment from the ruins of a lost civilization which no one remembers. As a matter of fact on one of our team’s many visits to Igbo Ukwu, we were informed by the President of Igbo Ukwu Development Union, Chief Robinson Ezeife, Ahaejiemba of Igbo Ukwu (a man in his seventies) that when he was a child his parents dug up a pot, full of unstrung beads while digging a well in their compound and that such occurrences were very common in Igbo Ukwu as long as he could remember.

He and others including, Mazi Okafouzu Ugochukwu (Chairman Mbido Igbo Association of Igbo Ukwu), and Architect Pantaleon Osunkwo, all of whom were sent by His Majesty Igwe Martin Nwafor Eze, Idu II of Igbo Ukwu to take us round the town, told us that accidental digging up of ancient bronze, copper and beads artifacts was very common in Igbo Ukwu as long as the town has been in existence. Any one digging a grave, a water cistern or a foundation for a building usually found ‘wealth’. It was regarded as ‘finding wealth’. And anyone who found such wealth would usually contact the Northern Nigerian buyers (Hausa/Fulani) who were ever ready to buy them off at good prices. This made us to understand that there was a very ancient civilization involved, more so beacause of the great depth from which these goods were resurfacing” (Acholonu-Olumba, The Lost Testament, p. 41).




Igbo Ukwu Bronze Bowl - See the Concentric Circles Signifying the Endless Cycle of Life



Igbo Ukwu artifact - Notice the Ichi Marks

1 Like

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by ChinenyeN(m): 4:59am On Aug 28, 2011
Ekpeye actually say "Iye o zhi l'ume m", rather than "Iye o ne meni m"; just a quick point of correction.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 6:27pm On Aug 28, 2011
oh ok thanks, i'll note that.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 8:39pm On Aug 28, 2011
odumchi nice one wink
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by aljharem3: 8:41pm On Aug 28, 2011
The most common symbol and the most common animal among the finds at Igbo Ukwu is the serpent. The image and form of the serpent occurs on all the artifacts, either in full form or in stylized, geometric formation. This in itself says that the civilization in question is a Shamanic civilization of note, for the serpent is the international symbolism of Shamanism and Magic of the Nagas. The Egyptian hieroglyph for serpent’s tooth, which, as noted above, implies the sprouting of gods in the earth is also the glyph for the pyramid, named Tcha/Chi, which means ‘Light/Spirit’. This hieroglyph is in the form of an up-standing triangle, usually equilateral. In Igbo language, ichi/chi also means resident god or god man, and is congruent with the Egyptian Tcha used for the Great Pyramid. ” (Acholonu-Olumba, The Lost Testament, p. 418).

“Mounds, hill-tops, rocks and stones are associated with serpents and serpent worship. Shamans across the world are those who are versed in the use of serpent power for magical purposes. Their garbs include leopard skin, whose round spots imply the all-seeing eye of God (the Egyptian Eye of Ra). ‘Osiris and members of (his) priesthood, the Sem (Shaman) priests are sometimes depicted wearing leopard skins’ (The Serpent Grail, p. 240). The books claim that serpents are emblems of wisdom, discovery of hidden truths and ultimate spiritual attainment” (Acholonu-Olumba, The Lost Testament, p. 420).

*More on the symbolism of the serpent as it relates to creation and the goddess in a later post.

Just want to note that Eke is a name for not only the first day in of the four Igbo market days (Eke, Orie, Afor, Nkwo) which compromise a week, but also the diety of creation, as well as the name of a python.

Let’s look at a common Igbo word very quickly: Chineke, which many translate to mean ‘God the creator’. If we break down the word. Click here for more meanings to consider for the word Chineke.

On Eke again, “The general attitude of the Igbo to the python (eke) is ambiguous. While most snakes are regarded as dangerous, and therefore avoided, the python is considered to be not only tame but sacred. Killing a python is regarded as an abomination to Ala. At Ibi, women were often heard addressing a stray python in the home as as nne (mother)”



Igbo Man with Ichi Scarification
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by Booshman(m): 3:39am On Sep 05, 2011
odumchi:

The next few pictures will begin to deal with the masculine societies of the Igbos. The first picture is of the "ikperikpe" war dance. Such a dance was performed before and after a war by warriors of Arochukwu, Ohafia, Afikpo and Abiriba and a few other neighbouring communities. The dance was meant to please the ancestors so as to grant the warriors victory during war.



Do you have larger versions of the pictures in this post? They're a little tiny.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 2:37pm On Sep 06, 2011
^^

No sorry, but feel free to google it and you'll find larger images.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by PAGAN9JA(m): 7:22pm On Sep 06, 2011
Igbo are the worst form of hippocrites. You people value your tribe and culture so much. I respect that. But none of you are even interested in reviving Igbo traditional religion. you curse it by the name of black majick and lick the foot of the west and their beliefs. I do not respect that and i spit at your cowardness and fear of society. you have insulted your ancestors and defiled your Gods, yet i say and mean it with all my heart:


LORD CHUKWU BLESS ALL MY IGBO BROTHERS!!!!!!!!

4 Likes

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 7:55pm On Sep 06, 2011
Mod please remove the above comment smiley
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by Ngodigha: 8:05pm On Sep 06, 2011
PAGAN 9JA:

Igbo are the worst form of hippocrites. You people value your tribe and culture so much. I respect that. But none of you are even interested in reviving Igbo traditional religion. you curse it by the name of black majick and lick the foot of the west and their beliefs. I do not respect that and i spit at your cowardness and fear of society. you have insulted your ancestors and defiled your Gods, yet i say and mean it with all my heart:


[center]LORD CHUKWU BLESS ALL MY IGBO BROTHERS!!!!!!!![/center]
Brain-dead monkey, concentrate on your Hausa group and let Ndigbo be. I don't know why that large zoo is not enough to contain you. Shameless monkey that vanishes from the zoo all the time to come and preach hatred. Get a life slow Monkey.

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Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by PAGAN9JA(m): 9:54pm On Sep 06, 2011
its not hatred, my dear monkey. its is just a reminder of your selfishness. when you need u need Igbo culture to show-off to the world, you run for it. but when Igbo culture needs you, you just ignore and run off to white-masters God.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by NegroNtns(m): 1:49am On Sep 07, 2011
<Quote>

Many Igbo kingdoms grew prominent and powerful. The Kingdom of Agbor was very powerful in that it and its neighbours played a large role in halting the advance of the Benin Empire Eastward. However, two Igbo kingdoms became unimaginably powerful and famous: that of the Aros and the kingdom of Nri.The Nri Kingdom based in Nri city was an important and significant place in olden times. Nri had a strong religious influence and served as a Mecca across Southern Nigeria.

</quote>

Odumchi,

I am not always in NL does not mean I will never return.

I've only been gone few days and you are taking liberty to lie and "call a dog a monkey".

What in your estimate is a kingdom is nothing more than a clan with a chief ruling over them.

Using the standard of measure for kingdoms in Africa, nobody ever heard of a Abgor kingdom before white man came to liberate you friom the bush and show you the way.

Then you had audacity to put it at same pedestal with Bini Empire. Are there no sons of Bini on this forum to choke the insult down your gaddem throat?

Nobody knew of Nri much less how to find it, and you shamelessly called it a mecca . . . .you fool! Which people paid homage to Nri?

1 Like

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by ChinenyeN(m): 2:13am On Sep 07, 2011
Odumchi and EVERYONE ELSE, it would do you (plural) and this topic a world of good if you just simply ignore Negro_Ntns. Me, I simply wish I wouldn't have to repeat this simple message again. . . . .
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by NegroNtns(m): 2:26am On Sep 07, 2011
Chinenyen,

Why are you ignoring "truth"?
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 2:40am On Sep 07, 2011
@Chinenye

You don't have to tell me twice.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by ChinenyeN(m): 2:42am On Sep 07, 2011
Odumchi, that's good to know. Now, please do continue with the topic when you have time.
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by NegroNtns(m): 3:08am On Sep 07, 2011
Yes continue but no more lies or I will call you out again.

Odemchi, you heard me?
Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 3:36am On Sep 07, 2011
Next is Igbo Religion.
Igbo religion is a complex matter since the Igbos did notall worship the same deities. In the early days, the Igbos practiced Anscestor worship. This is a type of traditional religion in which time, space and the universe was governed by a council of deceased elders who resided in the spirit world. However, as time passed and religious ideals became more complex, Igbos began adopting deities in addition with ancestral worship.

Out of thee many gods and deities which often differed from town to town, three main "gods" arose[b]: Anyawu (who was worhsipped mainly in northern Igboland), Amadioha (Who was worshipped mainly in South Igboland) and Chukwu.[/b]

Anywawu was the sun god. He was worshipped because he was seen as the producer of daylight and he sun.

Amadioha (litteraly translated means "the free will of the people". Amadioha was a god of thunder and lightning, the god of power and action who was there to serve justice to the people.

Chukwu was the last of these "deities" to come into existence. Chukwu, originally Chi-ukwu (meaning the great god) came from Arochukwu. The people of Arochukwu were the original worshippers of Chukwu- A diety who was seen as the supreme God of all creation. The people of Arochukwu recognised the presence of many other dieties such as Amadioha but continued to worshuip only Chukwu, and were perhaps a monptheistic people. The idea of Chukwu spread throughout all of Igboland andtoday it has come to mean the one true God.

3 Likes

Re: The Marvelous Culture Of The Igbos And Igboland by odumchi: 4:06am On Sep 07, 2011
SLAVE SOCIETIES

Slavery proved to be a lucrative business in many Igbo societies. In Igbo societies, a free person was known as "amadi" while a slave as "ohu". Traditionally, fueding Igbo kingdoms would attack each other's settlements and then cart off the boys and girls to be sold into lavery while keeping the women and killing the males. Being sold into slavery, these people automatically became ohu.

Prior to 1700, SLavery was not as common and dangerous as it would come to be. But, by the arrival of Europeans and the increased demand in human labour, slavery skyrocketed and became a lucrative business.

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